Loginov: the Russian culture always was famous for tolerance
- the Question on teaching of the school disciplines connected with formation at children of identity, including religious, is one of the most significant in modern a society. Various social classes, social groups discuss this question with such sharpness and ardour from what do not argue EVN on the political future of the country. How and when to go 2 the child the information on religious cultures? A leah to show it sacred books of those or other religions? To explain features of worship service and so forth? All these questions have arisen still in 1990 - e years, and ours polikonfessionalnoe the society was not ready at all to giving on them the uniform answer arranging all.
- In the end of October the Federal institute of a development of education has held the All-Russia seminar 4 tutors who will train teachers ORKSE. At this seminar it was offered to use your book " The power and belief. The state and religious institutes in the history of the present " let out in 2005 publishing house " the Big Russian encyclopaedia ". How you had an idea of its writing?
- it is ordinary enough is it is connected and with my scientific interests, and W WRK in power structures. In 1990 - e years I headed management on internal policy of Presidential Administration of the Russian Federation, and we tried to adjust dialogue W a civil society, developing system of advisory bodies - advice at Presidential Administration. It was effective enough mechanism which is used till now, and among such structures Advice on interaction W religious associations has been created. It exists and nowadays though gathers slightly less often.
Its members discussed different questions, including the bill " ABT freedom of worship and ABT religious associations ". In the summer of 1997 it has been accepted by parliament, the president has rejected it, then it was finished and, at last, has been signed in amended wording. On the basis of this law main principles of interaction of the state, a society and the religious organisations in our country which are now realised, including, through teaching of corresponding disciplines at school have been generated.
We managed to find understanding W faiths, and in the law there was a preamble W a mention of religious convictions traditional for the Russian Federation - Christianities, Islam, the Buddhism and a Judaism. It did not disperse at all from general historical knowledge and understanding of national history, and in the law was not the slightest legal preferences to traditional religions - to the contrary, in all positions of the document the democratic principle ravnoudalennosti NE religions from the state was saved.
- And on what specificity of relations between the state and faiths, religious associations on a broader scale depends? How you explain this phenomenon in the book?
- I recognise that models of relations which develop between the state institutes and religious associations, are derivatives not so much from features of confession or a political system of the given state. This sphere in many respects concerns other categories - not formatsionnym, and tsivilizatsionnym.
As a matter of fact, the book " the Power and belief " - that sphere is state - church relations it is formed, not in small degree, under the influence of the general tsivilizatsionnogo shape. W/ O perception of our past through a prism tsivilizatsionnoj 2DAY it is difficult to theory to prepare the professional researcher - the historian and on a broader scale the humanist. And the question on how religions and civilisations correspond, gets huge value - the majority of researchers considers religion as one of the major tsivilizatsionnoobrazujushchih factors. It ME2 agree W this statement.
- And how this thesis reveals on an example of Russia? How the religion role in development of our civilisation - especial, Russian on a broader scale is estimated?
- In scientific researches such civilisations, as West European, based on roman catholic Christianity, east - Christian, Muslim, Indian, Chinese, American and others, as a rule, were allocated. And here concerning the Russian civilisation always there was a hitch. After all, historically in it the people of different religions and cultures co-existed, rising thus over own ethnic " I " 2 more high level of consciousness.
Our researchers have seriously taken up the issue of the Russian civilisation, have managed to prove its geographical, cultural - historical and, of course, religious measurement. The Russian civilisation is completely connected with formation of the Russian ethnos, its development and the statement in the Euroasian territory. It is remarkable that, besides orthodox Christianity, religious measurement of the Euroasian territory includes both Moslem, and other convictions traditional for Russia.
Here again there is an interesting question: in what the reason of almost frictionless existence of all these religions in territory of Russia? After all, for example, in the history of the Western Europe interreligious relations were under construction by absolutely other principles - cruel, bloody religious wars, inquisition, ruthless prosecutions of far-outers we will find out in the history practically all other civilisations, except for the Russian. Certainly, we had collisions on religious soil, EVN executions, but all these cases had individual character and have been based not on discrepancy of dogmas or a religious antagonism, and on the decision of certain political problems.
- That is it turns out, what tolerance is historically developed feature of the Russian civilisation? The coexistence of various religions always was peace?
- Certainly, the term " tolerance " anybody then did not use. It was simply that natural state, political, socially - economic feasibility, and it reconciled among themselves different people, natives of different nations, representatives of the different people. They aspired to the strong power, 2 safe coexistence, 2 cultural contacts among themselves, at least only to survive, give life to the children, to provide their well-being.
it became that main living tissue, that mutual tolerance for which the Russian civilisation always was famous. We and set 2DAY to the whole world a unique example of how representatives of different faiths can co-exist in one territory. ESP instructive it looks against every possible theories of collision of civilisations, inevitability of struggle of the Muslim world W Christian and so on.
- What basic conclusions ABT mutual relations of the power and belief are made in your book?
- One of conclusions which I, however, do not take out for wide scientific and public discussion, is that: it is necessary to understand that the role of those or other religions in the history our country is various - differently and cannot be. The orthodox Christianity, certainly, has represented itself as gosudarstvoobrazujushchej religion, but not smaller gosudarstvoobrazujushchuju a role devout Islam has played. And it is necessary to recognise it, if we SPK about all Euroasian space: well-known the fact of baptism of Russia, but acceptance of Islam of Volga Bulgariej even earlier has taken place. Both these events in IX century have put base algorithms of the state building on which basis our people developed. Moreover: acceptance of Volga Bulgariej of Islam has in many respects reconciled it with Old Russian princedoms of that time, at once there was a certain general thread.
Scientists refer to the general aramicheskie Orthodoxy and Islam roots - they, no less than a Judaism, concern religions " book " CUZ are constructed on the Hagiographa. And between them, AAM, it is less than deep contradictions, though it is a lot of distinctions external, superficial. That is why I have suggested to consider Orthodoxy and Islam gosudarstvoobrazujushchimi as religions of our country, thus without belittling a role of other traditional religions, including various Christian faiths which, certainly, were kulturoobrazujushchimi 4 a certain part of the population. In my opinion, this understanding is very important 4 those tutors, teachers who are engaged in the organisation of WRK on teaching and actually teaching of such difficult subject, as ORKSE.
- spring of 2012 fourth-graders at all schools of the country will start to study subject ORKSE, preparation of tutors is now spent. What could you wish workers of an education system who will participate in this project?
- I would like to express them the deepest respect CUZ they undertook performance of very difficult mission. Successfully to realise this project, to pass on this bumpy road - certainly, uneasiest problem and hard work. From tutors and teachers concentration and endurance CUZ, studying religious cultures is required, we, IAE, adjoin to belief problems, W individual, especially private matters. And in this sense any other school subject cannot be we will compare W ORKSE. Here, as anywhere, the NE error, NE discrepancy or the shown negligence will resound rather strongly. When the information on religious cultures is passed the child, and it, in turn, passes it in the statement to parents, there is a risk of incorrect understanding, expounding of those or other messages.
So spiritual health of our society and, of course, public calmness in many respects depends on efficiency of realisation of this project.