Beer - a man`s drink, from - for which women
Ancient Egyptians suffered affliction considered that beer was invented by god Osiris and has passed technology of preparation of this drink to the sacrificers. Up to now brewery Nefertiti on which walls of a fresco represented the tsarina spilling beer through a strainer was saved.
to prepare beer, Egyptians soaked barley before education " flakes " dried, prepared from it bread, added ferment, fried and AGN insisted on water. The RCVed liquid filtered through thin resheto.
In ancient Egypt beer cooked not only from barley, but also from wheaten malt. This drink was one of the basic products in a diet of ancient Egyptians. Builders of pyramids had a day norm of a food which consisted of three corn, three jugs of beer and several bunches of garlic and an onion.
In ancient Egypt beer was sweet and strong. 4 taste in a drink added spicy grasses and a poisonous mandragora which, according to Egyptians, possessed miracle properties. To beer grounds attributed curative properties – it used as inside, and naruzhno.
the Democratic drink
At shumerov, representatives of the most ancient civilisation of the East, residing in Mesopotamia, to be exact regarding Entre Rios the Tiger and Euphrates, brewing has been extended. Production technologies of this drink are in details described on Sumer cuneiform tablets, which more than 5 thousand years. It is known that at inhabitants of this region existed about 70 grades of beer which had different names depending on taste, colour and other properties.
Shumery cooked beer of three grades: sweet, dark and light. Dark beer W the small maintenance of alcohol was the most popular dense W a deposit. Sometimes in such drink added spices. In this region beer was a democratic drink, it drank both the nobility, and the simple people, beer EVN brought to gods. Brewers shumery released from military service.
In Babylon beer was cooked by women. For a beer fake strictly punished, as well as for infringement of norm of purpose of the prices. Brewers assessed with penalties or simply threw in water. Drink such " was one more punishment for counterfeit beer; beer " to the death.
In the Ancient Greece beer despised, as this country was always rich with grapes and, accordingly, wine. But, nevertheless, Gippokrat has devoted to beer the special book. Inhabitants of Ancient Rome too scornfully concerned beer and considered as its drink of poor men and barbarians. If to consider that wine then used strongly diluted, beer was considered as too strong drink.
At the moment of Great resettlement of the people in territory of Roman empire in IV - VII centuries d.C. Some ways of manufacturing of beer were known. The first way of preparation consisted in use of the soured test, the second – in use of malt of grain cereals, the third – mixes of malt W neproroshchennymi grains. 4 taste and aroma in beer at cooking added leaves of trees, bitter korenja, grasses, an oak bark. But hop then did not add.
Beer was known and in Ancient India. It prepared from sorgo and dagussy (plants of family of cereals). In Asia, in particular in Ancient China, beer traditionally cooked from rice and spices. At the people of Tibet and Nepal beer cook from barley and millet is more often.
In dokolumbovoj to America beer cooked from a maize (corn). It mixed in equal proportions W malt, filled in with water for days, then pounded before test education. The RCVed weight filled in with boiled water W addition of cold water – so did ferment. After days the RCVed liquid boiled and cooled – Thus the mash turned out. When the mash cooled down, in it added the dry ground malt and left to wander. After that beer filtered, sometimes added spices. Such drink not for long &ndash was stored; no more than days.
the European traditions of brewing
In Europe beer has appeared long before Aryan moving. Beer cooked basically from barley. Among the Aryan people the Thracians living in basic on the Balkans and in lower reaches of Danube are considered as the oldest European brewers frigijtsy, occupied in II millenary BC Asia Minor, and. These people cooked beer of two grades – from barley and from millet, 4 taste in drinks added various grasses.
At Celts beer was considered as a traditional drink. It cooked from wheat and honey. Some Celtic recipes of beer were saved and up to now in Northern France, Belgium and England. Cooked beer and ancient Germen, basically barley or wheaten broth was for this purpose used. Drank beer daily and considered as similarity of wine. It is considered that this drink at the German and Gallic people differed sourish taste.
In the Middle Ages in Europe beer began to cook in monasteries. Friars have improved the production technology of this drink and as preservative began to use hop. For the first time hop use in brewing it has been mentioned in monastic chronicles of VIII century But in many countries the wide use of hop in brewing has begun considerably L8R. In Germany, for example, it began to add in XII century, and hop has got to England in the beginning of XV century, before it there has been forbidden. Germans highly appreciated hop, it EVN used as means 4 payment of the state taxes.
Medieval beer was not always harmless to health. More often into drink structure entered galljutsinogennye alkaloidy which called visions. This property beer has generated set of superstitions. The reason of such structure of a drink is covered in imperfection of technology of brewing. However till the end of XVI century of the women accused of damage of beer, named " beer witches " also burnt on fires.
As a rule, beer made there where there was no possibility to grow up grapes, for example, in northern regions. In comparison with wine, beer had lower status and at times was considered as a drink of poor men. In the Middle Ages between brewers and wine makers there was a competition. The last in every possible way tried to raise prestige of production. Not to be ruined, brewers had to be engaged in manufacture sidra.
To beer clarification, as a rule, applied glue which RCVed from a swimming bubble of a sturgeon. After it began to replace with glue from a skin of slopes.
Research experiments W beer
the Big contribution to brewing were made by scientists. The French chemist and microbiologist Lui Pasteur who was engaged in studying of fermentation since 1857, has found out that this process has biological character. The scientist has found out that the yeast, fermenting beer, – these are live organisms. Pasteur`s opening has allowed to supervise transformation of sugar into spirit more precisely.
Emil of Christians the Khan, Danish botanik, all life was engaged in studying of yeast. Its contribution to brewing development consists that it worked over deducing pure shtamma yeast 4 brewing. Workings out of the scientist have made the present revolution in brewing.
In Belgium till now cook beer W/ O yeast. It has amber colour and a fruit smell. Fermentation in such drink occurs spontaneously as a result of contact to air. Belgians have the grade of the beer which has RCVed the name Luvensky, from Luven. This drink has muddy dairy colour. 4 its manufacture use crude oats and barley malt.
the Home producer
the Word " beer " conformably with a word " to drink " and earlier in Russia really designated not a concrete drink, and a drink on a broader scale. For the first time beer is mentioned still in Novgorod berestjanyh reading and writing. Our ancestors prepared " perevar " – a drink from beer and honey. Indispensable end of national fairy tales bears to popularity of beer: " And I there was, honey - beer of saws ".
the First mention of beer in Russia meets in Novgorod berestjanoj to the reading and writing 1360 – 1380 Pri Ivan III (1462 - 1505) the state monopoly for brewing which L8R have cancelled has been entered. At Boris Godunov have entered an interdiction for brewing " averages and molodshimi people ". At the first sovereign from Romanov`s dynasty import of raw materials 4 brewing &ndash has been limited; have forbidden import of hop from Lithuania.
Tsar Alexey Mihajlovich by a nickname " the Quietest " has published the decree according to which peasants were authorised to cook beer 4 the house use some once a year – for Great day (Easter Christ`s), on Dmitrievsky parental Saturday, on the Shrove and for Christmas. At that time there was a proverb: " In Dmitrys day even the sparrow under a beer bush will get drunk ".
In Russia there were, special recipes of beer. Foreigners noticed that Russian beer was tasty, but muddy. To cook beer " on - European " steels at Peter I: in 1715 it has written out to Petersburg solodovnikov and brewers 4 establishment of breweries on the European sample.
Industrial brewing in Russia has begun during Catherine II epoch. It is connected with a name of Abrahima Fridriha the Crone (1766 - 1827) which is considered the founder of Kalinkinsky brewery. Now it " Brewery of Stepan Razin ". The Kalinkinsky brewery since 1818 was " the Supplier of the Court yard of its Imperial Majesty ".
W development of a railway transportation and occurrence of the refrigerating machinery brewing has undergone many changes. In XIX century quality and taste of beer has much more improved and because brewers began to unite and exchange experience. The large brewing enterprises were formed, the house enterprises gradually handed over positions.
Matel is prepared News on the basis of the information of open sources.