Climate change destroys way of life of indigenous population of Murmansk area
the Radical small people of the North one of the first test on themselves negative consequences of climate change as their way of life directly is connected with a state of nature. Saamy plant reindeers of thousand years, getting profit on sale of meat, skins, products from horns. Now in Murmansk area two agricultural co-operative societies and many personal economy are engaged in it. Today together they contain all less than 60 thousand animals, and in the Soviet years of house deer was more than 100 thousand. Partly in such appreciable decrease in number global warming is guilty. So, by data, which can be found on a site of Murmansk hydrometeorological centre, winters on Kola peninsula become obviously more warmly. So, for example, in December - February of three previous years the monthly average temperature of air was on 4 - 7 degrees above norm. For this reason of the river of peninsula began to freeze late. As consequence, gathering of deer grazed in tundra and their stage in calculation and slaughter places are late for some months. Animals cannot simply overcome water obstacles on thin ice.
- When the rivers do not freeze, deer cannot be driven to a face place. In - the first, they can sink, and in - the second, are traumatised, cut feet about ice. Such it is necessary to kill on the spot, throwing on eating up to predators, - with bitterness tells Valentine Sovkina, the chairman of the council of the authorised representatives saamov to Murmansk area. - here also it is necessary to wait for frosts, from - for what face borders move. Earlier it came to an end in December, and now co-operative society « the Reindeer breeder » for example, has finished it on April, 8th.
And after all in the spring of a female of deer are going to give birth, and if them to drive at this time from place to place they lose offspring. It threatens with the future barreness and loss of efficiency of flock. That actually now also occurs.
the Situation complicates that lethal points in Murmansk area remains only two - in villages Lovozero and Krasnoshchele. There it is necessary to drive deer from all Kola peninsula. During this wild race animals lose to 20 percent of weight and too will be crippled. A problem mobile points of a face directly in places vypasa could solve animals. The wind can become an energy source for them. To be exact - vetroustanovki. But to reindeer-breeding co-operative societies is unreal to find considerable money for such project. They and so live on the state grant, constantly dreaming of financing increase.
The management of especially protected territories of Murmansk area undertook to help with this business to them. Last year the project of the lethal point working from 4 - 5 vetroustanovok has been developed.
- We suggest to create on the remote reindeer-breeding base lethal point with the refrigerator in which it is possible to store meat till the winter when it can be taken out on continent snowmobiles, - the head of management Ivan Vdovin has explained. - there there will be houses for residing of shepherds with families. And in the summer they also can be engaged in preparation of berries and mushrooms, freezing them on sale.
Now this project is on consideration in the Ministry of economic development of Russia and the several financial organisations.