Light of the Patriarch. Conversations on crisis of millenaries Only in the original world found in the soul, in the union good luck and people, in life on conscience, in cleanliness of soul - a worthy exit from any obstojany and disorders of history .
the Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia II.
Fidelity to God is more expensive than the life!
- What events occurring in the world today, disturb you more everything, your Svjatejshestvo?
- Our time richly disturbing tendencies. Many of them show direct calls to the fragile world on the earth and the prospect of survival of mankind. The traditional world order based on principles of the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the states, gives way today new, based on a principle of global responsibility and the right strong . Not justice, and willfulness becomes a moral substantiation of a world order. Two millenaries of Christian history during which people self-denyingly tried to build the world on the basis of the words which have sounded at the beginning of a new era of the Christ of the Savior are buried in oblivion: love each other (In. 13, 34). Today we are on the threshold miroustrojstva in which the love for the neighbour is changed by political correctness, tolerance to another`s sights - indifference. To our look the world which all aspirations are directed on reception appears have arrived at any cost. Economic interests of the most developed countries became a motive power of military conflicts, having transformed war from policy continuation by other means throughout economy. Should disturb and prompt raspolzanie the intensity centres on the person of the Earth. It is terrible to think: today on the Earth there live the whole generations of the people, never knowing peace lives!
- a leah happened often such in the history of Christianity?
- It is possible to combine the major events of the XX-th century in one chain: scientific and technological breaks, wars, revolutions, attempts to collect the separated people in a uniform legal field of the international relations. And we will see that, as a matter of fact, there was the same, as during any period of history: according to Feodor Mihajlovicha Dostoevsky, God struggles with a devil, and a battle-field - heart of the person. However, leaving century has bared in the strongest image dramatic character of this struggle. The person became stronger, having strengthened the power over nature. But a leah it became stronger spiritually? A leah has converted the new power on advantage to itself and associates? It is not assured that someone can answer bodily in the affirmative on this question. For Russia all XX-th century has appeared the hardest test. And me on - chelovecheski it is joyful that time of that century at last - that has run low. Probably, at least to any hardship the end.
the church always was near to the people, and she had to endure much: And ponoshenie, and plunder, also is artificial created split, and golgofu. But the belief was firm and its unity is indestructible. While will be so, to forces hellish our Church not to prevail against.
- in what roots named you and so disturbing for all of us the phenomena, in your opinion, are covered today?
- In my opinion, these disturbing phenomena are based today on certain pressing forward to imposing to the world of cultural and world outlook unification in which basis the values of the liberal world far as from gospel values, christians expensive to hearts, and from traditional values of other world religions rely. Wherefore absolute value and a criterion of true for new liberal outlook is freedom of the fallen person which is not recognising any restrictions. Such unification is fraught with development vzaimoobogashchajushchego dialogue of civilisations, inevitable in the conditions of made globalisation, in their conflict. Imposing The universal formula of happiness to all people without their cultural, ethnic, religious and political originality will have destructive consequences.
- the century left has confirmed justice of your words, alas, more than visually!
- the XX-th century Bitter experience when attempts of violent planting of this or that outlook have carried away lives of tens millions persons, bears that the long and fair world between the countries and the people can be reached only under condition of preservation in the world of the cultural exchange originally equal in rights connected to protection of originality of the nations and other human communities.
Christian freedom is freedom from a sin
- your childhood was free from antireligious oppression, and in this sense to you, unlike other today`s Russian fellow citizens, has very much carried. Wherefore one business to know that where - that on light or is simple in the nature there is freedom, and absolutely other - to absorb it with milk of mother. Probably, in many respects thanks to it the Lord judged to you to become Pervosvjatitelem of Church Russian, pechalnikom for the people, the worker on a field of Bozhiej. So than for you was always and is till now this sweet word - freedom ?
- Freedom - concept many-sided... And it is valid sweet on it hardly that you will mind. The main thing consists in that we and responded today to an appeal Christ`s, sounded many centuries ago. The apostle James writes: Who will penetrate into the law made, freedom law, and prebudet in it, that, being not the investigator forgetful, but the executor of business, will be blissful in the action (Iak. 1,25). Freedom in the Christ, shestvovanie on Its way on which we become closer to one another, - here the keystone to success of our efforts in the present difficult, quickly changing world. Wherefore all trouble of a century past never will be overcome in us by beliefs, hope and love, nisposylaemyh the Lord, for us Crucified and Risen.
too long an arbitrariness and violence were directors of our destinies. The whole generations have grown in a habit to blind obedience and a worship for relentless force. A great misfortune I will name morals loss by one person, but what words to mark ignorance its whole people? Here that such to remain on seventy with superfluous years without freedom... Millions people at first have disaccustomed to work spirit, to think of prayful exploit. Then, apparently, have for ever scared away pressing forward to independent search of true, from elementary diligence, from the initiative. Here disastrous crops which, to the big misfortune for all of us, bears fruit till now before our eyes.
- Where an exit? More than ten years we live in, apparently, absolutely free society, even as others consider, free to weightlessness, and to name ourselves definitively liberated people at us, for example, language will not turn...
- And the exit in that mind to learn True - it is given in a Scriptus. Not simply to learn, and to come to love very much. That further, following Orthodox church canons, to go to the rescue - in it calling of each christian consists and, it is possible to tell, its freedom.
the greatest gift of the Creator to the person - free flight of its thought. But as often we should face that the newest inventions created in the blessing, are used in harm. If the first printed matter, both in the Western Europe, and we, in Russia, had Scriptus books today the world as if was enraged: book counters are filled in Blood, are overflowed by the cheap stuff preaching violence, selling love... Us convince that life human costs nothing, - same a terrible sin! For mind and spirit enslavement global information systems and electronic mass media are actively used. The spreads of knowledge created for simplification information systems get absolutely other shape and immorality and aggression distributions are used for suppression creating internal life of soul of feelings of bashfulness and chasity, for awakening of vile instincts. And television? It is popular now! But the TV became dangerous for including - dangerously for normal human mentality!. Even the such has appeared criterion at TV men: the more awfully news, the is more than spectators it will collect. Are covered with become talk of the town a freedom of speech and at in a head one straight line, as a nail, thought: a rating not to miss the changeable rating!. Otherwise the advertiser of the big money will not give, and as without them further for freedom to struggle?
the today`s television adjusts people on a misfortune, and all wait for it each cage of the nature!.
in Austria, meeting the country top management - the president, the chancellor, I was not kept and have asked: Why in the Austrian newspapers if something write about Russia it is indispensable it is connected with a crime or other horror? To me, without reflecting, responded: Because it write in your newspapers! then, meeting editors-in-chief of the Russian central printing editions and TV channels, I have not sustained and have asked, not for the press and so, for itself: Really in you does not remain drops of elementary patriotism? Why you represent the own country exclusively as criminal where it is dangerous to come where will by all means plunder, and even will kill? In our Moscow, for example, there is no area where it is impossible to go. And in New York is... it I not to that Moscow good, and New York absolutely useless. I to that the capital of Russia is not worse at all than New York. It is necessary to give more than the information with a positive charge of emotions, what for stresses to produce? The people around - native!. What for they so are terrible for intimidating?
- and that to be surprised, your Svjatejshestvo? Sudden democracy, crazy freedom - for many native people is a brick on a head instead of a habitual rain...
- From one extreme measure yes in another... Remember the Soviet films, after all were very good! And now have sharply shaken in the opposite direction, and continuous insurgents have cracked from screens.
- well not continuous. Pornographies have already gorged on insurgents. All alluvial will leave irrevocably. Already leaves.
- Leaves, but slowly. Here and I as - that in target have watched on TV a good film - the Thief is called. The boy fine plays, a subject sincere. This picture has mentioned me for the live.
- means, all - taki something moves, and normal life prevails?
- Give - that God!. The born Christ the Savior has relieved a human race of a damnation and death sin, having called all creature in freedom of glory of children of Bozhiih (Rome. 8, 21). However freedom is not only great paradise God`s, but also the deepest responsibility. Apostle Paul warned about that your freedom has not served as temptation for impotent (1 Barks. 8, 9). The inability of the person reasonably and adequately to dispose of the freedom has generated hardly probable not all historical tragedies of the past century.
- your Svjatejshestvo as you like the slogan: freedom above all ?
- In that sense as understand freedom today in the West - is not present, it is not pleasant absolutely. Freedom to freedom rozn: there is freedom for a sin, and there is freedom from a sin. It is enough to remember that one of slogans of revolutionary revolution of 1917 in Russia was you Give freedom! wherefore, without having released the person from the whole complex spiritually - moral, morally - ethical, legal, cultural - historical and other restrictions and norms, it was impossible to destroy his hands the old world to osnovanja . So impetuous freedom for one has turned back violence and an arbitrariness concerning others, and as a result lost there were all people, the recent generation of Russians became the witness of that. The liberal idea in the western understanding provides clearing of the human person of everyones holding down it frameworks Unless freedom of one individual appears threat for freedom of another. In a word, do everything that is not forbidden by the law. But after all such freedom is refusal of the person of moral obligations, of a recognition of the power over self of supreme values of human existence without what any most reasonable norm of the right appears the deprived internal force.
- you speak about freedom to consume drugs, to corrupt a society a pornography, cultivation of vile passions, the statement of an ideal of personal success at any cost, let even at the expense of the public blessing: plunder near by means of the dexterous transaction, for example - you mean it?
- And it, and many other things. The liberal idea is too dangerous and seductive for the person. It levels concept of a sin in its consciousness, washes away border between good and harm, thereby depriving even is moral the healthy person of necessary force to confront with self-damage. Freedom in Christian understanding is, first of all, freedom from passion and defect, freedom from sinful thoughts and the more so actions, freedom for the sake of spiritual increase and self-improvement of the person. It is ability, soobrazovyvajas with good will of Bozhiej about our rescue, to build the life on precepts of Lord Jesus Christ. Having bestowed to the person freedom, the Lord simultaneously urges it to multiply love, kindness, justice and mercy. On ways of the Christian outlook confirmed by Church in personal and public life of people, probably to separate fertile gifts of freedom from pogibelnyh permissiveness shoots...
it is important to understand: new technologies, their prompt development is yet cultural progress. Without spiritual development of the person, without high ideals of ministering to true, good and beauty the person is more and more enslaved and, finally, it becomes inevitable the slave to things. Any slavery is humiliating for the christian. Both the slavery to things and technologies if to have a look at it belief eyes, always bears in itself idolatry elements. We not without reason observe revival of archaic pagan cults and distribution of the totalitarian sects denying in the person not only an image God`s, but also the personal beginning. And for the person who has lost moral reference points, all is represented admissible and comprehensible - and received unprecedented, really industrial scope destruction of children in parent bowels, and thoughtless experiments with a heredity of live individuals, both depravity juvenile, and defiling of all light and pure.
the church warns: sects are dangerous to mental health!
- you, your Svjatejshestvo, have mentioned, undoubtedly, painfull for Orthodoxy a subject of distribution of the religious sectarian organisations in Russia. But unless it is possible to consider their activity seriously, when today in Russian Orthodox Church already 128 archdioceses (it against 67 in 1987), more than 19000 wards (in 1988 them was only 6893), 480 monasteries (in 1980 - only 18). Scope of educational exploit and activity of Russian Orthodox Church today - from Baltic in the west to Alaska and California in the east, from Murmansk and Kamchatka in the north to caucasus, Central Asia and China in the south. All sociological polls of last years show that the majority of citizens of Russia consider the Orthodox church as the most dear institute to which they trust, 70 - 85 percent of the mullions-strong population respond about Church positively. Not less than 70 percent of full age Russians rank itself to orthodox though here it is necessary to specify: not all they regularly visit temples, participate in church ordinances and define the life exclusively orthodox outlook. We can name their darkness who while on a way to high-grade votserkovleniju that too is rather remarkable. Unless these impressing facts do not bear to truly ecumenical revival of orthodox church life? A leah so costs prAnd such achievements to pay attention to any sectarians?
- Many years violently tore away our people from belief. But today my compatriots with huge enthusiasm, by the way, for a long time unprecedented in Russia, come back to belief of the ancestors, again open for itself Christian trues. Process this thin, demanding judgement and a certain spirit. On it time, eventually, is necessary. But our country - in the conditions of religious freedom - still more recently has been literally captivated by set of the overseas pseudo-missionaries, many of them remain with us till now. They look at our Fatherland as on wilderness as if here never was propovedano a gospel christian message!. Someone should discipline them, at least tell that supposedly you, misters, are not right!
- certainly, should. More correctly, forgive, should. You, your Svjatejshestvo, also do it!
- Seventy with superfluous years bogoborchestva our Church has sustained and has survived only thanks to that has managed to save traditions. If it has gone on the way obnovlenchestva which was provoked by the Soviet power in the beginning 1920 - h years, Orthodoxy would not become. A present avalanche of missionaries - sectarians who have gushed over Russia at once, hardly here pahnulo freedom, I regard as attempt to fill the spiritual vacuum formed as a result of long-term atheistic processing of the people. First it even was considered as a fashionable sign of democracy: at stadiums and in ice palaces to all distribute caps, T-shirts, the colourful literature. And all it is absolutely free, in addition with a shattering smile: a pier, take, all is rather good. Something new, means, already attractive. However in this muddy earth flow to us sects not only destructive, but also totalitarian have come. For example, the extremely dangerous Japanese sect Aum Sinrikyo Which actions not only have led to spiritual and physical travails of thousand people, but also have created threat of their life, having called in the world the present alarm. As it is paradoxical, but followers at this sect in Russia it has appeared much more, than in the homeland, in Japan. The critical situation in the Russian society was aggravated with sectarians from Moon`s Churches the bogorodichnogo centre the White brotherhood groups of Satanists and other similar totalitarian religious organisations. There was about what our Church warned not one year: sectarians - fanatics have passed in open approach to the person and the Russian society as a whole. They are dangerous to mental health of millions people!
we receive a large quantity of letters from unfortunate mothers who appeal: help to rescue our children who have got networks of sectarians! Unfortunately, this problem much more widely also mentions not only youth. Invasion of totalitarian, destructive sects to Russia and the near abroad pursues the aims of not so spiritual education, but is directed on division of people, opposition of children - to parents, spouses - each other, the person - to a society. In sects of people will cripple it is moral and psychologically, it is artificial dull their consciousness, weaken will, kill a live soul. People actually deprive of apartments, monetary accumulation, other property, doom to unfortunate existence made destitute.
when to Russia there came Madeleine Olbrajt who during that time was the US state secretary, she asked about a meeting with me. It has appeared that the unique problem which it put before herself, consisted in pressing forward to provide to foreign spiritual movements a freedom of action in Russia. From its part I have frankly and in detail told to the guest about those disgraces which are created behind outwardly decent facade of these movements. On what has received the answer: Yes, of course, it needs to be meant. But all - taki it is necessary to give preference to freedom... obviously, freedom of activity of sects trampling on the legitimate right of our people on protection against attempt at their moral and mental health.
why - that other fighters for the every possible rights when speak about religious liberty, to religion freedom, forget that purchase of human souls is the roughest infringement of religious freedom. It is no secret that these newcomers from the outside, not having any roots in Russia, use material difficulties of our fellow citizens and impudently buy souls of people for dollars. Naturally, the impossibility to be reconciled further with unbridled this sort of activity of sectarians became obvious to each normal person. That is why in April, 1995 I have counted necessary to be converted to the Russian legislators with the request: To solve, at last, for a long time urgent questions of a legal regulation of professional religious activity of foreigners in Russia. As it has been made with creation of law absolutely new to our state About freedom of worship and about religious associations where, guaranteeing citizens freedom of religious life, the special role of Orthodoxy in the history our country at the same time is considered. It not only has allowed to protect a society from an encroachment of fanatic sects, but also contributed in development of traditional Russian religions - Orthodoxy, Islam, the Buddhism, the Judaism, beneficently influencing a spiritual climate and capable further to prevent ward to the extremely dangerous, extremist sects of thousand people, mjatushchihsja in search of sense of life. Though, of course, to the full sectarianism to finish to us till now it is not possible.
- With extremists all is clear: it not a place under our sun, and it is quite fair. But the boom of missionary activity has captured practically all. Does not avoid it and Russian Orthodox Church. However its methods, we will softly tell, are rather old-fashioned: why - that orthodox ecclesiasts do not collect many thousands audiences at stadiums, do not rent film concert halls, do not fall asleep corresponding leaflets of suffering fellow citizens in the underground. And as a matter of fact, why?
- Yes because practice of foreign missionaries does not approach us. Moreover, similar activity is unacceptable for us for basic reasons. Wherefore in it the most vulgar image uses a self-advertisement principle, and strong-willed influence on mentality of the person for the orthodox christian unacceptably at all. The orthodox doctrinal statement does not aspire to involve at all all citizens without an exception, and besides at any cost. First of all, us the voluntariness question worries. As provides further a constancy, reliability of abiding of the person in Orthodoxy. The basic missionary work at us is carried out in a parish community. The sermon has quickened, extraliturgical forms of cenobitic life considerably extend. It and thematic conversations on doctrinal subjects during extradivine service time, and sunday schools for orthodox children, audio distribution - and video data, radio translation - and telecasts, publishing. In our missionary work there is no tinsel shine, momentary theatrical effects, and it is a sure sign of serious, thoughtful work.
the sacred Orthodox church also is our people
- your Svjatejshestvo as you believe: Russia can become the orthodox state again?
- At Russia the way. It should to understand and to be sought correctly recipes elsewhere. To us speak: the orthodox way of life is not necessary for all - it approaches only to the orthodox person, and in Russia live also Moslems, jews, Buddhists and many other things. Their this parcel the unequivocal conclusion becomes: it is necessary to offer the world something such that will appear equally comprehensible to all without an exception. And, as I already spoke, as such general law and universal equally effective multivarious and frequently raznonapravlennyh cultures, religions, civilisations of the modern world the West offers own standard of life. It turns out that our people from seventy years of a celebration of the state atheism over cultural - religious originality of Russia as to us again impose historically and spiritually an alien way of life have not had time to recover.
church - not simply companion of the people. It always was and, I believe, remains soul of the people, its kind adviser in all affairs. It, the Sacred Orthodox church, also is our people. We should remember that each of us who kreshchen in Orthodoxy and who feels spiritual relationship with our belief, is a particle of a body church. Our talents are various, our callings differ, mnogorazlichen life experience, we in many respects disagree with each other in sights at a peace arrangement of this. But the Lord and the Savior speaks to us: If love Me, observe My precepts (In. 14,15). And the precept of Gospodnja, since the old days hranimaja in Church, motivates to save unity of spirit in the world union (Eph. 4,3). For what it calls us? Yes to that we conceived the distinctions not as something opposing us each other, but as mammon of spiritual powers of the people. Decades of oblivion of Pravdy Bozhiej have generated in our people spiritual opustoshennost, otjagoshchennost human hearts iniquities and sins. In it to me deep roots of the crisis phenomena see. And in returning to fatherlike belief - correction of a historical way of Russia, an enlightenment of its choir.)
- But unless today probably to live on precepts of the Christ when all around live on - to another?
- Not all.
- believe to us, your Svjatejshestvo, very many.
- That here you will do: decades of militant atheism will remind still for a long time of themselves. Though lately much is made for returning of our compatriots to fatherlike belief, to primordial traditions, to a native history. But ten years - in historical prospect too small term in comparison with the whole era of godlessness. The Moses drove forty years the people on wilderness after rescue from the Egyptian captivity, expecting, while the generation in which veins slavish blood flew will come to naught. And we want, that our life was adjusted also all would be arranged in a flash, - but so does not happen. Generations which were born and nurtured in Soviet period, are not guilty that truths about God, about belief of the ancestors sometimes do not know. But sprouts of the new relation to life already make the way to light. More and more children studies in sunday schools, and they, these children, votserkovljajut the parents! And how much examples when sons consider it duty to restore that temple which was destroyed by their father or the grandfather?
- temples - that are restored... But here is how there were on all country black, wooden hovels which have lop-sided from decrepitude, and stand till now. In them there live simple Russian people - earth salt as like to speak at us. (Moscow we do not take, Moscow in this sense - at all Russia.) And near to poor houses the brand new temple - a leah correctly this, your Svjatejshestvo flaunts?
- When recreated Christ the Saviour Cathedral, there were many discussions. For example, argued: a leah to direct means for building of an inhabited file is better? Only after all people endowed on a temple... It is not necessary to oppose to one another. That, circumstance that the life of our people, especially in the Russian remote places, remains on is inadmissible low level, means one: it is necessary to raise this level. And in due course living conditions, undoubtedly, will be improved. But not to build instead of a temple a hovel under a straw roof only because around old, rickety houses. For the Russian person from time immemorial to endow the best and the most expensive on a temple God`s was requirement spiritual and sincere therefore many our earth orthodox tserkvami both monasteries has been decorated, and the district round temples always was well-groomed and beautiful.
- As it is known, together with political Russians have found also economic freedom. However to use to it in the blessing to itself it is possible far not to everyone. You could share the thoughts about it?
- Alas, freedom streams for expired decade have brought to the people of the former USSR not only pleasure, but also considerable disappointments. Especially it is appreciable in sphere of economic transformations. On the one hand, they have opened to people possibility to select any field for independent responsible activity in interests of the person and a society. However the statement of new economic way at all did not become panacea from such problems, as growth of criminality and corruption, social injustice, deep social division of a society. Moreover, in some cases these problems were aggravated to a critical status, have put on a side of a physical survival not only socially not protected layers of our fellow citizens - pensioners, invalids, large families and simply needy, but also quite able-bodied population. About it the Church repeatedly bore in the face of the state and a society, pechalujas to needs of simple believers, bearing to responsibility of governors before God, the people and history, and urging the mighty of this world to care of the blessing of the needing really. Wherefore in a Scriptus it is told: do not offend the mercenary, poor and poor... That he has not begun to yell on you to the Lord, and there was no on you a sin (Vtor. 24, 14 - 15). Our Church, centuries connected to the people, cannot remain indifferent to the processes occurring in a society during these inconsistent, crafty times. Overcoming of a sinful inclination is exclusive to material benefits should be regarded as of paramount importance spiritual education of the person.
- all of us are not innocent... This bitter true even more often should be heard from different people, including priests. Venerable Isaac the syrian spoke: All Church is Church sinned, all Church is Church repenting . A leah seems to you, what so frequent and persevering use of this frank recognition provokes us to new falls? A pier, time all such, and I once more will sin. And behind it - more and more!. A leah conducts it to that concept morals also the modern person as though becomes outdated, wishing to achieve from life as much as possible, can quite live without it?
- Church svjata not sanctity of the ministers and laymen, and sanctity of the Christ. He lives and operates in it.
It is necessary to understand that any sin is destructive for the person, a family, a society. Yes, it can bring time pleasure, amuse arrogance, give any material benefits, give the power over other people. But it by all means deforms internal essence of the person, resulting it in the increasing errors, and sometimes and to tragedy., Thus, as you tell the most terrible when the sin is multiplied in a society, are provoked new and new falls according to false, but to quite modern everyday principle: all so live, and why I should be better? Anybody cannot hide from fatal consequences of a sin any more which it is by all means mentioned each family and each person.
- that to us to do?
- I am convinced: how for the last millenaries the mankind has increased in own eyes, it should sit down again for a school school desk. It is necessary to study again in that people have lost for years of ecstasy own force and arrogance, - to study in humility, to ability ascetically to limit the desires, to obedience to a will of Bozhiej, a moral way of life. Otherwise all achievements of science and technology will convert the force against us, and the Babel tower of human power will fall, burying the builders under fragments. Trudnejshej for each of us there will be a work not external, but internal. The Gospel advises to us to convert a look, first of all, in itself.
to Russian society today lacks original sobornosti. This such status at which all people, whatever different are created by the Creator, with inspiration work for the public good. Any work then is conceived as sluzhenie to the Lord and Fatherland. Also it is necessary to remember that we bear responsibility before God for our near, for our family, for our Native land, for the world and well-being of the whole world.
harm declares itself all more loudly, all is more frank
- the Whole world hotly discusses today globalisation problems, including public life. How much you are stirred with this problem?
- Rather stirs. With alarm I observe, how globalisation, and together with it and laicisation - the increasing clearing of public life of church influence all over the world accrues. This generation all the same freedom promptly absorbing all of us... I repeat: I not against freedom as that, but I do not agree with prevratnym its expounding. Every day frontiers become more and more nontight for escalating streams of people, the goods, the information. The governments delegate more and more the powers nadnatsionalnym to structures of management which with unprecedented hitherto passion decisions truly planetary scale make. New technologies make radical changes to traditional schemes of manufacture, business and population employment. The hierarchy of values is even more often defined by an advantage principle at accruing indifference to spiritual true, care about a human soul, care of its eternal rescue. These processes are sometimes accompanied by deep moral crisis which destroys both the person, and a society, leads otverzheniju bogodannogo a morality. Distribution of ideology of consumption generates rough egoism, cynical callousness, blatant injustice and thus deforms an image God`s in the person. The prophetical voice the Church proclaims both to the mighty of this world, and simple people, and all human race: Without attention to spiritual bases of life, without God, without execution of Its precepts any external well-being, any knowledge and the technologies, any things and the money, any power and force n e are capable to give to the person of original happiness, completeness and harmony of life.
on a boundary of not simply centuries, and millenaries in dynamically changing world the Sacred Church has appeared to formulate before an absolute must in interests of the congregation and all society own answers to such questions which was not and could not be during prior epoch, since an apostolic century. The requirement for modern perusal and interpretation on the basis of a Scriptus and the Sacred Legend of such problems, as a parity of Church, the nations and the states is clearly felt; interrelation of Christian ethics and the secular right; distribution of fruits of work; war and peace questions; criminality, punishment and correction; personal, family and public morals; health of the person and the people; Church sight at a secular science, culture and education; questions of ecology, the international life, mass-media and many other things. The obshchetserkovnyj sight at a complex of the problems outright mentioning life of the modern person, has found reflexion in Bases of the social concept of Russian Orthodox Church.
- a leah you see progress in the decision of social problems? Or injustice here again will be on - former to be aggravated, without giving possibility to forces of good to break to a considerable part of wretched mankind?
- Speaking about social problems of the present, it is necessary to admit the fact of extreme social polarisation as societies in many countries, including Russia, and the whole world. Terrifying poverty sometimes adjoins to dazzling mammon. The world, the security, effectively working social programs are today property of minority of the population of our planet. The majority which concerns the five sixth population of the Earth, appears thrown out on a roadside of a world civilisation and cannot create worthy living conditions. The increasing distribution is received by practice of financial gamble therefore dependence of incomes on the spent work is erased. All it, undoubtedly, does not contribute in a world and consent establishment in a society, creates intensity, provokes conflicts.
- also generates shocking terrorism? It is enough to remember unprecedented hitherto terrorist attack to the USA in September, 2001 - a monstrous sign of the come century!.
- More recently, in the end of XX century, we expected the beginning of a new century with kind hopes. But the first year of the XXI-st century has brought to the world unknown tragedy during which time of thousand people have lost life and health, and millions if not billions others beheld a celebration of malicious will on TV screens. Today, thanks to combined efforts of the different countries and the people, terrorists have lost many possibilities for fulfilment of deeds of evil. But, I think, nobody begins to assert that angrily terrorism is definitively defeated. Besides, I will risk to assume: in the world the set of problems which if are not soil for terror, at least, can be used by criminals for the false self-justification and attraction of supporters is saved. Speech - about nespravedlivostjah, put in a modern world order, about non-uniform distribution of the power and mammon between the countries and continents, about attempts of some forces - east and western - to impose the will to the people.
the permission of the collected contradictions lies not so much on ways of social work, let even the effective and provided huge means, how much on ways of moral transfiguration of the human person. Prelate John Zlatoust has responded to a question on the reason of a social inequality: God has vested us with the blessings in different degree that we could help each other . The world can change, if the help made destitute, aged, sick will become a moral duty of each member of a society.
- of the tragedy organisation on September, 11th the USA have directly accused Islamic extremists that should call millions people of the most different confessions, and also atheists of negative feelings to Islam, as religions. As though you, the Most holy the Lord, could comment on this, frankly speaking, an explosive situation?
- it is necessary to distinguish extremists whom, to the greatest to misfortune in all religions has divorced enough, and the faith in God, called in Orthodoxy Life-giving and Vseljubjashchim, and in Islam - Gracious and Merciful. Anything with bearing malice turncoats it has the general. Political and nationalist gamble on religion is a reviling of God. Attempts to push off among themselves the people practising different religions - a crime against humanity.
- however the tendency which we observe today in our country, is unfavourable: orthodox Russians with bolshej opaskoj look at all at the Muslim fellow citizens. An act of terrorism in Kaspijske on May, 9th, 2002 - in sacred for millions compatriots a Victory Day over fascism! - blasphemy top. Clearly that the next bloody slaughter-house is organised so-called warriors of Islam - the Wahhabites tying the obstinate foreheads by green bandages who also are a sign on a religious accessory. Clearly and that to true Islam these gangsters of the relation have no but only are covered with it as a board. And still the bad deposit in relation to the people practising this religion, in a shower remains. How in such situation it is necessary to arrive to the orthodox christian, your Svjatejshestvo?
- the Event today in the Chechen Republic, Dagestan, in other parts of the world where actively operate vahhabitskie structures is not opposition of religions. It is the frank unbridled gangsterism, and to arrive with its participants and organizers follows under civilised society laws.
as to mutual relations of believers, a fact of common knowledge: orthodox always lived in peace with Moslems, never tried to impose force each other the belief. Yes, Orthodoxy and Islam are various types of outlooks: we on - to a miscellaneous imagine God and the Kingdom of heaven. Islam names itself Justice religion, Orthodoxy is Love religion. What of these great virtues should predominate - an essence of our divergences - a question for the decision in eternity of Bozhiej. But here, on the earth, Justice has nothing to argue with Love. Both religions equally preach mercy, moral cleanliness, mirotvorchestvo, a constructive labour for the Fatherland blessing. To divide, as to all reasonable beings it should be clear, there is absolutely nothing. There is no occasion to other feelings, except mutual sympathies
Want to notice that Russian civilisation has incorporated set of influences, has created unique space of dialogue of various beliefs, cultures and traditions. Experience of dialogue and cooperation of orthodox christians with Moslems has thousand-year history. This experience more than ever should be claimed today, against obvious attempts to push off believers of two world religions.
- today say that the world after tragical events has undergone on September, 11th serious changes much. In what, on - to yours, they consist?
- Struggle of good and harm has reached an extreme sharpness. If earlier harm preferred to operate stealthily, under cover of darkness of night now it left an underground and already almost is not covered with a blessing and advantage mask. Harm declares itself all more loudly and more frankly, applying for becoming indisputable norm public and private life. We have endured the period of violent tearing away from God. And on a private experience we know, how the life deprived of contact with the Creator has internally grown poor. Understands it more and more and the Western world, which considerable part in due time has voluntary recanted from God, having intoned itself a Postchristian society. However, acts of terrorism in the United States of America have changed the relation of Americans to the moral maintenance of culture. Have been put on a shelf of ten already finished shooting films with cruelty and violence scenes. On the American television now try to show more programs calling good feelings, clearing up patriotism and sympathy for sufferers. The understanding of comes that seen on the screen can be embodied in a reality and turn back thousand victims.
- and what at us with it how you have quite right noticed, - understanding?
- At us, alas, all on - former. We on another`s errors have not got used to study, we by all means should break a forehead about the. Any performance against propagation of violence, debauchery, cynicism at us why - that try to declare an encroachment on a freedom of expression. But not without reason many people - orthodox and not orthodox, believing and non-believers - are indignant with such telecasts, as, for example, show Behind glass . Similar programs dushevredny not only for inhabitants of glass cages, but, maybe, still in bolshej to a measure for spying upon another`s intimate life.
- that from an event in the world calls today you the greatest optimism?
- About any special big optimism to speak I will wait a little. But at the same time I will notice that careful optimism calls the attention rendered by the governments of many countries and the European international organisations to opinion of institutes of a civil society which number religious associations concern also. After all from all institutes of a civil society existing now the most ancient, repeatedly proved the viability are religious organisations. Today there are bases to hope that the religious motivating of human activity will receive worthy respect of a society. Earlier, as a rule, ideas and reasons of religious character remained, so to say, behind brackets of a world and national policy, on a roadside of public life, and such disregard inevitably generated divisions, contradictions and conflicts, sometimes the bloody. It is impossible to consider religious beliefs as a private affair, something obviously unimportant. After all for the believing person fidelity to God and a moral duty to live according to the belief is more expensive than the life! Therefore it is possible to greet only readiness of a society for close cooperation with religious associations in business of the decision of essential problems of the present.
a way to rescue in hands of everyone
- your Svjatejshestvo, you could remember the Sacred Easter very first in life? And those feelings which have seized you then?
- the Main feeling is an incomparable pleasure. Pleasure special, Paschal. Was to me then four years. My parents, and with them and I, were church-goers of Aleksandro - the Neva cathedral church in Tallinn. I remember my first Paschal religious procession which, as it is known, symbolises procession of pious womens to Grobu Gospodnju: All surrounding very solemnly and festively, night is shined by light of many candles and joyful persons, and to me is made it would not be desirable to sleep... That my day then still the weak children`s voice has joined for the first time a powerful cathedral voice of Church which glorified with a uniform mouth and uniform heart the Lord Risen: the Christ voskrese from dead, smertiju on death having trampled, and real in grobeh a stomach having bestowed .
- Since then minulo almost seven decades. A leah your perception and sensation of a feast of Easter has changed?
- As to age... This year, accepting congratulations with 73 - letiem, I for fun said what in view of that more pertinently more likely not to congratulate, and to feel sympathy. For seventy years the person should change, and it naturally enough. Has undergone changes and the nature of my spiritual pleasure in light Paschal days - probably, with experience of the lived years, as a result of internal work and substantial the belief and consequently all chuvstvovanija, all perception of a feast have become more sharply and more brightly became deeper. Wherefore the delight overflowing hearts of believing christians in days of Sacred Easter, is sacred.
from year to year, spiritually accompanying sacred pious womens, we together with them consistently endure fear, amazement and awesomeness at the sight of a stone, it is wonderful otvalennogo unknown force from the sealed up input in the Savior Coffin. Having entered inside, women have seen, under the certificate of the sacred evangelist Mark, the young man apparelled in white clothes. That was Angel Gospoden who said: ... Be not terrified. Jesus search for the Nazarean crucified; It has risen; It is not present here. Here a place in which It has been put (Mk. 16, 6). And then and The Risen Lord, being it, has told: . Rejoice! And they... Have bowed to It (Mf. 28, 9). We celebrate inexhaustible under the maintenance and value event of ecumenical history and our short life. With the years comprehension of it becomes more and more deep, volume, sprouts new senses. Anastasis Christ`s - not only the greatest miracle in the history of the world. On it as on an unshakable stone, our belief is based. After all as the Apostle, " has told;... If the Christ has not risen, both our sermon is vain, vain also your belief (1Κξπ. 15, 14). But It - has risen, and about Anastasis of the Savior - our great Paschal celebration.
- there was this supernatural event almost two millenaries back, and people endure it every year again with such sincere, genuine enthusiasm, as if this private affair for everyone.
- But after all the Anastasis Christ`s also is deeply personal, in the higher sense a private affair of the christian. For truly believing this event means something much bigger, than it is possible to express simple human words. Wherefore Lord Jesus Christ, having brought itself in a voluntary victim, has relieved all human race of death, this terrible consequence of an original sin of Adam and Eve, and spared their descendants life eternal. The Savior has made exploit of the greatest samootrechenija - oblekshis in a human flesh, having conceived a human nature, It has cleared and has illuminated it, The Anastasis from dead having opened a way to rescue for each of us. But the Creator has created the person free and consequently we, operating in the consent with own will, should wish rescue and eternal life, aspire to them in the union good luck and with Its help.
- unless at someone from sane people such desire can be absent?
- Unfortunately, can. After all acceptance to conduct about rescue with unalterability involves execution of Divine precepts. If the person believes in Anastasis Christ`s he should resort to saving church Ordinances, especially to Ordinance of the Eucharist. And for this purpose it is necessary to be able to see the sinfulness and to repent, aspire to live purely and joyfully. It is impossible to believe in Anastasis of the Savior, and to live in anger, envy, greed, lust.
- especially in hatred! That occurs today in the Near East, in places of mortal life of the Savior, there, where It has accepted free death and where vossijalo the whole world Its all-conquering Anastasis, differently as mass obscuring of minds to name difficult. In the firing line there was the greatest relic - Christmas temple in Bethlehem! A leah yes is in the world the force, capable to stop so scandalous blasphemy?
- Painfully to see, how in holy sites blood flows, people perish, dwellings collapse. We grieve over each victim and we denounce violence. Especially grieve actions of terrorists - the suicides, contradicting the moral doctrine of all religions. But the aversion and the protest call also violation of freedom and the right to life of peace Palestinians. On the Sacred earth, a cradle of three great monoteisticheskih world religions, the long-awaited world should be established. If the contradictory parties do not manage to agree about it if they cannot develop mutually acceptable and viable principles of coexistence the world community will appear before necessity to make active all possibilities to put an end to travails of peace people and to protect the international stability. The sacred Earth is a property of all mankind, and on us the moral imperative together lies to bear responsibility for its destiny.
in six years I have resolved: I will become the priest and anybody to others!
- as it is known, in the world you are Alexey Mihajlovich Ridiger. To you have named in honour of Alex, person Bozhija. A leah your parents prepared you for priestly ministering since the childhood?
- I Remember stirring not tested hitherto and simultaneously incomparable delight which have seized me once in the winter in a temple when to me have entrusted to spill kreshchenskuju water. It became the first my obedience and has occurred at the age of six years. Since then I knew well: I will become the priest and anybody to others! To me has had the luck to pass all steps of church ministering: both a censer submitted, and the psalm reader was, and the subdeacon (at the Tallinn bishops): with a crosier stood, was knigoderzhtsem (held the book before the bishop during reading). Certainly, my invaluable parents have brought to such choice me. The father, Michael Aleksandrovich, the native of Petersburg, a hereditary nobleman occurred from a family of great antiquity Ridigerov.
- you could tell the family tree slightly more in detail? Since what time, and, more correctly, from what generation it to you is known?
- it is visible, since reign of empress Catherine II when kurljandsky nobleman Fridrih Wilhelm the background of Ridiger has passed in Orthodoxy and Feodor Ivanovich has been named by Russian name. It also became the founder of one of lines of this sort known in Russia of noble family.
our sort has given Russia the well-known captains of the host and lawyers. Among them the hero of Patriotic war of 1812 the general - an aide-de-camp count Feodor Vasilevich Ridiger which name has been immortalised on one of memorial plates in Christ the Saviour Cathedral. The Minister of War of the imperial government in 1905 - 1909 Alexander Ridiger about which courage at the time of Russian - Turkish war 1877 - 1878 legends went, also was the relative of my father. My grandfather, Alexander Aleksandrovich, was the known judge in Petersburg, the great-grandfather, Alexander Fedorovich, too was the lawyer. Therefore the destiny of my father, as well as destiny of its two big brothers - George and Alexander, has been predetermined, and they, probably, have considered itself obliged to continue nice family tradition and have entered Imperial School of jurisprudence in Petersburg - one of the most exclusive educational institutions of the Russian empire. And on a broader scale in a family of the grandfather and my grandmother, Aglaidy Julevny, was four children - still daughter Elena, but my father - is most younger.
certainly, Michael Aleksandrovich most seriously prepared itself for the state ministering. Training in School has been calculated for seven years, corresponded to gymnasia education and special legal which quality was not subject to any doubts. However in a shower as to me the father then admitted, since small years he dreamt of priestly activity. February revolution of 1917 here has burst, in Petrograd disorders have begun, in streets shot and killed in what not guilty people. Then - October revolution: drunk people threatened to raze the whole world to the ground, and very zealously undertook it... My father was 15 years old! Then - that my grandfather has made family exploit: Correctly having estimated conditions, he has quickly understood that awesome impulses of the raged weights to its relatives primordially of noble family good cannot bring anything. To the contrary, all of them are mortally dangerous to an intelligent family. Likely, in any degree the faultless reputation of the known lawyer - a leah so differently has worked also, but the grandfather managed to take out all family to emigration - to Estonia. All property acquired in the years should be thrown, the native land left hastily that it was possible to carry away in hands took with itself. But it not gold was and not brilliants - anything such, as far as I know, the grandfather with the grandmother did not possess. The main thing, of course, not in it: it was possible to endure so dangerous times of troubles without family human losses that became possible only thanks to timely and resolute actions. The grandfather has died in 1929. I that year was born.
- the grandfather, you, of course, do not remember?
- Certainly, I do not remember. But the family legend is live, and today I its main keeper. But well I remember the grandmother, Aglaidu Julevnu - the woman simple, deeply believing; she has lived rather long, though also difficult life full of tests.
- likely, she told to you about burdens of emigration, especially in the first years after the urged resettlement?
- the Father told... First on foreign land Ridigerov really was necessary to a family hardly. Has lodged in tiny small town Haapsalu. It on the coast of Baltic sea and is far enough from Tallinn. The father and its average brother Alexander did not manage to finish education in Russia, therefore it was necessary to arrive in a local grammar school, and there other usages, not in special honour there was Russian... All adults searched for work, and it for Russian lawyers was not in Haapsalu. The father, for example, when has ended study in a grammar school, has been urged to dig a ditch shovel to earn a few money and to bring a feasible mite in a family copper. Happened, lived and half-starving. Have not got over Yet to Tallinn where possibilities to earn was, of course, more. To the father has carried, it was arranged on a certain Luther`s plywood factory where has worked the bookkeeper fifteen years.
- was from what to become despondent... After all on a sort the outstanding career of the military man or the lawyer, appear, has been written Michael Aleksandrovichu, and has dropped out... Accounts department.
- My father since young years of dews the true christian, and to become despondent to it did not threaten. Besides, having got to capital city of Estonia, it from the very first days has appeared at once in whirlpool of orthodox church life which, thanks to the present Russian priests, with high feeling of a pastoral debt caring of the congregation, there, in the early twenties, simply boiled. The church became the main support for living in misery emigrants, it filled with sense their life, became the life centre. The desire to become the ecclesiastic with new, more and more invincible force began to seize Michael Aleksandrovichem.
the Thong and a sword - arguments of the Baltic roman catholics
- However Orthodoxy, as far as we know, never was considered as predominating religion in Baltic and in Estonia in particular. In this connection, a leah your parents of certain discomfort, especially the father for which Estonia was not the native land felt, and became the urged shelter?
- Value of Orthodoxy for Baltic leaves far for frameworks of simple statistics. Defining as it seems to me, it is necessary to consider not number of believers - by the way, them after revolution in distressful Russia has fairly increased, and that deep, really the surprising influence, which Orthodoxy rendered on spirituality of Estonians, irrespective of their confession. Orthodoxy posesses a special role in historical destinies of all Baltic edge. In these earths it has entered direct contact, and at times and in struggle against a Catholicism and Protestantism. Here within several centuries many questions which have got today a special urgency and a sharpness, but already in scales of all ojkumeny were solved.
- Many foreign researchers constantly underline a Catholicism and Lutheranism priority over Orthodoxy in Baltic: a pier, only they also contributed in familiarising of the Baltic people with the western culture... And Orthodoxy helped with Baltic only to edge russification, planting barbarous East culture and the belief, alien, under their statement, local population. What your opinion?
- They can be understood: after all it is necessary as - that to justify rather unattractive role of German knights and nobility, and also the western Christianity in the history of this edge. Actually the catholicism and a Lutheranism in huge degree contributed in centuries-old oppression and enslavement of the Baltic people. It is not necessary to forget that Catholic priests and Protestant pastors took often in hands a thong and a sword instead of a sacred cross and such here in the image spread the culture .
At the same time the orthodox doctrinal statement always confirmed only the world and a brotherhood and was not imposed by compulsion, cunning or fear. Orthodoxy always contributed in education and supported national interests, protected local population from an encroachment inoplemennyh enslavers who, by the way, and have brought here a Catholicism and protestantizm. Thanks to Orthodoxy Estonians have realised for the first time themselves not simply maarahvas - the bumpkin who is not reputable, but the people having the equal rights with others.
the Lord judged to me to be born on Estonian earth, here I bore at first pastoral, and then and arhipastyrskoe ministering. Therefore already in mature years has considered as the debt to inform to all uneasy history of Orthodoxy in the Baltic edge to which studying has given many years of the life. Responding to the offer of Tserkovno - Russian Orthodox Church centre of science the Orthodox encyclopaedia I have passed the research Orthodoxy in Estonia for the edition the separate book. This edition was issued in 1999.
- we Will return to your parents: hardly, probably, was to your father to find itself in the neogenic state Estonia, as a matter of fact, alien to its spirit and heart?
- to Find itself, to define sense of the existence on a new place is, it seems to me, for everyone process painfull enough. Life of Russian emigration in pre-war Europe was needy, frequently simply hungry. But for the orthodox christian it is all - taki much the best fate, in comparison with destinies of those who remained in poslerevoljutsionnoj Russia. After all from the very first days establishments of the Soviet power on Russian Orthodox Church have begun unprecedented until then persecutions. Their purpose was traced accurately and to doubt was not subject: physical destruction of orthodox life in Russia. The same fate has been prepared also to all other religions which had distribution in territory, grasped by militant atheists. Bolsheviks have intoned atheism a component of the utopian doctrine and saw in Russian Orthodox Church especially dangerous barrier on a way of construction of the new revolutionary state.
Bolsheviks were afraid of Church influence, saw in it the main competitor of the ideology, so also the worst enemy. To leaders of revolution the absolute power over people was required, to divide which they with anybody did not wish. And then that such for them was hated old ? The church, as well as a monarchy, fell under this concept first of all. Because deep roots of Russian Orthodox Church are connected with Russian people and all historical development of the country. This indisputable fact jarred on homebrew robesperov. That is why universal destruction of clergy, monashestvujushchih and tserkovno active laymen, and also closing and destruction of temples and monasteries for many years made a policy of the Soviet state concerning Church. But even in such inhuman conditions the Most holy Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia Tihon, the Sacred Synod and the Higher Church Advice considered as the priority to find possibility for traditional ability to live of archdioceses of our Church both in the country, and in found independence of Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Estonia, and also in diaspora.
it is unconditional, terrible persecutions on the Church, occurring in the Soviet Russia, and then - since December, 1922 - in Soviet Union, motivated heads of the new sovereign states to efforts on isolation of the archdioceses which were in them of Russian Orthodox Church from canonical spiritual and an administrative centre in Moscow. The western politicians did everything to strengthen this tendency and to make the new created independent republics original a sanitary cordon on a way of communistic ideology. In such conditions also it was possible to start out independent adult life to my father, Michael Aleksandrovichu Ridigeru, and my lovely mother, Elena Iosifovne Pisarevoj. Active spiritual life has not simply reduced them together, but also in the further life has helped to overcome all temporal tests and a hardship.
- you have told spiritual, in addition active life... Who managed to adjust it in Estonian republic in which nape Bolsheviks breathed?
- Let`s glance in history. On May, 19th, 1919 the Constituent assembly of Estonia has intoned education of Estonian republic. On February, 2nd, 1920 RSFSR and Estonian republic have concluded the peace treaty, have defined Soviet - Estonian border and have established diplomatic relations. The Soviet party has passed Estonia primordially Russian part of the Pskov province with Pskovo located here - the Pechersky monastery. This decision of the Soviet government has been dictated by the different reasons among which, undoubtedly, there was a desire to put a barrier to religious influence of one of the most ancient and deeply honoured Russian orthodox mansions. In May of the same year Estonian Orthodox church has been recognised by independent. The most holy Patriarch Tihon has received the invitation to visit Tallinn (Revel) and to take part in an organizational Cathedral and ordaining of the first arch-flamen of the new founded Revelsky archdiocese. The most holy Patriarch was converted in VCHK with the request to resolve to it a trip to Tallinn, but has received the negative answer of Confidential department signed by Latsisa. However, eagerness of security officers could not prevent election of the priest of the Preobrazhenskiy temple in Pjarnu Alexander Paulusa episkopom Revelsky and Estonian the Independent Orthodox church in Estonia (APTSE). The most holy Patriarch Tihon is election has confirmed, and then has erected novopostavlennnogo diocesan Alexander in a dignity of an archbishop. Thus, the Orthodox church autonomy in Estonia has been carried out owing to internal and external circumstances and Svjashchennonachaliem of Russian Orthodox Church on the unconditional canonical basis is generated. It has allowed the Orthodox church in Estonia without damage to high-grade ability to live to have necessary communication with Svjashchennonachaliem of Mother - Churches in Moscow, and in force majeure independently to continue ministering so much time, how much it is required. Gradually it could restore all parties of church life: diocesan, parish and monastic life to develop spiritual education and theological education, philanthropy and mercy ministering.
the exclusive place was occupied with monasteries - the major spiritual centres. They supported in souls of the people who were flown down in their fertile fencing, that saving belief without which, on a word of the Apostle, to please God it is impossible (Evr. 11,6). During this period under the authority of APTSE there were such pearls of Orthodoxy, as one of ancient Russian mansions - Pskovo - the Pechersky Uspensky man`s monastery (based in 1473), the Pjuhtitsky Uspensky female monastery (based in 1891), the Iversky female community in Narva. Many ecclesiastics of the Independent Estonian Orthodox church and pious laymen visited the sacred mansions of Russian Orthodox Church located in archdioceses of the western part of the former Russian empire: Riga Piously - the Troitsk female monastery (based in 1891), Vilensky Piously - Spirits a man`s monastery (based in 1597) and Pochaevsky Uspensky monastery (based in 1240). But the greatest confluence of pilgrims from Estonia annually occurred on June, 28th/ on July, 11th, in day of memory of founders Valaam Piously - the Preobrazhenskiy man`s monastery (XII century) venerable miracle men of Sergija and Herman. The Lord judged to me in the childhood together with parents twice to visit this mansion which spiritual influence has in many respects predetermined my further course of life - more in detail about it I will tell a bit later.
as you can see, spiritual life orthodox in Estonia including those who has appeared here in emigration, became prime pastoral care of the Independent Orthodox church. It was baked about marriage and a family, about religious education of children, opened in consciousness pasomyh essence of matrimonial and family ministering in marriage, which, by a word of the Apostle, is great secret under the relation to the Christ and Church (see:Ετ. 5,32).
Activity of Church in life of Russian dispersion those years was so great, what even surpassed pre-revolutionary Russian, house level. The special attention was given to youth.
religious spring of Russian emigration
- the Twentieth years of the XX-th century is a youth of your parents. Time of romantic moods and aspirations of soul, a special spiritual spirit!. Why the church became for them the Universe centre ? Than you can explain its huge influence on behaviour and youth education?
- At the very beginning of 1920 - h years in Baltic, in the progressive student`s environment, religious mugs began to arise. They also have put a basis of Russian Student`s Christian Movement (RSHD). The outstanding father confessor and the ecclesiast protopope Sergy Chetverikov supervised over it. He fairly considered that this movement had a fertile field in Russia and was expression Deep internal requirement of young soul to find in itself the firmest religious basis for reasonable and intelligent life . In circles of Russian student`s youth outside of the Soviet Russia the pressing forward amplified to learn and acquire the Christ`s doctrine, is religious to comprehend Russian validity, its past and the present, to take up responsibility for destiny of Russian culture and Church. Very precisely, remembering those years and the participation in RSHD, an archbishop the Dignity - Frantsissky John (Shahovsky) has characterised a situation: that indelible period for it was in the religious spring of Russian emigration its best answer on everything that occurred at that time to Church in Russia. The church for Russian exiles has ceased to be something external, reminding only last. The church was and became sense and the purpose of everything, the life centre .
Russian orthodox people willingly participated in actions RSHD. Among them there were also my future parents. Later, already after my birth, to the father even has had the luck to become the delegate of fifth congress RSHD who in July, 1932 has taken place in the Pjuhtitsky Uspensky monastery. This mansion became one of the centres of pilgrimage of participants of movement and hospitably accepted in 1930 and 1932 summer congresses. In 1934 on the basis of the student`s there was a Christian movement of country youth. There was it in the Pechora area and Narva, and a year later, besides in the Pjuhtitsky monastery, participants of this movement have spent the congress. In April, 1931 RSHD has created in Riga and Narva scout the Team of heroes for boys. Orthodox girls were united by movement Druzhinnitsy .
But as soon as spiritual and mental potential RSHD has reached the certain, rather appreciable heights in a society, its activity began to call displeasure of the authorities in power which representatives in the overwhelming majority belonged to Lutheran confession. Have begun, as usual in such cases, all persecutions and afflictings. And then and at all activity of Russian Student`s Christian Movement has been stopped: in 1934 in Latvia and in 1940 - in Estonia. And with an establishment in Baltic the Soviet power against heads and participants RSHD anything intelligible not well-founded reprisals on a broader scale have begun! On April, 25th, 1941 on a military court sentence in Leningrad founders RSHD Ivan Arkadevich Lagovsky, Tatyana Evgenevna Dezen and Nikolay Nikolaevich Penkin have been shot. Only on August, 6th, 1990 these Christian martyrs have been rehabilitated. The magnificent organizer of L was lost in Stalin camp. D. Shumakov, and tireless active worker T. P.Lugovsky - Milyutin only for the adherence to RSHD has spent behind a barbed wire and in the link of 13 tormenting years!. Reprisals proceeded and during the military period in territory of the USSR, behind a front line, and then and in the Baltic republics released from Hitlerite invaders. Orthodoxies much of adherents have martyrly finished the mortal life in prisons and concentration camps.
to play church I could for days on end
- your parents bitter this bowl passed. How you consider, why?
- God stored. In 1926 in Tallinn my future father was combined by a legal marriage with my future mum - Elena Iosifovnoj Pisarevoj, the native of Revel (Tallinn). It was the daughter of the colonel of the White Army shot by Bolsheviks near Petrograd during civil war. So also the Lord did not judge this grandfather to me to see...
I the unique son at parents. Till my birth there was a case which in our family always was regarded not differently, as Promysla Bozhija display. Mum, already on snosjah, has gathered in a country trip by the bus, but was late and when has approached on landing, sedentary places have not appeared. She asked to go standing, but to it have not resolved. As did not beg the driver, that is in any. Was upset to tears. And has then learnt a terrible message: the bus in which it could not take the place, has got to a severe accident, has turned over, and all passengers were lost. Here still why in epiphany to me have named in honour of Alex, person Bozhija.
we had very much an united family which united not only consanguinity bonds, but also warm sincere friendship. And still we were connected by special spirit of orthodox churchism when life is inseparable from a temple of Bozhija and the family truly becomes, speaking to words of apostle Paul, house church . By nine years I knew the Liturgy by heart.
- That - that your parents rejoiced!
- have been more likely puzzled by so fast my growing and it is obvious beyond the years the serious relation to Church. Parents even were converted to Valaam aged men about it. Those have responded: If it is serious, do not interfere .
- And such, it is exclusive the adult the boy you have spent all childhood? Without impetuous mischief, inexplicable pranks, without pleasures from a frozen or well-aimed shot from a slingshot? Really never even little girls plaits pulled?
- I went To a kindergarten, at school studied - all it was. Happened, and plaits pulled little girls, and hid dolls from younger little sisters: cousin and three times removed. Then together them found, laughed. And here as to a slingshot... Never in the life neither from what in anybody did not aim, and especially did not shoot. And here bread cleaned, a potato hilled, in wood behind mushrooms ran. Was fond of motorcycle races later. But the motorcycle was to our family not under the budget, therefore itself did not drive, but hazardously was ill on the well-known Tallinn line. Still was engaged in rowing, even the category has received youthful in a sport society Kalev ... Liked to play chess: someone beat, and someone me. Losses concerned easy, to victories it is joyful. The normal childhood with all accompanying this wonderful period of human life attributes.
- and how football? Really a ball never drove and were not fond of hazardous man`s game at least as the spectator?
- to Become the football player to me it was not fated. A ball, of course, drove with children - at school. As everything, without special claims on star the future. Besides I in the childhood was ill often quinsy, it has given complication on heart so especially you will not run about... At more mature age me it was possible to name, perhaps, any time the sports fan. But I am more than football hockey respected. And - figure skating. Beautifully! Both sports, and art... I remember it with special pleasure. But all gradually departs, to a huge regret. Today to watch ruthless hockey fights or, say, having forgotten about everything, to admire enchanting skill of figure skaters to me simply lack of time. In other book simply it would be desirable to glance, instead of that to read up to the end - but even it no means always turns out! A bale of papers, a mount of documents - here indispensable mine homework after the working day. From working residence in the Pure lane this a heap of affairs - differently you will not name! - follows with me to Peredelkino where I live, and is more correct, I spend the night. Those who did not manage to make it during the day more close by midnight start to dial. At all has put urgent, important, demanding participations and frequently the immediate decision. And you speak - football...
- and all - taki in the childhood you had any favourite game?
- In a tiny extension near our house I managed to equip a certain similarity of church. Anyway, precisely it seemed to me that it the house God`s and any lightness in relation to the invention I did not recognise. Even the icon there was at me - almost present. Candles burnt, as an incense smelt... There was also an altar which the passion as wanted to see at least with half an eye my cousin Elena. However to make it I to it to allow could not in any way - to persons of a female it is not necessary to come into an altar. Unique possibility is to be arranged in church with the cleaner... The little sister was ready on everything, and I had to employ it. So played. To minister church or nearly so church service - here, perhaps, most favourite my employment in a childhood. To play in church I could for days on end! There were at me apparelings, mum has helped me to make of the old dresses them. I knew service by heart since seven years.
me learnt to see in people the kind beginning
- the step to a monkhood became how much difficult for you? A leah there were doubts?
is there was a realised choice. I understood, on what I doom myself: will be at me never neither families, nor children, but also realised, for the sake of what I refuse this greatest terrestrial pleasure. It is possible to refuse love to one person and to those who is born as a fruit of this love. But to make it it is possible only for the sake of another, still bolshej for love - love for God, for the sake of calling, for the sake of possibility entirely to devote itself to ministering to all people.
- and your parents did not mind? After all you dreamt, likely, of grandsons, the unique son!
- Me with my parents has fantastically carried: they always understood me. I already said that my father since childhood dreamt of church ministering. And The Lord has helped it with it though has conducted through severe tests. And the Orthodox church has helped it to find composure. The father became at once the active participant of parish life. Its belief and pressing forward were divided completely also by my mum, Elena Iosifovna, orthodox hristianka.
- As it was fated to be carried out to the main dream of Michael Aleksandrovicha?
- In 1938 protopope John Bogojavlensky has organised in Tallinn bogoslovsko - pastoral courses with teaching in Russian. Then it was possible to my father to carry out the youthful dream: It has arrived on doctrinal courses and, is safe them having ended in 1940, has been imposed in the deacon - ministered in a temple of Prelate Nikolay where priest Alexander Kiselyov was the prior. There and then and I served. In two years of the father have imposed in the presbyter. And since then, since November, 1946, till day of the demise - on May, 9th, 1962 my father, Michael Aleksandrovich, ministered the prior Tallinn Christmases of the Deipara of the Kazan church, consisted a member and even the chairman of Diocesan advice.
here, me it seems, it will be pertinent to stop more in detail on the person of father John Bogojavlensky - future Preosvjashchennogo of diocesan Isidora who has made the big spiritual impact not only on my parents, but also on me, during that time the simple boy. This outstanding figure of the Orthodox church became my confessor.
- allow to take an interest, and why it?
- On that there was a will of Gospodnja!. It was the most worthy person of time. Lord Isidor, in the world - John Jakovlevich Bogojavlensky, was born in 1879 in a family of the psalm reader of Kursk archdiocese. Studied in the Theological seminary, and in 1904 has ended Sankt - the Petersburg Spiritual academy under the first category with degree of the candidate of divinity. By the way, in Academy he studied together with the big brother the Demetrios who has become in due course by a metropolitan to Vilensky and Lithuanian Elevferiem. Has accepted a sacred dignity and has been certain by the tutor in Sankt - Petersburg Aleksandro - the Neva Spiritual school. Then passed pastoral ministering in Jamburge, Kronstadt, Gatchina and, certainly, Tallinn. Long time was the chairman of the Tallinn Diocesan advice. In prerevolutionary years fruitfully participated in creation the Doctrinal orthodox encyclopaedia and in the thirties in Estonia edited the popular magazine the Orthodox interlocutor . Protopope John Bogojavlensky ministered the prior of Tallinn Aleksandro - the Neva cathedral church. Then became the rector of the Leningrad Spiritual academy and seminary. In 1946 has become a widow/widower. In June, 1947 has accepted a monkhood with a name of Isidor and has occupied a bishop`s throne Tallinn and Estonian. In a temple of father John Bogojavlensky I have started to serve with six-year age. The protopope became my confessor. It, as well as my parents, learnt menja to the main thing: to see in people first of all the kind beginning.
therefore in the childhood I, how much remember myself, dreamt of one: as soon as I will grow, I will by all means follow to examples of the fathers - native and spiritual, and first of all I will enter church educational institution. However in July, 1940, with accession in Estonia the Soviet power, all spiritual educational institutions of Estonian Orthodox church have been closed, and other life has begun.
- it is worse, better?
- I already said that the Lord pardoned our family from the Soviet reprisals. After all as soon as in Estonia there was a Soviet power, at the same o`clock local residents - both radical, and emigrants - have for a long time lost rest and composure. Arrests, unreliable, from the point of view of Bolsheviks have begun, families at the best were moved to Siberia. Our family as a family of the ecclesiastic, the same sad fate expected. But here to us there have arrived relatives of the father. At that time we lived in suburb of Tallinn, in a place of Nymme - in the small wooden two-storeyed house, buried in verdure branchy trees. In a garden shade the shed has still hidden, in appearance absolutely unsightly, but there there was a room with which parents have equipped under quite tolerable habitation, and small zakutok where I played church. We have placed visitors in the house, and one have lodged in a shed, yes not, and with the two dogs. Once at night only have fallen asleep, suddenly we hear - someone goes on a garden. In the house light, loud unfamiliar voices, at gate therefrom reach the motor of the military car, in the street, hums. It became clear: it for us. What to do? Have hidden also half-whisper began to pray. Dogs eyes sparkle, but too are silent, so never and have not given a yelp, though fidgets known... Beams of lanterns long rummaged on trees, have some times slipped on our refuge while, at last, all has calmed down. Soldiers have left with what, and our family since then and before German occupation in 1941 more did not live in the house, only in a shed.
the first temple, as the first love!.
- than to you the temple, which threshold you was remembered, your Svjatejshestvo, have transpassed for the first time in the life?
- Parents, and with them and I, were earnest church-goers of Tallinn Aleksandro - the Neva cathedral church. It also became for me the temple first in my life. I test the most gentle, stirring feelings to it till now. After all it is so much events - both joyful, and sad, it is connected at me with it.
the cathedral History is distressful and merits a separate narration. The matter is that many years life of Estonian Orthodox church were complicated by the process connected with Aleksandro - the Neva cathedral. It have started to erect in Revel in the end of a XIX-th century at the initiative of the prior of the Preobrazhenskiy cathedral of protopope Karpa Tizika, the Estonian on a nationality, and with support the general - governor Estljandii of prince Sergey Vladimirovicha Shahovsky. Ten thousand Russian people across all Russian empire have responded to their proclamation in which, in particular, it was told: Orthodox! Your brothers on the belief, living on Baltic sea, in the city of Revel, send you from this suburb of the Earth Russian greetings and ask from you the brotherly help. Help us to make sacred business - to construct in the city of Revel a cathedral temple for the sake of sacred blagovernogo prince Alexander Nevsky... to make it followed because ... A leah from the sea, from a land, whence will approach, you do not learn Russian city: there are high towers, it is a lot of ostroverhih beautiful campaniles, but it is all inovercheskie Lutheran kirhi. Not to see a cross orthodox, not to hear a ring Sunday... The project of a cathedral temple was developed by the professor of Academy of Arts the architect - the academician Michael Timofeevich Preobrazhenskiy. Building cost under the project was defined in 400 000 roubles. By September, 15th, 1899 434 623 roubles of 29 copecks have been collected offerings. A temple have erected and have consecrated in 1900. It became at once true pride orthodox this edge, was fine entered in mrachnovatyj a landscape of a Baltic city, became its solar pleasure... But here years of dissipation spiritual have come. In 1918, right after intonings of Estonian republic, campaign for cathedral liquidation has begun. The nationalist newspaper Vaba maa declared among the population fund raising for destruction chasoven Russian time, a monument to Peter and church with gold bulbs - Aleksandro - the Neva orthodox temple. In the reference about it an archbishop Tallinn and Estonian Alexander (Paulus) wrote: We cannot pass by this extreme hatred which is shown in a campaign against Orthodoxy. Speak about Russian yoke which is reminded by these chapels and a cathedral. We ask openly: how these buildings and this belief remind a yoke, than the numerous German churches which have arisen during slavery, with the strange arms and other signs on the German power and even tools of tortures which for Estonians should be much more painfull on memoirs more? If want to be consecutive, it is necessary to begin fund raising for destruction and these German monuments... As among adults, on - visible, destroyers of church do not suffice, some Estonian teachers as we heard, collected means for destruction of Russian church among pupils. We should declare the protest against this barbarous and spiteful tone in all this business .
In one of the magazines devoted to architecture, there was article experts : This church from here, with Vyshgoroda, dominates over all Tallinn, but with the peculiar feeling of bad manners inherent in Russia, this monument with a general view of an old city is not in harmony, it has got here as though quite another thing. As the symbol of arrogance and violence the on - east an alien, motley and shouting kind, it was not only for German barons, but also now is for our independence as though live memory of last slavish times . Further the plan of reorganisation of Vyshgoroda was stated and the project " has been placed; freedom Church. An independence pantheon architect Charles Burmana. Finished the publication a photomontage of a city kind with the signature: an independence Pantheon on Toompea instead of present Russian church . This construction - instead of a cathedral dome a peaked spike - according to nationalist adjusted journalists - architects, on - visible, should symbolise Estonian independence. But from - for absence at the government of means for a pulling down of a cathedral and its subsequent reorganisation, and also as a result of protests from orthodox Estonians and Russian the nationalist campaign against Aleksandro - the Neva cathedral has been temporarily stopped. However without sad losses all - taki has not managed. Unfortunately, the authorities managed to destroy two orthodox churches and to take down a monument to Peter the Great.
it would be possible to count it as the inevitable compromise, and a problem settled up to the end. Only in 1928 a new typhoon of furious attacks to Aleksandro - the Neva cathedral hardly has not shaken its mighty basis. Some members of parliament from government coalition parties have put forward for discussion the bill on a pulling down of Aleksandro - the Neva cathedral as monument of Russian violence. In their opinion, Russian government, authorising for construction of this cathedral, pursued first of all it is state - political ends. All respectable newspapers have begun again furious resolute propaganda for a cathedral pulling down. Many zealots - lutherans have declared that the orthodox cathedral offends religious and national feelings of the majority of the population. As an example resulted Poland where nationalists - Poles have taken down Russian cathedral in Warsaw, especially underlining, what even world community protests have not helped.
the call is thrown. The world community offended by monstrous ignorance of the Polish nationalists, has sounded the alarm. On the party of orthodox believers of Estonia unanimously there were delegates of conference of the International union of the world and friendship which just passed at this time in Tartu. In the resolution conference has declared: We feel a deep pain that Estonian majority wants to sacrifice religious feelings of minority owing to the aesthetic and nationalist feelings. Conference is seriously disturbed that this step will cause a damage to world coexistence of the various nations and confessions in Estonia and precedent which in the future can dangerously be reflected in the world " is created;. After such solid support on the party of opponents of nationalist madness of a steel and some politicians of Estonia, representatives of the left opposition parties in parliament. For cathedral preservation many pastors Estonian evangelichesko - Lutheran Church, and also the Lutheran public were voiced also. Detached onlookers have suddenly started to notice that Aleksandro - the Neva cathedral constructed in Old Russian style, and the Lutheran Gothic cathedral located nearby, make a uniform architectural ensemble. Struggle for a cathedral became property of the foreign press, and to Estonian nationalists not pozdorovilos. Receding, they have achieved, however, removal of gilding from cathedral domes, as has been made in 1936. And gold there it has appeared much - it was put on domes in seven layers.
Estonian Svjashchennonachalie has confirmed the status of Aleksandro - the Neva cathedral as cathedral. However I with parents had to leave a cathedral. There was it because in a cathedral have translated orthodox ward from Simeonovsky church - there the service was conducted in Estonian language. The prior have appointed protopope Nikolay Pjatsa, the brother of the president of Estonian republic. In turn, Russian ward has been moved to Simeonovsky church of Tallinn. There worship services were spent in Russian, and we with parents have followed there. So the long-term conflict which has arisen because of national intolerance, opposite to the spirit of Christianity has come to the end. However, and the further destiny of a cathedral it is impossible to name serene, and my life is connected with it closely. But I will tell about it, probably, later.
Valaam naselnikov I hear Voices till now...
- your Svjatejshestvo, you could share with us the brightest memoirs of your childhood?
- it is a lot of Memoirs. Unless it is possible to forget acquaintance to the first religious book? Till now I remember a smell of its pages... The Gospels were this book. In 1936 such precious gift to me was made by the grandmother. Has inscribed: Aleshe. The book for reading and edification . That first religious book at me was saved till now.
our trips on monasteries were fine remembered. The matter is that my parents, annually making pilgrimage in Pjuhtitsky Piously - Uspensky female and Pskovo - Pechersky Piously - Uspensky man`s monasteries, immutably took me with themselves. In the end of 1930 - h years we have twice visited Spaso - the Preobrazhenskiy Valaam man`s monastery on Ladoga lake.
- forgive, at that time it there was a territory of Estonia or Russia, that is Soviet Union?
- Valaam then belonged to Finland, thank God. Who would start up us free from bourgeois Estonia to Soviet Union?
- probably, difficultly reached Valaam - a way - that remote?
is had no value. Such pilgrimage were organised in orthodox circle of emigrants annually. The way to Valaam already called delight. Went so: at first by train by rail to Vyborg which then Vippuri was called, then changed to Sortavala, and there already sat down on a monastic steamship and floated across Ladoga lake. I remember that behind a steering wheel always there was a Valaam friar in a black appareling and as it confidently conducted our vessel on at times not so tender waves. Road uneasy, but anybody from us why - that was not tired. When descended on coast the feelings covering us, deprived for any time of a speech power.
the Ancient mansion from it yet not destroyed then traditions of monastic life, the architecture of a monastery and monasteries, namolennost temples, not striking, tremendous depth the North country nature have made on me, nine - and the ten years` boy indelible and till this day impression. Meetings with duhonosnymi aged men and naselnikami mansions were remembered, their openness, availability to each pilgrim, any special keenness - all it amazed. In many respects visitations of the Valaam monastery also have defined my further course of life.
- It is said that about Valaam you are capable to talk for hours. It is truth?
- Truth. Want to check up?
- we really would like to learn more about so lovely your heart places.
- According to the legend, these islands in severo - the western part of Ladoga lake, covered in dostoslavnye times dense maloprohodimymi woods, were blest a sacred cross by apostle Andrey Pervozvannyj. Since the old days the severe nature was poor material benefits so passionate fans of terrestrial pleasures to do here, in general - that, there is nothing. Weak in spirit, undoubtedly, frighten storms which are quite often played in these edges. Century trees break, as if matches, multimeter waves with a roar rush on coast, biting into a granite: they are capable to carry in shchepy any zazevavsheesja a vessel. It is not enough meadows, it is few arable land, and that that is available, formed of the disappeared granite, therefore till recent times was poor and unproductive. It would Seem, to live in these wild edges unnaturally - character of the nature is painfully uncompromising. But here a miracle: It is necessary to plunge only into bewitching atmosphere of Valaam, to absorb in itself the first pictures of amazing greatness as in a shower the awesomeness before the Founder clears up. For heart feeling here unique grace! World vanity practically is not audible. The eye does not carry away all baits, they are directed only to God; ears in shrill silence which immutably shrouds islands after a storm, are adjusted on a thin internal tuning fork of conscience. For contemplative monastic life of the best place it is difficult to find.
- sacred apostle Andrey Pervozvannyj has blest Valaam. But that is known about trailblazers of this edge, about founders deserted life on mounts Valaam ? During what times the Lord has directed them to these pleasing to God places?
- venerable Sergy and Herman became Founders of deserted life in Valaam. They were abbots and educators of the neighbouring country - the Finnish Kareliya and Olonetsky edge. Unfortunately, precisely to define date when conducted the selfless life venerable, till now it is impossible. On - visible, it is second half X centuries, times rather close to occurrence in Russia Christianities. The matter is that lives svjashchennoinokov - educators or were lost in a flame of frequent monastic fires, or have got lost in libraries of other monasteries. There them could deliver Valaam inoki to which could escape after numerous attacks of the Swedish conquerors. After all in XII, XIII and XIV centuries there were cruel wars of Russian with Swedes for Kareliya . After military failures Swedes were especially ruthless to orthodox ascetics. Monastic kushchi were ruined completely, the aggressors blinded by animal hatred killed all people on the spot. One that friars were Russian was considered as heavy fault already.
Happened at times and surprising incidents. So, for example, in 1371 the Swedish king by name of Magnus wared against Russian. Its ships already approached to islands when on Ladoga lake the killing storm was played. Vessels have been broken, all Swedish army to last soldier, except the king was lost! Death grip it has seized a ship board and at will of the Lord has been thrown out on the vergetnyj coast. Friars have picked up it and left. Touched ventsenosets on pleasures has accepted sacred shimu and under a new name Grigory has joined the Orthodox church. However, in three days it has prevailed against hvor, and the former king who has become shimonahom, has died.
- and shimu here the fair I will conceive, to thy stops, the sacred father, pripadshi . Happens in accuracy, as at Pushkin!
- With a difference what Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin created many centuries after that curious - isn`t that so? - Incidents.
legends - our most expensive treasure. Giving thanks to it, we know that venerable Sergy has appeared the first in Valaam. There was it completely not casually. The passionate ecclesiast of the doctrine Christ`s was reached by a message that the Valaam archipelago was chosen by pagan deities and their sacrificers, and special inflexibility is shown local prophetic old men . Venerable Sergy also has decided to talk to them - about belief and the Lord. Has plunged into a fragile boat and, having disdained dangers of uneasy lake, without giving in to fear to accept death from furious pagans, has floated to rocky coast. It was one and had no weapon. In its arsenal were only a sacred cross yes a word of Bozhie. The impregnable reservation of truth protected the friar from rough and wild pagans . The special impression on nehristej has made that True God should bring a bloodless victim. Other spiritual opening which have inspired again converted have followed also. Venerable Sergy lived in the rocky cave chosen by it, persistent educational work conquering bottomless gloom of paganism. Soon it had adherents - so there was a first monastic brotherhood in Valaam. Joint efforts they have built a small temple in honour of Spasa of Transfiguration. Venerable Sergy had a dignity of the presbyter, it and became the first confessor of Valaam.
- And what venerable Herman, what its role in victory Christ`s over paganism?
- the Second well-known man of faith, venerable Herman, has arrived to Valaam in the end of life of venerable Sergija. Excessive works, ascetic exploits, fasts and vigils have exhausted a body of the sacred. And advanced years prevailed. Thinking of transition in eternity, it has attended to search of the worthy shepherd for new converted valaamtsev. Then the Lord on venerable Herman`s severe archipelago has sent. Both presbyters quickly have converged - the uniform belief and passionate desire to create a great cause of a christian message Christ`s for ever have connected their thoughts and hearts. After just demise of venerable Sergija venerable Herman has headed a monastic brotherhood in Valaam. The new temple has been built, is more majestic former, to all friars new cells are defined, the strict daily routine and rules of a hostel which are piously saved and on the present is got.
- Monastic life for the majority uninitiated is full of secrets and riddles. Understanding that not all they can be opened, we are converted to you with the request: slightly open, please, though a few curtain and tell us some secrets of monastic life.
- And no special secrets in monastic life are present. The main thing for inokov is much and with inspiration to work, combining prayful exploit with physical work. Anybody in a mansion has no property. If has come to a monastery with any prosperity under the law of a brotherly hostel all it is in full passed to social needs, in a so-called general copper. All shares on all. And not only material, but also all works, prayers, vigils. After a short dream friars meet morning light in a temple behind the general prayer. After that divide a poor meal and for work: almost all everyday needs are executed by own hands. Who is engaged in an arable land and kitchen gardens who prepares fire wood, others bake bread, prepare foods. Among friars it is a lot of workmen: they regularly sew clothes and footwear, slesarjat and stoljarjat, there are builders, house painters, architects. Others are engaged in an iconography, sing on a kliros. Light day comes to an end with the general prayer. Worship service is made with exact observance of the church charter: here and perfect reverent reading, and harmonous prayful singing, and a warm wrestling with God. Silent days of sacred fasts and celebratory celebrations are executed by the unique shades of spiritual pleasure. But the most important thing is a prayer. The Lord has awarded us with great gift - possibility to make a prayer. It has no borders, does not know distances, it strengthens and supports each of us. And each other we should bear burdens, helping and facilitating each other execution of a vital cross, praying about each other to the Lord, Prechistoj Bozhiej of Mother and to saints. In it everyone should see for itself(himself) possibility of spiritual strengthening - on Church prayers, on prayers of a mansion and on prayers of those who makes here the monastic exploit. All it also makes an essence of monastic life.
- here still speak: when in Rome do as the Romans do. Without pressing in an instructive essence, a leah it is necessary to understand it as presence behind walls of each monastery of the features of life?
- There are also features, how without them? For example, for Valaam self-sacrifice ministering " is characteristic; with advice . It means that each friar here lives and ministers to the Lord under the direction of the skilled trainer - the aged man. Life with advice it is established for all friars because it results in rescue. Such life means strict execution of a vow of obedience and, under the doctrine of an abba of Varsanofija, is made a martyrdom.
- it is difficult to become the postulant of the Valaam mansion?
- Wishing to enter a monastery should receive blessing of the prior. Having received this, it should pass the property to preservation in a monastery. Then it apparel in monastic clothes, and absolutely new life begins. One of aged men is appointed the trainer - the head of the beginner. From this point on the postulant is obliged to submit to it implicitly, on all questions of the new life consulting only on it. The aged man defines again converted different feasible obedience and strictly watches their execution. Hardness of intentions of the beginner, its strength of mind, patience, courage thereby is tested. All associates of the brother in a mansion constantly remind it of the Lord and about the receipt purpose in a monastery. From friars he hears salution: Escape, the brother! which raises in it sacred jealousy - with it it has approached for the first time to a gate monastic. And exclamations at meetings: the Christ in the middle of us! - Also is and will be! - spill in heart of the beginner fertile comfort, reminding of presence between men of faith of the Lord of glory. In its meal nazidaet reading of hagiographas svjatootecheskih, and greatness of church service touches to tears. Thus, comprehending sacred beauty of monastic life, he starts to understand, however immensely and the distance between Divine spiritual life and vain temporal emptiness is insuperable. And in the receipt in a monastery eventually clearly sees the greatest favour which the Lord has poured out on it from shchedrot To the.
- who from naselnikov the Valaam mansion has made upon you the greatest impression at the time of your first visitations? A leah were among them such from whom you wanted to do own life?
- Certainly, there were such people with whom the Lord has sent me kind meetings.
- and you remember till now their names?
- Not only names, but also voices at times as it seems to me, I hear!. The special severity of monastic life allocated Ioanno - Predtechensky a monastery. Me and parents on veselnoj to a boat shiigumen John there has brought. Great there was a father confessor!. In the middle of a dense fir grove there was a timbered log hut in which shiigumen lived all alone. Itself cultivated a kitchen garden, baked bread, and all rest of the time incessantly prayed. All the day long we have spent together, communicating with this remarkable aged man. He told to us about salutariness of a prayer warm... Around there was the absolute silence, appear, the whole world has calmed down, listening to words of a simple Valaam wise man.
some times I could happen in Smolensk to a monastery. There bore the exploit ieroshimonah Efrem. It daily made the Divine liturgy, by all means remembering warriors, ubiennyh on the battlefield. It has been called by that the Smolensk monastery was under construction specially for ministering for pomin immortal souls of all heroes who have fallen by death for belief, the tsar and Fatherland of Russian soldiers. The idea of a construction was put forward by the commander-in-chief Russian Army Grand duke Nikolay Nikolaevich during the First World War. He has suggested to erect a mansion where twelve aged men - ascetics would lodge in Valaam, would read day and night Psaltir, remembering the lost heroes. This thought have divided with it and other noblemen of Russia. Have collected means for an embodiment in life of a good idea, and in 1915 have directed to Valaam the father confessor of the Grand duke. Hieromonk George who has become in a consequence ieroshimonahom by Efremom was it at that time. Before revolution it was possible to erect a temple and a cell. As on bolshee means have not sufficed, in a monastery one father Efrem has lodged. It also made here since then daily worship services under the full monastic charter. Certainly, it was the surprising man of faith. Its self-denying exploit shook to tears... By the way, ieroshimonah told that when it was the boy with the sister played church: itself was the priest, and the sister played a role of the acolyte. Having heard about it, my parents about my just the same hobby have obviously calmed down.
and how it is possible to forget shimonaha Nikolay, always the smiling thin aged man with a small beard, which podvizalsja in Konevsky to a monastery? Every time this mild affable pustynnozhitel met us a smoking samovar and what dushespasitelnye conversations were thus conducted!. Showed the wooden church, the dwelling - Russian izba on the bank of mirror lake. Again and again we drank tea. The ascetic offered still a cup so it is tender, unostentatious what to refuse it was not possible in any way... He spoke a little, liked to listen more. But if will insert a word - not to forget already never. to Pray - that is easy, and to love all more difficultly - its words.
I remember the abbot to the Onion, by sight very severe, but the sincere shepherd. It was monastic gostinikom. High, thin, in white podrjasnike with a black velvet belt very solemnly gave out keys to the pilgrims who have arrived on island and tourists. Settled us in a cosy cell, by all means visited, being interested, a leah with all are happy. When it had time, sat down a table and slowly told about monastic life.
I remember loveful hieromonk Pamvu. Always and all this hospitable naselnik was ready to do a favour immediately, answered any question - awareness possessed amazing and ingenuity excellent. The best kelejnika, told, in Valaam was then not to find. Coming to Tallinn, came to see our family: something we to it have especially attracted...
but simple friar Iuvian - the main collector and the keeper of history of Valaam men of faith has most close accepted me in the heart. The registrar of a monastery on the basic obedience, father Iuvian managed on island also water measured and meteorological observations which spent throughout many years with the big carefulness, well understanding that they call immutable interest of the scientific world. With the sensitive sincere friar at us very touching friendship, and then correspondence was fastened. Both at meetings on island, and in written dialogue with me, as a matter of fact, the boy, the friar behaved absolutely as equals. Father Iuvian became the Valaam friar on sacred just John Kronshtadsky`s blessing - the good angel of Russia - and told to me about the great shepherd much. The letters of father Iuviana full of touching care and good, are stored till now in my personal archive. Dialogue with Valaam naselnikami, undoubtedly, has strengthened my spiritual life.
- childhood springs the purest and attractable, a leah not so, your Svjatejshestvo? Especially Valaam - a recognised source of Russian spirituality, sanctity. A leah is possible to you to make often pilgrimage on to childhood temples ?
- it is the Extremely rare. At mature age I have visited for the first time the Valaam monastery only in fifty years. The matter is that I still had very sad memoirs after visitation of the closed monasteries situated near Moscow - New Jerusalem and Savvino - Storozhevsky in 1973 - 1974. So it has turned out that I have made trips to these destroyed monasteries after the first heart attack. By miracle with me there was no the second... The show has opened terrible, depressing. But the matter is that also New Jerusalem, and Savvino - Storozhevsky I knew mansions only under descriptions, photos and drawings. And Valaam for me was all live... I remembered it, remembered truly duhonosnuju conventual community and consequently, how much I invited to visit Valaam, I did not go. Could not, understand... Only when there was a real possibility to revive there monastic life then it was not conceived any more so painfullly everything that has been put Valaam both malicious will, and war, and time, I have dared: I will go.
about, marvellous island Valaam!
the hand of Divine destiny
Has erected here paradise mansion,
the Mansion of the higher cleanliness!.
a mansion wonderful, sacred,
Dwelling of the selected people,
the Mansion to heart expensive,
the Mansion of the world from passions.
It is words from a hymn naselnikov the Valaam mansion. They for a long time sink down in soul of any sacred island which have stepped on ancient stones.
You in a victim to God have brought
All cleanliness svjatyja beliefs
And a fruit of sacred work.
Only in 1988 - in a year 1000 - letija epiphanies of Russia - I have made pilgrimage in the glorified mansion and for the first time have served a funeral service on the Igumensky cemetery. TV men have made about it small, but spiritually very strong film. Especially shook such moment: during a funeral service for abbots of the Valaam mansion on the screen the second plan passed photos podvizavshihsja in Valaam abbots and conventual communities of the Valaam monastery. These shots have given the chance to feel continuity between old Valaam ruined and against the will left conventual community, and what needed to be revived. Live communication between them has interrupted with death of last Valaam friar in New Valaam, in Finland. However the confidence was always saved that this communication still can be revived together with a mansion. Those hoped for it also Valaam inoki which left a native monastery and moved to Finland.
- the Renaissance of the Valaam mansion, as far as we know, goes today at full speed.
- Today I head Board of trustees on revival of Spaso - the Preobrazhenskiy Valaam monastery. Among trustees - the plenipotentiary of the President of the Russian Federation in Severo - the Western federal district Victor Cherkesov, the Minister of Economics and developments Herman Gref, abbot Spaso - the Preobrazhenskiy Valaam monastery archimandrite Pankraty, representatives of business and public organisations. All together we should work on this sacred earth, revival of Valaam should become one of key problems of revival of Russian earth.
- forgive, your Svjatejshestvo, but you, could not remind especially young our readers, the reason on which Valaam inoki in the XX-th century have been urged to leave namolennye holy sites?
- After power capture in Russia Bolsheviks in 1917 and the first especially cruel years in the full nonsense of their board all christendom sodrognulsI from the original tragedy which have comprehended Russian Orthodox Church. However, the Valaam mansion first has inexpressibly carried: in December the seventeenth Finland left structure of the former Russian empire grasped by Bolsheviks. Finland very much has found in time independence. Valaam islands have appeared in its territory, and the sacred mansion managed to be avoided a sad fate of the majority of Russian monasteries which have undergone to desecration and barbarous ruin by militant atheists. But the Second World War has begun. Germany has attacked Poland, and in the winter 1939/ 40 years the Finnish war has begun. The Soviet aircraft of the beginning of bombardment of sacred island. Fortunately, temples have not been destroyed. This bloodshed at will of Bozhiej has rather soon ended with peace treaty signing. Here this contract also became for Valaam friars tragedy. Remain they in Valaam, the termination of days in concentration camp would become their fate. And what is it, you represent...
- That you, your Svjatejshestvo! God was merciful...
- And here I could realise really in due time that such human travails. During war my father the priest went often on Hitlerite concentration camps, sometimes and me took with itself. A word of Bozhiim, a prayer he tried to alleviate suffering of the people doomed to destruction. I observed crucifyings of tens, hundreds innocent, and tears dimmed eyes; it was difficult to me to understand, for what the Lord has granted that unfortunate so brutal tests?
- camp Hitlerite and Stalin - twins - brothers?
- In Stalin camp I did not happen, but I think that it one of our kind . Both dictators - generation of a devil. From here and all their absolutely identical acts on a misanthropic essence.
- this subject we, from your permission, will continue a bit later. And now we will return to Valaam... How friars managed to escape from the villain - destinies?
- On all will of Bozhija!. All friars of a mansion - not less than two hundred persons at fierce February night 1940 have gathered! - have received blessing of abbot Haritona, took in hands that could carry away: books, a reliquary of venerable Sergija and Herman Valaamsky, chasubles, icons and, having left a mansion, have stepped into ice of Ladoga lake. The blizzard howled, it was necessary to go on severo - the West - just against a wind. Not all could pass this test... But it is better to find death - for belief, than desecration from atheists. In Finland, in a place with the name of Papien neemi that is translated as popovsky cape the escaped friars managed to form Is new - the Valaam mansion. It has been made according to the advice of the president of the country. But the sign has served its purpose also: in the first house where the friars have entered, the first that they have seen, there was an icon of venerable Sergija and Herman Valaamsky. The conventual community has regarded it as blessing of flatterers of Bozhiih. Unfortunately, when in 1985 I could visit Finland, I any more have not found in live in Is new - the Valaam monastery of anybody from old Valaam. All Valaam conventual community rested on a cemetery. But also in new Valaam which with demise of last old Valaam inoka became really new I have felt possibility preemstva and revival.
- as it is known, memorable event has occurred in the summer of 1992 in Valaam: you, your Svjatejshestvo, have met the first President of Russia Boris Yeltsin. You have demonstrated to the head of the state, and posramleniju temples and monasteries of sacred archipelago have been subjected what monstrous ruin by the power of atheists and vituperators of Church. The president long dejectedly was silent, and then directly on a place of burial of venerable Sergija and Herman has signed the decree according to which the Valaam archipelago admitted The unique natural complex integral from a monastery . Considerable money has been allocated For mansion restoration - 200 million roubles. Since then passed almost decade. A leah Was possible to revive former life in Valaam?
- it was possible to Revive, but before restoration of monastic life in former, full volume while it is far. In August, 1998 we have made great sanctification of a temple of the Prelate and Miracle man Nikolay in Nikolsky to a monastery of Spasa - the Preobrazhenskiy Valaam monastery. It is the first restored temple of archipelago. Its beauty and greatness delights today all pilgrims and, certainly, those who adjusts monastic life in Valaam. Unfortunately, economic difficulties reduce quantity of pilgrims, but the Valaam conventual community adequately bears the prayful and labour exploit. And we hope for their prayers in this holy site consecrated with exploits of venerable Sergija and Herman.
Holy sites are nowadays restored, and we give thanks to the Lord for Its this favour to us. We repeat: Thank God for all - both for troubles, and for pleasures with which the Lord visits us . A leah Well I could, for the first time having visited Valaam more 60 years ago, to assume, what the Lord judges to me, already to the Head of Russian Orthodox Church, to make sanctification of Spaso - the Preobrazhenskiy Valaam temple after its ruin, a devastation and violation of it? But means, there was on that a will of Bozhija!. The Renaissance torn down always excites, pleases and gives courage and force to continue ministering.
restrained inokov a mansion!
a shelter of workers of slaves,
In an inner world the guidebook,
At most enemy a pall! A leah
I can behold a stronghold,
On which you were built?
I can l anthem thy relic
And incur the works?!.
And last stanzas of the legendary hymn which has endured not one century:
Leap mounts of Valaam,
In the shadow of favour of the Creator,
From us praise to It and glory
Yes it will be eternal endlessly!
the Touch soul to a pure spring of Russian sanctity - prechudnomu to island Valaam - became for me to one of the brightest vital impressions.
righteous men and trespassers will be judged by Jesus Christ
- your Svjatejshestvo, explain, please, why many people, Bozhija not knowing fear, feel thus fine? We already spoke about the global crimes connected with world terrorism. But why in our native, orthodox in the overwhelming majority, Russia on - former embezzlement of public funds, larceny prosper mzdoimstvo? After some calm, the criminal act again has blossomed, custom-made murders have become frequent. People are afraid to go out of doors, however and in own dwelling to remain is unsafe: even more often become impudent gangsters rush into apartments where are ready to kill turned up under a hand for a gold ear ring or is simple for a vodka bottle. Also kill!. How to it to prevent? What can make Church?
- Those who does not know fear of Bozhija and maliciously are broken by laws Acceptable and human as, however, and all of us, great assize of Gospoden waits. Then, bears the Sacred Gospels, ... All people will gather before It; also will separate one from others as the shepherd separates sheep from goats... These also will go to a flour eternal, and righteous men in life eternal (Mf. 25. 32, 46).
the Eternal God who has created billions of live beings, has humbly clothed in an image Of the creation, having become similar chelovekam and by the form becoming as the person (Flp. 2,7). It has come to people for ever to relieve them of a sin, damnations and death to give them the eternal and perfect life filled with Its love and grace.
me often ask, why then in the terrestrial world where we live, angrily not only does not disappear, but it is multiplied? Why human defects - enmity, violence, dissociation, greediness, spiritual emptiness - on - former overflow minds and hearts of people? Why even human life in the beginning of III millenary of a Christian epoch is not honoured by many as the greatest charisma, but can be betrayed suddenly to destruction? Words of great Apostle John Bogoslova become the answer let: everyone born from God conquers the world; and this is the victory which has defeated the world, our belief (1Θν. 5,4). The embodiment of Son Bozhija, Christmas has put each person before a solving choice: To live according to will of the Creator, helping It with world transfiguration, or to minister to vile sinful passions, going to spiritual perdition and defiling the God`s earth. For christians obviously that harm is already defeated by the Lord, and only on us depends, how much long it will be in agony. The Church history bears: many sacred life so transfigured a terrestrial reality surrounding them that in it perfect harmony of the Sky was looked through.
- and how to achieve that even before great assize of thieves and murderers in our society became less?
- Not all depends on Church though she in every possible way aspires to confront with harm. After all criminals are not born, and become. Including from - for absence of God in a shower, spiritual experience and theological education. I remember, how - that in the ninetieth year, still during the stay of I wash with a metropolitan Leningrad, I have been invited to visit a colony. Prisoners have collected 18 thousand roubles - considerable money for those times - and have decided to construct a temple. And me asked to consecrate a place of its bookmark. I went, I admit, with some internal trouble because experience of dialogue with similar people at me was not. But all has appeared not so terribly. I have consecrated a mortgage stone, have presented to the future church-goers the Gospels, have answered their questions and at parting promised to consecrate a temple when it will be constructed. Subsequently, after election me the Patriarch, I have received therefrom very warm telegramme. There was a business, even has suspected that the text was made by somebody of Spiritual academy, but is not present, was then found out that prisoners really wrote. And in one and a half year to me have reminded of old my promise: the temple has been built. The word should be held - has postponed all affairs and has gone to consecrate a temple for the people who have violated the law. Has arrived and has not learnt those whom saw only one and a half years ago. Absolutely other persons - spiritualised, live. It were people who already in any degree have learnt a Christian morality. On the Liturgy, after sanctification of a temple I prichastil 72 persons. Probably, someone from them, having released, also has returned on a sin way, but I am to be believed that such it has appeared a little.
During the last years across Russia in jails it is erected almost two hundred orthodox temples and chasoven. In all much of them practically it is made by hands denounced, unless electric bulbs and wires purchased. And there, where while there is no temple, prayful rooms open. Thus, to the people who are temporarily isolated from a society and serving time for criminal activity, it is given the chance to rethink the life, the acts. Before the person with fierce heart the way of spiritual transfiguration, change of and the sinful life, returning to normal existence opens. Each time, meeting the Minister of Justice, I hear from it the same question: When the Church will give us the released priests? that is such which would make the ministering only in camps and prisons. Probably, in some places it would be necessary. But it is not necessary to lock priests in a prison fencing, let even in a voluntary order. The shepherd should be the person from outside, one occurrence to reminding prisoners about existence of the big world and normal human life. It will be better, if our priests combine parish ministering with visitation - if necessary - imprisonment places.
- your Svjatejshestvo, a leah you consider yourselves as the person, capable something to change in this world?
- Understand, without will of Bozhiej does not become anything.
- anything good?
- On a broader scale anything. Therefore, when I hear, how to me speak: you have made much you make history Excessively give itself and etc., I remind words of the Psalmodist: Not to us, not to us, My God, but to Thy name give glory! (Ps. 113,9). All of us we are only executors of that is made at will of Bozhiej. Unless would be possible to revive today in our society orthodox belief if there was no on that a will of Bozhiej - if the Soviet empire with its communistic ideology has not failed?
living in Estonia, my parents read much, tried not to pass any emigrant book. And me as - that the characteristic episode was engraved in the memory - it was discussed by parents: one of White Guard Russian generals, leaving Russia, has called in in wilderness Optinu to last prior to receive blessing on creation abroad, in emigration of a home guard for clearing of Russia. And optinsky the aged man has ostensibly told to it that God will bless its emigration, but all attempts will return by force of arms the former power are useless. However when time will come, all will fail, as poverzhennyj unearthly force a mighty mast timber... Unless someone could assume that a nuclear superstate from it, appear, firm ideology, with the debugged system iron education it is capable to fail suddenly? Anybody.
- and you even in most the derznovennyh thoughts did not assume, what the such can happen with Soviet Union?
- did not assume.
- you never could receive from someone predictions, prophecies concerning the destiny? If yes a leah that they came true in your life?
- Precisely I do not remember, but speak, when I was the boy, such Valaam aged men foretold something. As - that time abbot Hariton has asked me to take the mitru. I, certainly, took it in hands with awesomeness, heart has trembled in a chest, breath has intercepted... And he also speaks: Take while, Aleshenka. You will grow also itself same you will carry!
- and here ninety-year protopresbyter Alexander Kiselyov to whom you served, being the boy, in its temple in Tallinn, remembering that time shortly before the demise in October, 2001, said that the future Russian Patriarch has not made out. Though and to Valaam went together with you and your parents, and saw, how deeply and seriously you communicated with friars.
- With father Alexander (Kiselyov) I was a sign since young years. It ministered in Nikolay Ugodnika`s temple the prior, and my father was at it the deacon. The adult solid priest, and I before it whom then was - the child! To bring a censer, notes of church-goers to collect, sometimes trusted a candle vozzhech - to it I only and could on those insignificant letam be engaged. In a temple always it is enough such boys. As it could make out in me someone there... In so long-term future? Those years - Second World War eve. It seemed, atmosphere has been penetrated by expectation something heavy and disturbing. To foretell the future, and especially to try to make out something in it concrete, was employment by the extremely imprudent. And with father Alexander at us about its latest Earth days warm friendly relations were saved. It is necessary to tell that on a share of this oldest ecclesiastic of Russian Orthodox Church heavy tests have dropped out. After war by last German ship it has left Estonia, and neither I, nor my parents long about it did not hear anything. While once during my trip to America - I was already the bishop - father Alexander has called me in hostel and has invited to itself in a temple for the sake of Seraphim Sarovsky in New York. Have met, and there was a small miracle: we have learnt each other. Have embraced, have kissed each other. And for any instant have grown dumb. I was confused, to father Alexander, have felt, too was not on myself: How to be converted to each other - on you on you ?. Tonechno, have plunged into warm waves of precious memoirs: its youth, my childhood!. In New York father Alexander published magazine Russian revival was the inspirer of this idea. Circumstances have allowed to be carried out to treasured dream of father Alexander of homecoming. Already in Moscow, in the Don monastery, he continued to care as the shepherd of all who came to it behind advice and comfort.
- it is interesting, as All of you - taki communicated among themselves: on the one hand, to protopresbyter Alexander Kiselyov already was for ninety years - rather respectable age - and with another - at your inaccessible dignity as it is possible to be converted to you on you ?
- With father Alexander we last years were on you .
- Probably, it is the unique person who dared to dare so to be converted to your Svjatejshestvu?
- Perhaps that so. But it at all did not weigh me. To the contrary, me it was very pleasant. We have carried by the friendly feelings in many decades. Certainly, we had an age difference, but in the course of time, believe, even the twenty years` boundary becomes imperceptible. Not so long ago I congratulated him on the ninetieth anniversary... All many long years wanderings on foreign land father Alexander prayed for finishing the days in the homeland. And the merciful Lord bestowed it peace demise on the native earth.
in fascist camps we okormljali sufferers
- your adolescence was necessary for years of the Second World War. Than it was remembered to you, certainly, terrible time?
- To begin with I will dare to depict a historical background of that time in brief. Before to appear in the power of Hitlerites, we, it is visible for warm-up, have got to embraces stalintsev. All it has occurred in full conformity to the confidential report on differentiation of so-called spheres of interests. This imperceptible document was the obligatory application Soviet - the German nonaggression pact signed in Moscow on August, 23rd, 1939. Thus, the structure of the USSR included Baltic republics: Latvia, Lithuania and native Estonia for me. It in a root has changed position of Estonian Orthodox church in republic and has created conditions for its returning to canonical relations with Mother - Church. On March, 30th, 1941 in the Moscow Patriarchy, in the presence of Blazhennejshego Sergija - the Patriarchal Locum tenen, a metropolitan Tallinn and all Estonia Alexander has brought a public repentance in a sin of split and has denounced the reference of the Independent Orthodox church in Estonia to the Patriarch Constantinople with the granting request avtokefalii. He has declared that Estonian clergy Under the pressure of the former Estonian government and only from desire and hope to save Orthodoxy in Estonia has gone on a split sin. on behalf of clergy and laymen of Estonian Orthodox church, enduring with trouble the guiltliness in a split sin metropolitan Alexander synovne asks to accept it in prayerfully - canonical dialogue with Mother - Church . Blazhennejshy metropolitan Sergy has made short molitvoslovie, has read allowing prayers and has finished a reunion rank mutual arhierejskim salution the Christ posrede us . In a cathedral Bogojavlensky cathedral in Moscow the Divine liturgy has been made, and all present arch-flamens have signed the certificate about reunion EAPTS with Mother - Church. And the war which has entered into our history under the name of the Great Patriotic War has soon begun. In its first mournful day the Head of Russian Orthodox Church a metropolitan Moscow and Kolomna Sergy (Stragorodsky) - before Stalin and its associates! - it was converted to clergy and to congregation with an appeal to become on Fatherland protection. orthodox our Church always shared lot of the people, - was told in the message. - together with it it and tests bore, and was calmed in its successes. It will not leave the people and now. She blesses heavenly blessing and forthcoming national exploit. The Lord bestows us victory . In reply to it metropolitan Tallinn Alexander has declared the rupture with Mother - the Church which has just forgiven to it a sin otpadenija, and about repeated transition in jurisdiction of the Constantinople Patriarch. In the beginning of July, 1941 the German armies have intruded in Estonia and on August, 28th have occupied Tallinn. However a diocesan the Narva Paul in those uneasy conditions has found in itself courage to save fidelity of Mother - Churches. For the sake of justice it is necessary to notice that further the German authorities did not interfere neither to metropolitan Alexander to supervise over life of wards, nor to a diocesan to Paul to operate the Narva archdiocese and many other wards located in territory of the occupied Estonia, but saved fidelity of Russian Orthodox Church.
at that time I studied at usual high school. The honours pupil was not, but also in lagging behind was not registered never. The favourite subject - the Law God`s, for its studying immutably had the higher point. My father, Michael Aleksandrovich, has been imposed by then in the deacon. Ministered in a temple. From the very first days Hitlerite occupation when in territory of Estonia have everywhere appeared surrounded with a barbed wire concentration camp, my father has considered as the Christian debt regularly them to visit. Germans did not interfere with that.
- Hitlerites did not prohibit activity of orthodox priests, aspiring to present itself in the opinion of the population of occupied territories defenders of belief from communistic godlessness though, of course, those at all were not. But that the Soviet power rigidly pursued Russian Orthodoxy is correct also: destroyed and defiled temples, in thousand and in thousand destroyed ecclesiastics and believing laymen... Only in 1943 Stalin has decided to weaken these persecutions.
meanwhile, in Estonia, a diocesan the Narva Paul has achieved the permission of the German command on spiritual okormlenie prisoners and the help to them products and clothes. Even when in one of concentration camps typhus epidemic, the Lord Paul has flashed has not changed to itself and has continued there arhipastyrskoe ministering with risk for own health. He has true devoted itself(himself) to mercy ministering, motivated to it the clergymen and called congregation than probably to help the suffering affliction brothers and sisters. My father has supported completely the Lord of Paul and also tried to minister all possible time to mercy. As the psalm reader the father, as a rule, took with itself the future metropolitan Tallinn and all Estonia Kornilija (JAkobsa), and the boy - sluzhkoj - me. Sometimes went with us on the camps located in port Paldiski, and also in villages Klooga and Pylkjula, and my dear mother, Elena Iosifovna, but after seen and endured to it then long was not on itself. After that mum had a prayful rule: since then before an icon of Bozhiej of Mother she began to read every day the akathist All grieving pleasure . Because troubles at it was much: after all my invaluable mother passed everything through the heart that concerned me and the father.
So much an intolerable grief, physical and sincere travails, human dramas and the tragedies concentrated on one pjatachke of earth, I am more anywhere in the life did not see. People from Russia - prisoners of war of Red Army, but in overwhelming majority - simple inhabitants from the central regions of Russia - delivered to Estonia in ready worst conditions, rather than lethal cattle. Them practically did not feed, gave to drink rotten or rusty water. The most part of sufferers then sent on a hard labour to Germany, smaller used there and then, in Estonia, dooming on slavish - and it at the best - existence.
in transit camps thousand people gathered. For all who has appeared behind a barbed wire, such reality situation was the present tragedy which was aggravated sometimes with mad hearings. For example, unfortunate Russia from a midland has seen for the first time the sea and why - that have decided that them in it will by all means drown. Therefore the reference to belief, spiritual support of ecclesiastics, okormljavshih camp, were extremely necessary for them. Basically adult people here got, but met among them and teenagers, and at all children. We tried it though as - that to help: for the hammered, hungry, torn off people collected products, clothes, medicines.
- as worship service in the conditions of a concentration camp was made?
- In a barrack to us allocated a room or simply fenced off zakutok. There established a marching Holy table on which worship services were made. Many captured expressed desire to accept epiphany. It was especially a pity children: frightened, hungry. With one of such, Vasily Ermakovym, I have got acquainted more close. The boy has got to camp together with younger little sister Varvaroj. They were children of priest Vasily Verevkina who also has appeared in a captivity. More precisely, they were its children spiritual. But for administration of camp father Vasily this detail did not specify that finally and has rescued children. It came all three from the Oryol region, at the height of fight on the Kursk arch have got to a Hitlerite round-up and have appeared in a concentration camp. My father and other Tallinn priests, having learnt about tragical destiny of a colleague, have started to strive on clearing families the priest, at own risk having included in it the juvenile brother and sister Ermakovyh. As a result all three have found freedom in day of a feast of a Holy Protection of the Holy Virgin Theotokos. After war together with Vasily Ermakovym we studied in the Leningrad Theological seminary, and then in Spiritual academy. Today the prior of a temple for the sake of Seraphim Sarovsky protopope Vasily - one of the most venerable and honoured ecclesiastics in Petersburg.
- your friendship is saved and until now?
- Certainly. Unfortunately, we meet not so more often as it would be desirable that, but it is already connected with burden of my present church obedience.
- than war was still remembered to you?
- On - to mine, the most unnatural on light is a war. I was the boy those years and, maybe, not all tragedy of our position then understood... But I was convinced of one firmly: even in most, the Lord immutably would seem critical situations of Vsemiloserdnyj rendered to our family the protection. In the end of war, in the night from 9 for May, 10th, 1944 to Tallinn clouds of bombers have snatched and swept literally vklochja port, the central part of the city, many inhabited quarters. Has got also to suburbs. One of bombs was broke off at us in a court yard, a splinter has killed the familiar woman who there spent the night. The Lord has saved our family, we spent the night in other place.
Next morning, survived, to death frightened tallintsy crowds have started to leave a city smoking by ruins. But in our family have solved: anywhere we will not eat. Parents, of course, understood that every other day - another the Soviet power will establish again here the draconian usages, and was quite possible that us will arrest or will send where - nibud on settlement to Siberia. However dialogue with compatriots in German camps, their stories about the transferred persecutions on the Soviet Native land for belief not in communism, and in Jesus Christ their firm firmness and congenital courage have so amazed my father that it has resolved anywhere from destiny more not to run, and to accept that the Lord, with worthiness and humility will send to us.
- at that time you already ministered in a temple?
- Ministered. I was 15 years old, and in 1944 I became the senior subdeacon at an archbishop of Tallinn and Estonian Paul. And in 1945 the Lord has given me the serious, extremely responsible commission for me: to prepare for renewal of worship services of Aleksandro - the Neva cathedral church.
- and what`s happened with the well-known cathedral? Germans after all how you told, did not interfere with church life? Means, and a cathedral should not touch...
- Unlike other places which have appeared in Hitlerite occupation where temples and wards were restored and opened, in Tallinn under the order of German commandant Litsmana Aleksandro - the Neva cathedral has been unexpectedly closed for worship services. In the newspaper Eesti the son Estonian nationalists mischievously wrote that in a building, on temple walls, there were cracks. As if it bore to danger of abiding in a cathedral of people and about terrible threat in case of its destruction for surrounding building of Vyshgoroda. This circumstance should bring the authorities to a unique conclusion: The cathedral should be taken down, and bells to take out to Germany and to melt on guns. But the Lord pardoned, to make it it was not possible.
- Who headed Church in Estonia after war?
- In Estonia there was a unique canonical hierarch - an archbishop the Narva Paul. The lord has taken up time management of the Tallinn archdiocese and has moved to Tallinn where has vigorously started restoration of orthodox life. In March, 1945 the Lord Paul became an archbishop Tallinn and Estonian and has charged to me, to the senior subdeacon, sixteen years old, difficult and responsible business - to prepare Aleksandro - the Neva cathedral for sanctification and renewal in it of worship services. It was necessary to work much and physically, and a head, but with this obedience to me has had the luck to consult. In a month Aleksandro - the Neva cathedral has again occupied a fitting place and became centre of church life of our archdiocese. The first worship service has taken place for Easter. Before it houses mum has removed my christening dagger from the Icon of Kazan of Bozhiej of Mother, its plot to me on a neck and has allowed to carry constantly. Probably, has grown even in parent eyes. Since then I do not remove it.
- why before to you it was forbidden to carry a christening cross?
- Mum was afraid that I will lose it. With boys the such happens. Especially with fidgets. Likely, in her eyes I was the fidget and till any moment malootvetstvennym the person. After performance of the commission of the Lord of Paul I have found, at last, definitive trust and in the opinion of own mother.
- and here still say that if the person will lose natelnyj a dagger wait for a misfortune! Your mum of it was afraid?
- I do not consider that if it was possible to someone to lose the dagger by all means something bad should occur to it. This all superstition. We paternal - that is frequent and with all heat we believe in the signs, which and we think out. It is possible to lose a dagger, everyone on light happens - no trouble. After all it is possible a dagger and to renew! Though, certainly, it is a pity to lose the christening dagger: it special matters...
the lord Paul has given to me a mercy lesson
- your Svjatejshestvo, a leah there was in your life such turning-point when you suddenly have definitively understood: ministering to the Lord - your calling and anything other in all next days spent under the sun is simple cannot?
- Such, that I suddenly has decided to minister only to God, - is not present, I have not tested so dramatic turning-point. Probably, first of all because our family was deeply religious. To Russian in Estonia was hardly, us differently as to a vein tible - Russian minority In the most contemptious value of this transfer - did not name. Today, unfortunately, the same is observed. Only the term is changed: migrants invaders - so there now magnify our compatriots... Therefore all our spiritual life - cultural, intellectual - passed in ward. And at me never was doubt or any heavy reflexion about on what way I will go. A special role my counsellors have certainly played.
on February, 1st 1946 gOde there was an event which I very sadly worried: the world was left by an archbishop Paul. Full sixteen months - before the just demise - this headed Estonian Orthodox church surprising, truly the God`s person. In my life the father Paul has left an indelible fertile trace. Undoubtedly, it was the born shepherd who possessed precious gift of the ecclesiast and the missionary. With special love it concerned children, immutably most part of time devoted to youth. Be merciful, as well as your Father miloserd, - has proclaimed the Lord our Jesus Christ in the Sermon of the mount (Lk. 6, 36). The father Paul has conceived it in all depth. The active compassion had been executed all his life.
election of the father of Paul on a widow Narva stand in the autumn of 1937 was really worthy and just. Hirotonija the protopope of Paul Dmitrovsky in a diocesan Narva and Izborsky has taken place in Spaso - the Preobrazhenskiy cathedral of Narva. Becoming the arch-flamen of Russian congregation on national structure of the Narva archdiocese, the Lord Paul has taken up especially difficult duties which were a consequence of difficult international relations of that time in Estonia. Together with all Estonian Orthodox church on February, 28th, 1941 Definition of the Patriarchal Locum tenen of a metropolitan of Moscow and Kolomna Sergija a diocesan the Narva and Izborsky Paul has been reunited with Mother - Russian Orthodox Church and for the rest of the natural firmly was loyal to Mother - Churches, being really uncompromising in true as one of modern ecclesiastics has correctly told about it. Itself the Lord Paul in the reference to priors of Russian wards in Tallinn in June, 1942 spoke: I did not break off and under no circumstances do not intend to break off a unification with Mother - Church... Anybody from us has no right even to bring such attention to the question... Church - the Martyr before the whole world zasvidetelstvo a shaft the fidelity to the Christ, and we here solve a question, a leah to agree to be to us its members! On justice we should bring other attention to the question: a leah to be worthy we members of this Church? in the German occupation the Lord Paul actively co-operated with the Exarch of the Moscow Patriarchy in Baltic a metropolitan Vilensky and Lithuanian Sergiem (Voskresensky) that in a difficult interlacing of church, national and political circumstances in this region at any moment could displease the occupational authorities with quite predicted consequences. Repeated rupture of canonical relations with Mother - the Church, made by metropolitan Tallinn Estonian Alexander (Paulusom) in August, 1941, has called immediate reaction of opposition to dissenters from a diocesan of Narva and Izborsky Paul. The lord has visited all wards of the archdiocese, each of which has confirmed the fidelity of Mother - Russian Orthodox Church. The non-alignment to split have declared Pskovo - the Pechersky monastery and wards Pechora blagochinija to the Tallinn archdiocese, and also wards of the territories of the Pskov and Leningrad archdioceses occupied by Germans. For zealous arhipastyrskoe the ministering self-denying struggle with shizmatikami became which important part, the Lord Paul in December, 1942 the Exarch metropolitan Sergiem has been erected in a dignity of an archbishop. And after all those times for management of church life were trudnejshimi!. That the Soviet power, fascist invaders, again the Soviet mode. Process of adaptation of Church was the extremely painfull. In the autumn of 1944 when the Soviet power has returned to Baltic, 22 presbyters have left in emigration. God it the Judge, many only it also have saved the lives. By 1949 Estonian Orthodox church has lost twenty ecclesiastics who have been subjected to repression by the Soviet retaliatory bodies on absolutely foolish, far-fetched charges. Few of them has not returned from prison. Yes upokoit the Lord in Heavenly settlements of soul Of the faithful slaves!. The clergy most part has been lost already to the middle of the fortieth years. And despite it, the Lord Paul with consciousness of deep responsibility inherent in it and arhipastyrskogo a debt used the best efforts to order Orthodox church life in Estonia in specific conditions of the Soviet state. Very few people knew that the Lord Paul suffered affliction also a heavy warm illness... The appeal to all adherents of the Orthodox church in Estonia began last will of the Lord to share with especially needing wards ruined by war church utensils, icons, an appareling, liturgucal books. Let this transfer from imushchih to deprived will be a tribute of thanksgiving to the Lord that It has saved set of our temples among a storm and horrors of war, and has given the chance to us to make love business - to help our brothers and native wards to difficult years - the prelate Paul has concluded the reference. Throughout all life I save a light image of the dead of the Lord who have rendered a great influence on my spiritual formation and the decision to devote the life to ministering of Church Christ`s in the heart.
on acquaintance in spiritual school do not arrive
- As it is known, the sacred way of pastoral ministering originating from votserkovlennogo of the childhood in the Christ which centuries there took place prelates of the Earth Russian, the Soviet power tried to interrupt under every possible far-fetched pretexts, and even at all, using force unreasonable, to stop. God`s Promysl has built so your life that with bolshevitskoj antichurch ideology to face face to face to you it was necessary though and in boyhood, but already being the checked up, devoted and quite grown up follower Christ`s. Clearly that such person only disturbing uncertainty, the burden and afflicting, inevitable for the ecclesiastic at the communistic authorities ahead could expect. However possibility of a choice for you still remained - all - that to you was sixteen - seventeen years!.
- And I already at this age chose nothing. My choice has occurred much earlier, and to reconsider it in any other, more perspective and to tell more correctly, the tactical party, me and to a head has not come. In Aleksandro - the Neva cathedral church till the end of 1946 I ministered altarnikom and the sacrist, and then the psalm reader in Simeonovsky and Christmases of the Deipara Kazan temples. Certainly, it would be desirable to study. Yes so that on - to the present - to get to worthy my vital purposes spiritual education.
- and you have received secondary education? All - taki it, likely, was uneasy: war, constant change of the authorities - leapfrog continuous, instead of life.
- I studied at different schools. Both in Russian, and during any period in Estonian on Russian branch. Studied both languages, moreover plus German. Upon termination of high school has gone to Leningrad. There in 1946, after almost twenty years` interdiction, doors of Spiritual schools - Spiritual academies have opened and seminaries - for thirsting to study doctrinal sciences. The show was, of course, far from an idealistic picture and even more likely sad, rather than joyful: everywhere traces of recent war, terrible blockade - the broken windows, the smoked black ceilings, a monastic garden it is ploughed up by shells... The seminary building is partially destroyed from an aerial bomb direct hit... But in the academic temple for the sake of the apostle and evangelist John Bogoslova were already made morning and evesongs, monastic postthreshing barns, ordainings. I have looked round and have first of all sent the telegramme to the friend Vasily Ermakovu: Come to seminary . It has quickly arrived. We have passed examinations. Both is successfully. But Vasju have accepted, and I was not present. It is young, speak, it is necessary to grow up still. It has appeared that till eighteen years in seminary do not accept, and to me then was only seventeen! Wishing to study was enough, and any exception for me did not begin to do. Though my confessor protopope John Bogojavlensky was the first rector of the revived Spiritual schools.
- Really it could not help you - on - svojski?
- therefore could not - what example would be submitted to me by my confessor on all subsequent life? Instead of consolatory words it has given me a magnificent gift - has invited to celebrations on the occasion of opening of Spiritual schools. I believe that remains in live witnesses of this event a little. Then I have seen for the first time personally the Most holy Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia I.
- Any special feelings to the Most holy Patriarch you, your Svjatejshestvo, have tested then, do not remember?
- Quivering awesomeness. In three years, in day of memory sacred blagovernogo prince Alexander Nevsky, in these walls from the Most holy Patriarch Alex I I have heard simple and simultaneously so shrill words that has remembered them on all life: the Orthodox Russian people it is very thin is able to learn and appreciate the true shepherd. Him do not tempt and do not mislead the jewels shining on mitrah and crosses of many present priests; he wishes to see light of soul of the shepherd, he wishes to see the shepherd - the person of high spiritual worthiness; Russian people wish to see the shepherd - the father who nestles close the love to needs of congregation; It goes to the priest and waits to hear from it a rescue word: how to rescue soul, how to direct the life, to involve on itself grace of Gospodnju, how to overcome vital difficulties, how to consult with the troubles, illnesses how to be saved from falling sinful. Here that he wishes to receive from the shepherd. He does not believe big words of other shepherd - the ecclesiast, to words in which it is not audible voices of the Scriptus and sacred fathers but in whom terrestrial words of terrestrial literary artists are plentifully scattered. Speeches of such ecclesiasts do not get into heart of the Russian orthodox person. He searches at the shepherd of an explanation of a word of Bozhija, waits, that in the sermon he has specified it a way on which it is necessary to go; and then to such shepherd its heart " opens;.
Henceforth a way, which Lord judged to me to pass, has been opened before me with all clearness.
- And all - taki was insulting to come back home, likely, having passed examinations and without having entered seminary exclusively on the early childhood ?
- to Take offence the sin, I and did not begin to take offence. To the contrary, I have come back home inspired, overflowed the kindest impressions and have continued service in the Tallinn temples. Simultaneously studied independently because has decided to pass the next year examinations at once in the second class. And when has arrived to Leningrad in 1947 has passed examinations both for the first, and for the second. Has arrived at once in the third class of the Theological seminary! In a class where has got, I have appeared the most young on age. People basically young were my messmates, but is more senior me, were and at all in my opinion elderly. All of us - and not only students, and and the trainers who have endured horrors of war, reprisals, but saved nice orthodox belief - were united by surprising enthusiasm, special spiritual lifting. All it allowed forces to transfer adequately difficulties, to get high-grade doctrinal education. Many our teachers have passed camp, having the higher spiritual education, many long years earned to itself on a bread piece in vocational schools, and even at all vegetated on day work. But they have courageously transferred all hardship, without having lost neither the worthiness, nor the unique store of knowledge. And now, having started training, they, happened, to tears endured any our misses or simply bad answers. I remember, among us there was such seminarist Ivan Samuilovich Troshin, the future hieromonk Seraphim, - the medical assistant by training, it in combination managed our insulator. The person is elderly, study was difficultly given to it, and he always responded with the big pressure.
on all life I have remembered professor Alexander Ivanovicha Sagardu: He read at us the New testament, was the person painfull, has soon died - about as he worried when someone was not capable to answer its questions adequately!. Once it took the Gospels and, showing it to us, has said, putting all soul in words: you should fall in love with this book! and when Alexander Ivanovich told about martyrs, its stirrings and experience were so strong that it had to leave audience to calm down. How much years passed - decades! - only these pictures till now before eyes, and a convincing touching voice of the teacher I hear...
it is impossible to forget our professors Lva Nikolaevicha Parijsky and Sergey Alekseevicha Kupresova. They not only imparted to us own knowledge, but also the vital example strengthened us in belief and love to people. Unique son Kupresova was mentally sick, and I on all life have remembered, as courageously Sergey Alekseevich transferred this misfortune as devoutly prayed on choruses of a seminar temple or before the Tsarskoje Selo icon of Bozhiej of Mother the Sign . This person showed for us an example of prayful exploit.
was in my life heavy and even tragical days much. But study time at first in seminary, and after two years in Spiritual academy, was the happiest in my life.
- Certainly. After all the same your youth was - spring of life!.
- the Age, of course, matters at perception of life. In a youth also it is breathed easier, and paints all are brighter, and surrounding people smile to you more. All so... However those years I tested special pleasure from participation in my destiny of teachers and trainers. It were outstanding people, unsurpassed persons! The matter is that the pedagogical collective which has managed to collect in the first years of restoration of former Sankt - the Petersburg Spiritual schools the remarkable church hierarch metropolitan Grigory (CHukov), was surprising first of all basically consisted of graduates of pre-revolutionary schools. They not only have saved for us treasures of knowledge, but also inspired us with the live and sincere belief cleared and ennobled by heartrending experiences of the thirtieth years. Speaking in images, as teachers as keepers of spiritual education, they have sung the swan ode. And to us, the first pupils of the revived academy, God has blest this song to listen. Metropolitan Grigory has got fundamental doctrinal education behind the same fencing in the end of the XIX-th century. Really selfless efforts were required from it to save on ruins native Alma Mater doctrinal school still in the twenties and contrary to improbable difficulties to achieve revival of Spiritual schools in 1946. For all of us studying here those years, the Lord Grigory was not only the wise ruling bishop, but also extremely careful arch-flamen. With gratitude I remember conversations prisnopamjatnogo a metropolitan with me, the young student of academy, before ordaining in a sacred dignity. On all life I have saved in the heart light memory of a bottom hirotesii in the reader, made over pupils of our seminar course the Lord Grigory on October, 9th, 1949. Its pathetic words that the educational problem of new spiritual school should outgrow in a problem of education of the future shepherds of Church have deeply responded in our hearts and have defined a course of life of each of us as a way of ministering of Church Christ`s.
I have ended Spiritual academy in 1953 already the priest: my ordaining in the deacon, and every other day, on April, 17th, - in the presbyter with purpose by the prior of the Bogojavlensky temple in Jyhvi, small miner`s small town of Estonia on April, 15th, 1950 has taken place. It was necessary so to finish academy without attending lectures: for the composition on doctrinal creativity of rector Sankt - the Petersburg Spiritual school of the beginning of a XIX-th century of prelate Philaret (Drozdova) to me the rank of the candidate of divinity has been appropriated.
- than necessity of your transition to correspondence course has been called?
- Shortage obrazoBathing priests in temples, on wards of Estonia, especially during post-war time. Already at the first year the Leningrad Spiritual academy I was called by metropolitan Grigory. After sudden demise of diocesan Isidora it temporarily operated also the Tallinn archdiocese. Metropolitan Grigory, having explained a situation, has offered me three places of ministering, on a choice: the second priest in Aleksandro - the Neva cathedral, the prior of Ekaterina`s church in Pjarnu or the prior of Bogojavlensky church in Jyhvi. I have chosen the last. Church in Jyhvi - just halfway between Tallinn and Leningrad. And to parents close, and to Academy where necessary go by session.
- it is interesting, how there was a destiny of your fellow students?
- I do not know any of graduates of my seminar and academic courses who would not minister to our Mother - Churches as the ecclesiastic. I will tell more: Scientifically - doctrinal and pastyrsko - pedagogical activity of Sankt - the Petersburg Spiritual schools has in many respects defined the most various aspects of modern church life of Russia and the near abroad.
Orthodoxy not dokazuetsja and pokazuetsja
- you studied only doctrinal sciences or were engaged also in sciences secular? What of them were pleasant to you most of all?
- I very much liked process of knowledge. Studying divinity, it is impossible to scorn thus sciences secular. I will result in this connection rather characteristic example from today`s life. It is noticed that in spiritual educational institutions separate pupils show at times the scornful relation to secular sciences, declaring that the main thing in their life is to be sacred . As shows experiment, behind these, basically, correct words elementary laziness and unwillingness at the full capacity frequently disappear to work on a field of comprehension of sciences. It concerns not only such secular disciplines, as history, philosophy or, say, learning of foreign languages. It is a question and of special doctrinal subjects. sacred did not study divinity - and escaped - such careless pupils try to justify themselves grandiloquent phrases. But it is better they honesty were engaged... I believe what to find knowledge all - taki easier, than to gain sanctity. The seminarist comes to doctrinal educational institution to study. If cannot or to it has ceased to please, it is more fair and better to leave simply for it. Because subsequently the future shepherd will appear incapable to give intelligible competent answers to all questioning it about belief if will not understand the one who asks it: its language, competent speech. How much outstanding scientists were believing people! And how much glorified orthodox sacred in perfection knew various secular sciences! True knowledge cannot contradict belief. To the contrary, they confirm a way to belief, and the belief informs spiritual sight for knowledge. Thus, the belief and a science help each other and co-operate for the sake of execution of an overall objective of the person - its rescue in eternity.
- but unless between belief and scientific knowledge of a universe there are no contradictions?
- Is not present. Anyway, I of these contradictions do not see. Though, as it is known, at all times in the environment of the most different people by all means there was a dispute on, a leah it is possible to support mystical experience with the scientific data? But it is religion dispute not with a science, and is faster with ideology stsientizma - outlooks according to which the science is considered as a progress primary factor in the history and as the basic means of the decision of all social problems. Adherents stsientizma have got used to speak on behalf of a science, and here already to do nothing. It seems to me that it is impossible to finish this dispute: one will interpret discoveries as the certificate on God, others - as the justifying of agnosticism which, as it is known, on a broader scale denies any possibility of knowledge of the objective world and its laws. However, the in itself given dispute not especially influences a religious choice of the person. The belief arises and becomes stronger not thanks to rational arguments that is why that it is bestowed to the person by God. It is possible to accept, even repeatedly having convinced itself of absurdity of religion from the point of view of reason. And it is possible to prove for itself existence of God, to see miracles and not become at all it the believing person. Orthodoxy not dokazuetsja, and pokazuetsja - so still about it speak in the people.
- the atheistic science essentially rejected religious representations about the world. Now in many spheres of natural sciences gain distribution the theories confirming trues, for a long time described in the Bible. What do you think of it?
- It is not necessary to oppose a religion science as it liked to do at an atheistic mode. The creator has put in the person pressing forward to self-knowledge and to studying of a surrounding reality. This pressing forward - the great blessing. Therefore the science as knowledge and world perfection is estimated by Christianity deeply positively, after all in scientific activity the creative party of the human person is shown. But the soul of the person living on the earth is not a pure image God`s. It is deformed by misuse bestowed to us the Lord of freedom that in church language is called as a sin. Here and the science deprived of a deep moral basis, can be dangerous and destructive, conduct to afflictions and a hopelessness. Unless has not proved the past century with all presentation what it is possible to destroy not only natural environment, but also the person? To deprive of its past and the future. And a source of the present scientific creativity - in God. The thinking based on the elementary logic, does not allow to feel real complexity and polychromy of the world. English writer Gilbert Kijt Chesterton has come out with the witty and convincing assumption that the science is not capable to comprehend the world for that simple reason that the world not the drawing, and drawing of the artist.
it is similar to argument in the disputes forgotten partially already between physicists and lyric poets. Claims of scientists for an omnitude and universalizm seemed then to much very serious. There are such ambitions and now. A leah they are dangerous?
- the Science be simple cannot, inherently, the sovereign legislator and the judge of all life of the person, especially in spiritual area. The person is created just like Bozhiju, and it cannot reach completeness of life without dialogue good luck, without dialogue to It in a prayer. Spiritual experience is inaccessible to rational knowledge, and to try to estimate it only by scientific criteria - all the same what to estimate conclusions of the exact sciences by criteria of beauty and spiritual poetry.
in familiarising of the person with true knowledge is, undoubtedly sacral sense natural bogopoznanija, that is knowledges of the world as speak sacred, through traces of God in tvarnom the world, through revealing and explanation of laws of everything that surrounds us. Learning world around and finding in it laws, the physicist tests sacred thrill before perfection of the nuclear world, and astrophysics before incomprehensibility of scales of space. And not casually many of the outstanding scientific last centuries and the present are believing people. The science does not contradict belief, on the contrary, out of belief there can not be a science. The assumption in the mathematician of an axiom unless is not the original act of faith opening religious character of scientific knowledge of the world? The belief precedes knowledge or knowledge to belief? This problem stirred still blissful Augustine. It continues to stir and minds of modern thinkers.
- and, undoubtedly, stirs today creative collective unique tserkovno - the scientific project the Orthodox encyclopaedia . It is said that idea of creation the XXI-st century project your Svjatejshestvo belongs to you. If so tell, please, as she was born?
- it is difficult To me to give out that soared in lucid minds of church educators hundred years ago for the idea. Then, in the beginning of the last century, the first attempt of creation of the orthodox encyclopaedia has been undertaken. However followed then the times of troubles have not allowed to deduce this edition for letter limits To . The second attempt was undertaken already in 60 - e years, but has terminated in failure. The epoch of spiritual revival generated by commemorating 1000 - letija epiphanies of Russia, has put in the forefront problems votserkovlenija our distressful people which on the whole have been torn off from fatherlike belief, and restoration of the scolded relics. These works have crowned by assembly glorifying novomuchennikov both confessers Russian and sanctification of revived Cathedral Cathedral Christ the Saviour Cathedral by the Arhierejsky Cathedral of Russian Orthodox Church in August, 2000. Now before us in all growth there are new, not less challenging tasks. Today the Church should meet half-way itself to the modern person who is in a status of world outlook and religious confusion. It is necessary to help to it to get rid of the networks of pseudo-religious and antichurch doctrines placed everywhere. In a modern Russian society the Church should consider formation of an orthodox world view and a moral way of life as the major problem. In its decision the invaluable help it urged to render us the Orthodox encyclopaedia . It is supposed to publish 25 volumes. The volume devoted to Russian Orthodox Church, and also some first alphabetic volumes already was published. Weigh tserkovno - the scientific project is planned to finish in 2012.
- it is grandiose!
- it is valid, the Orthodox encyclopaedia represents the unique edition which on the completeness becomes in one number with the best foreign encyclopaedic editions not only church, but also secular character. It not only fine illustrated multipage books, but, first of all, the regular arch of knowledge on all branches of church life, and also on the basic questions of the state, the right, a policy and culture. Connection of integral orthodox outlook with last achievements of the humanity and natural-science knowledge give to the edition really universal character. In work on the encyclopaedia efforts of the largest seminary students and outstanding scientists - laymen, both domestic, and foreign unite. Not without reason this edition has received the status of the manual for students of secular educational institutions who specialise in area of history, art criticism and theology.
by the way, ours the Orthodox encyclopaedia is a unique project of Ecumenical Orthodoxy in which efforts of all Pomestnyh of Orthodox Churches unite. And in it to me the special creating role of Russian Church in the modern world sees.
- business necessary, remarkable, but, on - visible, expensive? Who helps you to publish this doubtless curiosity?
- Modern tserkovno - the scientific project The orthodox encyclopaedia became an example of successful cooperation of Church, the state and a society. Now the edition the Orthodox encyclopaedia it is carried out under a personal advowson of the President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Vladimirovicha Putin and care of the Russian state. The Board of trustees under a vigilant management of the mayor of Moscow Yury Mihajlovicha Luzhkov, operatively solving questions of sponsor`s financing, and also the Social council created more recently effectively operates. Creation as you have correctly noticed, a doubtless curiosity, certainly, nedeshevo. But it seems to me that it costs certain financial expenses.
the Renaissance of a church science and divinity is big and difficult process which will occupy any year. Not at once there will be worthy fruits, but they, is doubtless proizrastut, and then will serve formation of consciousness of distressful our people and rallying of the Russian society round Fatherlike belief.
- as you consider, your Svjatejshestvo, in systems spiritual and secular education of Russia is something the general?
- Certainly. Much makes related system of spiritual education with secular system of higher education. At us long history of mutual relations. Before revolution of the professor of spiritual academies taught at universities, and teachers of universities worked in spiritual academies and seminaries. Even reforming of spiritual and secular educational institutions occurred at the same time. Certainly, the spiritual and secular educational institution still had traditions, the rules of internal life and development, but these traditions and rules were not hostile each other. It is necessary to remember that the system of secular education and in the West and in Russia left system of spiritual education. In this sense the spiritual higher school and university have the general roots. It is not necessary to forget about it.
- with the higher secular educational institutions all is clear: in them spiritual life is adjusted. And with initial and average schools - as? Today`s confusion in school programs has led to that is frequent under the pretext of innovations in programs of average educational institutions doubtful doctrines - valdorfskaja pedagogics, rerihianstvo, valueology take root. What do you think about it?
- Unfortunately, few of teachers realise that danger which the occultism and moral nihilism bear to unripe souls. Certainly, all of us would like to see children healthy and happy. However physical health cannot be reached at any cost, in particular by health spiritual. The care of health does not justify planting of a cult of force and arrogance, humiliation poor and impotent, attempts to tell to children and teenagers that everything that they will not wish, well and correctly, and the century standards of morality taken as a principle of a public order, ostensibly are only a past vestige also generate complexes .
True education is formation not only fleshes, not only mind, but also heart. That is why school, giving knowledge and helping the young person to grow strong and healthy, simultaneously should teach to distinguish it good from harm, truth from lie, original freedom from enslavement to instincts and passions.
it is necessary to learn children since the earliest years to struggle with a sin, to preach it ideals of chasity, cleanliness and fidelity in relations between the man and the woman. After all from the spiritual experience the Church knows: the person, not capable to defeat lascivious passion, cannot discipline in itself and other defects. The one who infects today children batsillami debauchery in attractive packing unbounded pleasure should understand distinctly - it raises the future criminals! Not without reason the Lord severely warns:... Who will tempt one of small these, believing in Me, to that it would be better, if have hung up to it a mill millstone on a neck and have sunk it in depth sea (Mf. 18,6).
- In a word, you, your Svjatejshestvo, suggest to enter into the school program for a long time ripened subject - the Law God`s ?
- Is not present, we at all do not insist to enter the Law God`s as special discipline in programs of the state educational institutions. All - taki 70 years of atheistic education have not passed for nothing, therefore so sharp innovation will not be conceived by a society with due understanding. However for a long time has ripened it is time to realise with full responsibility that the school which has dropped out of tradition, school in which do not observe continuity of generations and do not pass the moral beginnings, contributes only in the further destruction of a society, instead of its creation. Explosive substance of corruption, being it is put in school, there can be for the people more disastrous, than any acts of terrorism. It is clear that the similar situation both at school, and in all our society has developed not in itself. In it have resulted decades of militant godlessness and disregard traditional the pricesnostjami, amplified last years. But if we want, that we had a worthy future, it is necessary to return to what there lived the people one thousand years, to acquire soul high and light ideals of good, beauty, love to people and to Fatherland, nestjazhanija, self-renunciation, self-sacrifice. That is why I believe that in questions of a world outlook basis of educational activity it would be natural and fair to be guided by a wish of the majority of pupils and their parents. Considering that the considerable majority of the people in many regions of our country ranks itself or expresses the preferable relation to Orthodoxy, it is natural and at comprehensive schools and high schools, at least in many of them, to admit possibility of teaching of subjects of a humanitarian cycle on the basis of orthodox, instead of atheistic outlook. Also according to wishes of pupils and their parents it would be natural to admit at comprehensive schools on an alternative basis teaching in frameworks of base educational programs of such subjects, as Bases of orthodox culture Orthodox ethics and others similar to them.
- And what about it tells the Russian law?
- the Legislation of our country allows to enter the given subjects in frameworks national - a regional component of the basic educational program or within the limits of its school component. Article 13 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation says that no ideology can be established in our country as state or obligatory. Any - means, and atheistic including. We offer in jurisdiction questions, uchreditelstva, a religious accessory and financing of educational institutions to be guided by the special contract between Church and the state that does not contradict the current legislation. Such precedents are available: for example, state, but at the same time orthodox Piously - Dmitrovsky school of sisters of mercy.
certainly, for teaching Bases of orthodox culture or Orthodox ethics be required ten thousand teachers. But we, I think, we can give them, having prepared and at spiritual schools, and in Piously - Tihonovsky orthodox doctrinal institute, and at the Russian orthodox university, and also within the limits of the higher theological education in secular high schools. Obviously, it is possible to prepare corresponding shots at teacher training colleges, universities, institutes of improvement of professional skill. It is necessary, that teaching of these subjects has been put on enough high level that the spiritual legacy of the people has not left indifferent children`s hearts.
- but how then orthodox children, and, for example, children of devout Moslems will study not?
- it is not necessary to be afraid of that among pupils of comprehensive schools there will be children of Moslems, Jews, Buddhists. After all achievements of orthodox culture an essence an integral part of a world spiritual treasury, and, especially, our thoughtway and life, centuries uniting the people. At many schools voluntary orthodox education and education is already carried out. Such practice needs expansion. And it at all does not restrain the rights of national and religious minority - we only will be glad, if they can realise possibility of religious training within the limits of the state education system, and such possibility should be opened before them.
Orthodoxy - at all ideology, not a set of abstract belief. It is the life filled with love to the Lord and to people, the kind relation to all creation of Bozhiju. That is why the statement of belief and an orthodox way of life should be osoznanno not only as business of clergy, still very small, but as care of tens millions the laymen, all healthy forces of a society with which our Church is ready to co-operate closely in any good deed.
I too would like to revolt...
- youth is an indispensable desire to prove to the whole world, and certainly to itself personally, own originality, the if wish, a revolutionary spirit under the relation to all surrounding and all event around. Remember, please, itself twenty years`: really you the so-called spirit of rebelliousness never seized? And if seized, what you during such moments undertook?
- Youth - the most active, and consequently, likely, the most perfect period in life of each person. Certainly, I remember myself and twenty years`, and everyone, undoubtedly, happened. For example, of motorcycle races was fond, adored speed... Loved the schoolmate and, I dare to hope, was we love... Married, but home life was not took from the very beginning - leaves, is that on that there was a will of Bozhija, other as it was found out in the course of time, the mission has been prepared to me... To revolt, likely, too it would be desirable, especially in student`s years - after the Theological seminary I have passed at once to study in Spiritual academy. On much eyes opened. Around after all rustled - the communism was under construction, and we though lived behind a church fencing, in a certain measure involuntarily were participants of this absurd, especially from the church point of view, process.
- in what its absurdity? After all there was even such, quite academic concept, as Scientific communism . Clearly that in seminary and Spiritual academy to you this discipline did not teach, the Lord you ohranil and from burdensome examinations in this to a science but you, as the person young, inquisitive and inquisitive, could and take an interest, what is it, time it all - taki exists nearby!.
- Was interested... Also has been rather depressed by the fact of existence of a similar false doctrine. Understand, a leah dream of paradise creation on the earth in that other degree of intensity periodically seizes people. The in itself dream of paradise on our planet, from my point of view, bears only to the boundless potential of good initially put in the person by God. Idea of construction of communism - one of versions of this dream. At the same time attempts to realise this dream bear to a complete ignorance of Divine revelation to people. The knowledge of it and resistance to a will of Bozhiej is harm display. At various times under this dream the most improbable bases, including Marxism, and generated by it and sinful love of power the Bolshevism were brought. Incontestable laws of the Divine Craft have led to that attempts of realisation of communistic dream have degenerated at first in totalitarian violence, and then, in process of natural weariness of ideological empire, in idea of construction of communism - an earthly paradise! - in separately taken country . And as last basis to doubtful idea Zapovedjami Bozhiimi who were were necessary to use is offensive pereformulirovany in the moral code of the builder of communism . The desire to replace with itself of God to become rulers of destinies of all universe, mankind or even the separate person the Lord always posramljal. posramit it and new this sort of attempts.
- on - to yours, attempt relapse paradise creations on our guilty earth it is possible?
- it is doubtless. Give only term, and we will not have time to look back, as new generations " will grow up; disturbers of rest - though where it, rest, in the today`s world? Hardly otdyshitsja mankind from recent communistic charcoal fumes, as newly-baked fighters for paradise life on the earth again will be accepted to the. On whatever basis - political, nationalist, texnocratic, economic - the future Babel tower was under construction, it will be destroyed again by human sinfulness, to defeat which without the Lord our Jesus Christ we not forces.
- a gloomy picture you draw, your Svjatejshestvo. The situation in our society nervous is truth. And first of all, the sensitive youth as and it is necessary to it by the nature reacts to it. From depths of your pastoral experience, from height of your lived years give, please, to young men advice: How in such situation not to lose itself, not to change to Christian principles? So it is a lot of temptations...
- from the bottom of the heart it would be desirable to advise to the most active young men and girls: that occurred to you or around, under no circumstances never give in to tempting by extremism. Thousand adventurers of the different sense which has lost last drops of conscience of demagogues and populists, winning round the young men not confirmed in original spirituality, use them as means for realisation personal, as a rule, ambitious political ambitions. Bitter experience shows that the extremism always leads to blood prolithium that only aggravates contradictions and multiplies mutual hatred. And after all thus the love and reason inevitably perish.
there is an invaluable rule in a treasury of ecumenical orthodox Christianity: If you want to change the world to the best and if to you something is active it is not pleasant in a society surrounding you and people, and you precisely know that it is impossible so to live further, begin by all means first of all with change of. Wherefore both in you, and in thy way of life, and in thy sins the illness which has amazed a society for which you so are ill is covered and worry. What sense to try to solve problems shout, hatred and condemnation? In the answer you will by all means receive the same: harm only will be increased. So it is better to learn the sins, resolutely to begin to hate them and actively to enter with them, by means of Bozhiej and Its Church, struggle. Thus, transfiguring itself, the person finds creative force for positive influence on surrounding people and circumstances. And in its life the great rule of venerable Seraphim Sarovsky will by all means be carried out: Stjazhi spirit miren and then thousand people round you will escape . Never before this rule did not bring. There would be only a desire it to use.
long decades inspired to us that temples are visited by only elderly and impotent people with which leaving the religion will die also. But in the early nineties all with amazement have seen new, a young face of Russian Church. We were convinced: despite furious attempts to eradicate belief in our people, Sacred Orthodoxy continues to remain mighty creative force, involving in True young hearts. At us the perfect, sincere, active youth grows. But it needs careful guardianship from adults. And more all it needs our prayers.
it is impossible to consider the serious relation as backwardness
- Nevertheless, your Svjatejshestvo, we are urged to afflict you: Certain and rather considerable part of young Russians believes that the Orthodox church has lagged behind life and, moreover, why - that obstinately does not wish to march in step with so promptly changing the tastes and priorities time space speeds and the all-consuming Internet . A pier, that good to expect to the modern person from Orthodoxy even if worship services in temples are made, as well as the whole eternity back, in church slavonic language which to understand even believing youth simply not in a status?
- I absolutely not agree with such statement of a question. In essence it is comparable with a position of representatives of natural sciences of the last century, shriving atheism. Then opening in this area personifying a science of that time, were categorically opposed to all bases of Christian doctrinal statement - first of all to church understanding of life of Bozhija, an origin of the universe and the person. We well remember sweeping charges to Church at the Soviet power in serosti obscurantism in to enmity to a science and progress . And today, as well as during revolutionary time, does not stop oblichitelno - the biassed criticism to Church from covered with slogans high morals bogobortsev: whether it be atheists grieving for former times or militant supporters of moral permissiveness which why - that call property of democracy . Without having roots in orthodox Christianity, they try to provoke distempers among christians, to push together them among themselves and mischievously to observe from outside that scandalous from this leaves. These people it is artificial kindle passions, inciting to radicalism, in natural, in general - that, process of search of new forms for the certificate to a modern society of immutable Christian trues. Other spiritually not got stronger believers, frequently that without feeling, go in the footsteps of those violent reformers to the Churches, which else have in the twenties compromised any searches of updating of church life. In turn, unreasonable pressure towards immediate transformations provokes fair reaction of aversion from outside ohranitelno the adjusted orthodox christians. They see in in a revolutionary way - reformatory tendencies of an extreme measure of that in contemporary history of the Russian Church has received the name obnovlenchestva, sad memory about which is live till now among believers.
about what incompatibility of religion and scientifically - technical progress there can be a speech today? In Russia active and fruitful dialogue with leading representatives of a science has begun, contacts to leading high schools of the country among which the leading place occupies the Moscow state university spread. In the Moscow State University there is even a house church - a temple of sacred martyr Tatiany which is the Patriarchal farmstead. Tatiana was diakonisoj, it ministered to people, and this ministering is an example for all of us as it is necessary to help each other. The Christ the Savior has told: As want, that with you people arrived, and you arrive with them (Mf. 7,12). If we are guided by this precept of the Christ of the Savior, it will be easier also to us, and near ours.
in a temple of sacred martyr Tatiany the formed and skilled shepherds, when - that ended Moscow State Universities bear the ministering. For it specificity of the largest high school of Russia that allows successfully blagovestvovat among students and teachers about the Lord our Jesus Christ, with love votserkovljat those who comes to It with a sincere heart is fine known, and to help young christians of university to confirm with the life the light gospel beginnings. Annually in Tatjanin day I minister a prayer service in university church because I consider myself as the promoter of students and on a broader scale all learning and pupils : whether it be students of the Moscow State University or other educational institutions of the country. I consider pertinent to remind that I am the full member of Academy of Education of the Russian Federation, and also the honourable professor of the Moscow State University. And you speak, as if the Church has lagged behind life . A lie it.
- and what you do not love the Internet, too a lie?
- Who to you has told, what I against modern technologies and the Internet in particular? Our Church actively uses all achievements accessible to us scientifically - technical progress. After all we not against scientific and technical successes and opening basically. It is important, that progress worked for the good of the person and was not used for alienation of people from God. And I know that, for example, the same Internet ministers very often to the purposes reprobate, and even criminal. It should oppose, and from possible temptations to abstain.
- it is interesting, and you have a personal computer?
- First ten years of the patriarchal ministering I objected to the personal computer. Simply I know people who not that that hours, and days cannot come off the computer! Here also thought, as though and me not to catch... It is a joke, certainly. But me it is valid time suggested to establish the computer in a study, to train andThe deputies Only as - that all hands did not reach, and, frankly speaking, did not lie smothering: at my age it is difficult to change habits. But life, as they say, has forced. I considered until recently that it is possible to live still in the old manner. When across all Moscow 120 priests ministered, I remembered all of them visually and on names. And when there were 49 wards I as a diocesan of Moscow, knew all wards, and always knew, than they live. Today in Moscow 450 wards and more than thousand ecclesiastics - all about all you will not remember. Gains the personal computer, in which my reviewer has put all necessary data and on the Moscow priests, and on many other things that on a post it is necessary for me to have always before eyes. Electronic memory is extensive, the computer operates quickly and it is pleasant to me. Sometimes there is a question - has pressed the button and, please: on the screen there and then there is a photo of the person necessary at present, all chronology of passage by it services and other necessary data. Conveniently!
- you and the Internet have mastered, your Svjatejshestvo?
- the Internet while is not present. The necessary information, especially that which concerns church life, for me prepare in the form of special reviews and inquiries. So I in a course of everything that occurs in Church, the country and the world. But that kasaemo the Internet I think that behind it the future. Today the Church tries to use all modern achievements. At us already now tens orthodox sites and, apparently, will be even more.
as to ours backwardness in language... As it is known, all temple worship services in Russian Orthodox Church on - former, as well as in old time, are made on church slavonic that, on - visible, and confuses other representatives of youth. However for this purpose there are serious bases. Should notice at once: Divine service language of Church becomes quite clear and easily accessible to everyone who has decided to concern seriously business own votserkovlenija. And here if such gravity is not present, no modern transfers will help the young man to become on the True way. By the way, on active mastering of bases of slavonic grammar we publish corresponding grants in enough. Regular and intelligent participation in divine service practice allows to apply them almost without problems. And after all it is meant that the orthodox person joins church slavonic language since the childhood. That some generations at children`s age have been aloof from normal divine service practice and is experienced now by difficulties with language, is tragedy, instead of a rule. Church slavonic language - language deep, capacious, ennobled. Any natural changes in language occur organically and slowly. All people creatively participate in this process. And it is simply impossible to translate all to a modern language at once. Losses and distortions from such violent action will be extreme and catastrophic not only for Church, but also for all national culture.
- a leah follows from the aforesaid, what your relation to modern youth is ambiguous? Others name it the lost generation ... You are irritated with youth culture which people of the senior generation, to put it mildly, not always conceive easy? A leah It is necessary you to put to the place of other young men, to do in their address critical remarks?
- the Young man and girls of Russia of the beginning of XXI century in nowise it is impossible to name the lost generation ! Certainly, and me which - that confuses in customs of young contemporaries. Their habits, a manner of behaviour, hobby and language at times push away. But each time, noticing something similar, I speak to myself: it is necessary to be indulgent and tolerant. Sacred Apostle Paul calls for it: And you, fathers, do not irritate your children, but nurture them in the doctrine and oracle Dominical (Eph. 6,4).
it seems to me that the young generation and without me quite often should listen to insulting speeches for the prosecution from the most different people. Someone irritates and even the youth culture, rough public activity of young men, and girls too frightens. And here I ask absolutely not idle question: instead of a leah we abuse, people of the senior generation, being fond of destructive criticism own, as a matter of fact, children? A leah not too a lot of time we spend for putting the diagnosis of spiritual illnesses ? A leah we miss thus possibility to help children, to open it a way to True Christ`s and to virtuous life? It is convinced that in relation to youth we happen more often are unfair. Wherefore in each young man and each girl there lives an ineradicable image God`s! Behind the external and alluvial the perfect soul which better qualities are shown in extreme situations disappears: on army service, in intense study, in the help near, got to a misfortune. And if someone from young leaves on the country far falls in a sin abyss responsibility for it is born also by the senior generations. The society reaps the fruits of a seventy-year captivity of godlessness. We ispivaem a bitter bowl for our sins, and gorshe all it is necessary youth. Really, fathers ate sour grapes, and at children on teeth a soreness of the mouth (Ier. 31, 29).
the Image of present Russia is inconsistent. In the Western world, got used to measure the phenomenon in the general arshin our country calls again misunderstanding and surprise. In it the infinite mammon and pity poverty adjoin, millions people are converted to eternal cultural wealth and various defects are simultaneously aggravated. Many are inspired by feeling of patriotism, but the western popular culture takes the increasing power over minds and hearts, especially young. However times do not choose and it means that it is necessary to learn to live on - hristianski in today`s our Fatherland: it was bestowed to us by God, means here to carry out to all of us the mission. Sacred Apostle John Bogoslov tells in the Gospels as Misters Jesus Christ confused with words about secrets of the Kingdom of heaven, many of Its pupils have departed from It and did not go any more with It. Then Jesus has told twelve: a leah you want to depart also? Simon Peter responded It: My God! To whom to us to go? You have verbs of eternal life... (In. 6, 66 - 68). As though I dreamt, that after all bitter hardship and shocks of XX century the transfigured Russia in an unanimous impulse has said this lowly confession of Apostle Peter!
it is difficult to find worthy words to tell about that pleasure and beauty which opens to everyone stepped into a way of spiritual life to the Christ. Really like other fathers, the today`s young will remember God only after long fruitless wanderings on world cross-roads, at the sepulchral line? Really to us, ecclesiastics, it is fated and to feel henceforth a pain for those who, even being nearby and hearing us, all the same remain to us strangers, ministering to gods other ? And as pastoral heart when it is necessary to see huge confluence of young men on spiritless entertainments longs. No, I in nowise denounce nobody. Not to do without youth the pressing forward to entertainments, competitions and, on a broader scale, the most different displays of creative search... Itself. Time and to True search, and prayful prestanding before the Lord however is necessary to find. After all if the soul has no communication with Duhom Bozhiim, it is exhausted, collapses, it appears defenceless before an impact of tempting, passion, defect. Have fun, the young man, in thy youth, and yes partakes thy heart of pleasure in days of thy youth, and go on ways of thy heart and on vision of thy eyes; only know that for all it is God will result you on court. Also delete grief from thy heart, and uklonjaj malicious from thy body... Also remember thy Founder in days of thy youth (Ekkl. 11, 9 - 12; 12, 1), - catechizes the Scriptus.
the earlier young heart will include Spirit God`s, the the further will be more fertile for this person.
to us zapovedano to pray for our enemies
- As patriotism and Christian humility can be combined? Why patriotism, special love to the people is not a version of collective arrogance? The greatest sacred sincerely considered themselves as the most unworthy among people. Leah logically and in the nationality, the people to see first of all lacks and in every possible way to moderate arrogance?
is the most serious subject which has also deep theoretical sense, and absolutely practical displays. Any simplifications and extreme measures here can be dangerous and fraught most terrible consequences.
sacred just John of Kronstadt so wrote about love to Fatherland: Love fatherland terrestrial... It has nurtured you, has distinguished, pochtilo, all dovolstvuet; but especially love Fatherland Heavenly... That fatherland incomparably is more expensive than it, because it piously and righteously, uncorruptibly. This Fatherland is merited to you by invaluable blood of Son Bozhija. But to be members of that Fatherland, respect and love (its) laws as you are obliged to respect and you respect laws of terrestrial fatherland .
Patriotism of the orthodox christian is shown in love to the fatherland having territorial measurement, and to the brothers by birth, living worldwide. This love - one of ways of execution of Bozhiej of a precept about the love for the neighbour including love to the family, fellow tribesmen, fellow citizens.
thus it is impossible to forget that the national feeling can appear a basis of such sinful phenomena, as aggressive nationalism, xenophobia, national exclusiveness, interethnic enmity. These phenomena in their extreme expression conduct to restriction of the rights of persons and the people, wars, violence.
our orthodox ethics of division of the people on good and bad do not suppose, do not allow to belittle any nation, especially - to put the nation to the place of God or to reduce belief to one of aspects of national consciousness.
The same as the Church unites the ecumenical beginning with national, and each christian, understanding itself the citizen of Heavenly Fatherland, should not forget about the terrestrial native land.
- however division even the fellow citizens on persons of different nationalities on potentially dangerous and unreliable became recently popular not only at household level. It explain at times the objective reasons, security reasons. A leah compatibly it with an orthodox sight at the person?
- One of the dangerous occupations most spiritually - search of the personified enemies in a society, in the state, among the next people. The unique original enemy of the christian is angrily in our own souls.
in one ancient legend it is told, as a certain friar has denounced the brother. After a while the one whom it has denounced, has died. Also was judging vision: Before it has appeared Angela with dushoju the brother and has told: Here you undertook to judge it. Well, as you will tell, and will be. Tell, a leah it is worthy everlasting destruction? But remember that as you will tell, and will be... and the person, it is easy sodelavshy itself the judge in human affairs, in horror has refused to make last court.
here and I want to ask the person of any nationality: a leah you in the face of the Christ can denounce the person as whom you consider as the enemy and the enemy of the earth, the people, and to tell: As he prevents to live to me, yes it will be betrayed death ? And any other court which you could make and justify, only having disappeared on behalf of God, it is injust and crafty.
- you, certainly, had to communicate with those who names itself atheists? Who they, in your opinion? They are people about identical belief or diverse? How you concern them?
- I Concern these people the same as and to another. Sincerely I wish them to find belief. After all, according to one of fathers of the Church, each soul by the nature hristianka. Certainly, among atheists there are different people. Only one name itself those, others thought of sense of life too little, the third are really convinced of the positions. I remember, how hard it was necessary to one our persecutor - to the representative of advice on affairs of religions - in years when Church revival has begun: after all it the person convinced, and sense of his life was in destruction of that began to be revived. It is the hardest crash of the person. Such to worry it is intolerable.
- but after all such people are persecutors of Church, its enemies. Sympathy for them unless is no identical to harm encouragement?
- the Savior to us zapovedano to pray for our enemies. The prayer always is creative pressure of good will. This operating, active wish in every way the soul of the original blessing and good, rescue to the one whom you prayerfully wish vrazumlenija. These people considered themselves as our enemies. We did not permit to ourselves to test to persecutors of hatred and zlozhelatelstva. If we have given in on such tempting, it would mean our spiritual capitulation before them. Wherefore would mean that a satanic host have entered into our heart and have made us uniform in rage with the persecutors.
abhor a sin and love trespasser - so tells Orthodoxy. I can and should denounce (in sense to state a moral estimation) an act of the person. But I cannot put an identity sign between this act and the person. I should counteract a malicious act, to the person - to help to cope with a sin, to surpass disbelief or maloverie, to find true belief.
- to help the person to find belief today all - taki easier, than in Soviet period. There are no interdictions. But is, probably, both the difficulties, and new counteractions, and any other extreme measures?
- It is impossible violently to force to believe anybody in God. It is made in a shower, in personal meeting good luck. But to each person what were its belief, it is necessary to concern with awesomeness relics of the ancestors. To relics of millions the people living before of us, and living near to us. That is why blasphemously to say from a platform, from the screen, from a teacher`s place of a word about God, about the Christ, the deprived awesomeness and fear of Bozhija.
to Live on conscience does not happen easily
- It is possible to tell, what in adult, independent - and here it is by all means necessary to add - labour life you have entered with ordaining you the priest?
- And was. It has turned out that the deacon I ministered all days. After ordaining in the priest me have appointed the prior of Bogojavlensky church of miner`s small town Jyhvi in rather heavy, I will directly tell, a little safe ward of the Tallinn archdiocese. It seemed to me that during war I have met displays of the biggest human grief and anything more terrible on light does not exist. But is not present: it was found out, as in a peace time in small town human travails can quite concentrate to directly - taki a rattling mix . Hardly probable not daily in antediluvian mines underground to people there were misfortunes: collapses, explosions... People lost supporters, came to church to read the burial service over them, to bury. As the priest, I has been obliged to divide a pain of everyone. On the earth this terrible life was accompanied by deep drunkenness, senseless fights, infringement of all conceivable principles of family existence. In such conditions the Lord judged to me to begin the pastoral ministering. But I did not groan. To the first ward always the special relation. To it dissipated efforts of the shepherd are directed still not.
- you ministered only in Russian or you could apply in church service and Estonian?
- I since the childhood know Estonian spoken language, I know also service on the Estonian. But to preach to me it was difficult. Sermon language differs from the household. In Estonian ward I have decided to spend the first sermon by means of the translator, but was quickly convinced that the word of the shepherd does not reach believers while translating. Speakt in church it is necessary to the ecclesiastic in native language for believers. Therefore in Estonian wards I tried to preach subsequently not so long, but on - estonski.
- Estonian church-goers have managed to appreciate it?
- Among believing Estonians there were people deeply religious and unboundedly betrayed to Orthodoxy. In Jyhvi to me on service six Estonians from so-called group of followers of Normana regularly came: they considered, it is necessary what to take communion every week. In due time will lock on weekly partaking has pushed them on transition from a Lutheranism in Orthodoxy. Russian church-goers have been much confused by their behaviour. It seemed to them wrong, some even have started to denounce Estonians. And meanwhile these church-goers lived in eighteen kilometres from our temple. In any weather - a rain, snow, a leah an impassability of roads - these people on poputkah, and is more often on foot reached church and since eight mornings started to pray. Therefore I have offered those who has begun to denounce so frequent Partaking, to follow an example how these people prepare for the Sacrament Sacred Christ`s Tain as find in a lap all rule, with what frantic eagerness it do. And denouncing have understood those Estonians. Even to look at them became hardly probable not with admiration. Here it seems to me important to notice that during my time there were no complications between Russian and Estonian part of clergy and congregation. Was not neither antagonism, nor hatred.
- whence it undertook today?
- All is a rotten fruit of today, stupid vypjachivanija the national feature and isolation. An appreciable role in created absolutely abnormal situation the unfair, aggressive position of Constantinople Patriarchy has played. But sooner or later, I am assured, all these nestroenija will be overcome.
- you never confused, especially by youth that in the twenty years` priest people should see and recognise the confessor... What for on a broader scale priests name fathers? A leah is not present in it a fair share of exaggeration, especially if for this role the person is defined still rather young and on years, and the more so by experience?
- the Shepherd is obliged to be the father, and it is young or sed are values has no. Our sacred debt - to help people to overcome every possible difficulties, tests. That on each ward, in each monastery the people coming for a prayer, felt: about them care and the most sincere care is shown. The shepherd, first of all, is obliged to be the father, it should sponsor the flock of spiritual children entrusted to it with fatherlike love. And youth to that not a hindrance. The main thing that the ecclesiastic was capable to show Christ`s love in relation to those who to it is converted to strengthen them in belief and to help with difficulties. Fatherlike blagopopechenie to show... Certainly, it was necessary to me hardly: improbably difficult destinies, family dramas, social and human defects... It to me was necessary to plunge into all for the whole seven years - so much I have served in the Bogojavlensky temple in Jyhvi and, I dare to hope, for many have managed to become the present confessor. After all the shepherd mostly deals with the people, which were converted to it. And time the person was converted into church, means, the moral beginning in it has already cleared up. The problem of the shepherd to clear in the person and to force to begin to sound at the top of the voice the best strings of soul. Though that was created around, sometimes resulted in depression and contributed in spiritual awakening a little.
- conditions the Soviet validity on - visible, not the most favorable for execution of pastoral responsibilities?
- Certainly. However, by then the Russian Orthodox Church has already adapted to not palatable, but to quite tolerant conditions of coexistence with communistic ideology. Persecutions proceeded, both visible, and latent. But the Church has survived, and it was the most important thing.
it is important to distinguish will of Bozhiju about Russia
- Some consider that for the a survival it is a high time for Russian Orthodox Church to confess. As you believe: a leah is guilty Russian Orthodox Church before Russian people for the humility before Bolsheviks?
- I Will repeat: the Church svjata not sanctity of the members, and sanctity of the Christ - It lives and operates in it. And we, christians, should given to us God talents multiply. If we do not multiply them, means we trespass. Each of us has sins before God and before the near... What is the Russian Orthodox Church, how not the Russian people? Also there is no sin at the Russian Church, the Russian people separate of a sin.
- you could concretise your words?
- I Will try. The matter is that the question of a repentance of Russian Orthodox Church stirs mainly Russian Foreign Church from which we have till now a number of disagreements. For us such situation is sad, as has exclusively political character. After all delimitation of believers on a political basis is unacceptable for Russian Orthodox Church. At those who after events of 1917 remained in Russia, and those who has left it, different experience of existence. Store the Lord of others from the experience received by Russian Orthodoxy for years of the Soviet power! It is experience of life in the conditions of a repressive mode. How to survive at totalitarianism if there are no hopes of its disintegration? For the Most holy Patriarch Tihona in poslerevoljutsionnoe time was important to distinguish will of Bozhiju about Russia. In the patriarchal sermon of those years the thought that in misfortunes which have comprehended Russia, ourselves are guilty constantly sounds:... Worthy bo on our affairs it is comprehensible (Lk. 23, 41) it is comprehensible, instead of we reject, we do not escape. It is area of deep Christian experiences.
spiritual wisdom of the person is defined by its relation to those misfortunes which comprehend him, its people, its native land. It is measured by in what degree we are ready to accept, realise and justify these travails. It is necessary to be able to distinguish in a misfortune not any accident, and a cross - a heavy cross, through which the person should be updated. The love and travail is a cross. The Christ to The crucifixion spoke:... Who wants to follow Me, reject itself, and take the cross, and follow Me (Mf. 16, 24).
the Way Christ`s tjazhek. To any who lives on conscience, never happens easily. But spiritually is really burden easy and good. Wherefore conscience obedience, love obedience is joyful.
certainly, it is easy to accuse from positions of book moralism now Russian Orthodox Church that she has paid to the caesar too big tribute. However as it is possible not to understand thus that time a tribute paid we we and worried a moral pain and a flour incomparably big, than our far judges.
- and judges who - Russian Foreign Church? A leah is not too severe its position in relation to the Orthodox church in the homeland? What ways of reconciliation see to you as to the Head of Russian Orthodox Church if, certainly, see on a broader scale?
- Russian Foreign Church has arisen in 1922, it was made by hierarches, clergymen and laymen who after October revolution have left Russia. Many years it did not show special activity on the historical native land. Today she has started to declare herself everywhere where only it is possible, and the main thing - actively tries to spread the wards in canonical territory of the Moscow Patriarchy. Thus its representatives quickly find common language with local authorities, promising generous material aid on restoration of ancient monuments or social activity.
- Then money at Russian Foreign Church is. And, judging by vigour of its actions to Russia, money considerable. It would be curious to know, whence?
is us interests least. For the sake of justice I will notice that we gave a hand time and again brotherly reconciliation to heads of Russian Foreign Church. Last year have directed to New York, on the Arhierejsky Cathedral of Russian Orthodox Church abroad our Brotherly message in which have expressed sincere readiness to begin process of association of all Russian Church. There there are such lines: The grief executes our hearts because that we, conventual community, pravoslavno shriving uniform belief, we can not prichastitsja from a uniform Bowl and we continue to be in a captivity of historically got rid division. Many sensitive souls, especially from among the Russian people living behind boundaries of Fatherland, are weighed upon such position, aspiring to find ways to its overcoming .
- That you have received in the answer?
- I thought that there will be softer answer, than that has followed. To quote it I do not see sense, but I will notice that split which exists today in Russian Foreign Church here affects. There are ardent opponents of any contacts to Mother - Church. Though the majority of hierarches is supported by the beginning of dialogue and possible association. We hope that the common sense all - taki will prevail. The matter is that, in addition, the Foreign Church loses every year the " more and more; russkost . The new generation of the episcopate already now basically not Russian on a nationality, and belongs to the people of those countries where Russian Foreign Church carries out the ministering.
it is ridiculous.
- it is ridiculous, of course, though for Russian Church - not so. One more decade, and in Russian Foreign Church only the name remains to Russian. Time presses, it is necessary to reunite with Mother - Church.
I repeat: we with all responsibility realise that its members of Russian Foreign Church - ours edinovernye both only-begotten brothers and sisters, and repeatedly suggested them to cultivate together spiritually - a moral field of updating of Russian people. But, to a huge regret, our hand each time hangs in air. And after all we do not put any preliminary conditions. To the contrary, the conditions are put forward by them.
- you could tell, in what an essence of these conditions?
- the Essence one: confess!. First of all from us demand to refuse the Declaration of 1927 of metropolitan Sergija (Stragorodsky). About this declaration now it is a lot of disputes. Accepted in hope to stop persecutions on Orthodoxy - ecclesiastics shot, put in prisons - it those years has not conceived due action. In the plan substantial the declaration was attempt of an explanation of Church with the authorities which have refused to it in the right to existence. It was necessary to explain that the Church will not use the authority for an aggravation of confronting of the people and the power, for kindling of political passions. Therefore metropolitan Sergy in this declaration also has told: We want to be orthodox and to realise Soviet Union the native land, which pleasures - our pleasures, which grieves - our grieves . On this formula there were many attacks in the church environment. Others assert till now that metropolitan Sergy ostensibly considered that pleasures of Church and the atheistic state - same. But he told not about the atheistic state, and about the native land - Russia, with which at Church really one pleasures, one troubles, one destiny. And then, unless not the same Tertullian, one of the first Christian seminary students, to the Roman emperor, also the atheist and the persecutor of christians has told: When the state is shaken by afflictions, we live in misery as well we together with its all members and though the crowd considers us as strangers, but the misfortune, apparently, will not bypass also us (Tertullian. Apologia. XXXI, 3). Alas, and this time the misfortune has not avoided christians - contrary to their underlined unwillingness to enter in rasprju with the state on political grounds.
in the formula of metropolitan Sergija there is a subtlety which many why - that do not notice. He speaks about the native land in those days when a word it was hardly probable not under an official interdiction! And consequently do not correspond to true of the statement from the message of the Synod of Russian Foreign Church that The declaration of metropolitan Sergija on a celebration of interests of Church and the godless state deprives till now the Patriarchy of freedom . If as deprived the Patriarchy of freedom, so, probably, all - taki not the declaration...
matter is not in words more than seventy-year prescription - magic force they have no. But the course planned still by Patriarch Tihonom and developed by metropolitan Sergiem, nevertheless has helped to save Church and to live till today. We took a smaller sin on the conscience to avoid a sin bolshego. So the soldier in the war kills other soldier and it is a sin. But to give on pogublenie to the enemy near, from the point of view of Church, would be a sin incomparably big. Personal perfection sometimes it is necessary to sacrifice for the sake of the blessing of others. The patriarch or a metropolitan substituting under notorious defeat the congregation, would sin before God, people, Russia it is a lot of more than the compromise having protected Church. And it was necessary to protect it different ways, including loyalty intoning to the Soviet power. By the way, the position of Patriarch Tihona which did not begin to call believers for armed resistance, is deeply implanted in orthodox tradition. Really it was not its personal decision. In it the belief of all Church was showed, weigh its two-thousand-year experience.
yes, it is sick. But the mullions-strong Church in the totalitarian state in catacombs cannot leave. We trespassed. But are guilty for it not before the people. After all for the sake of it, for the sake of possibility not to leave definitively from real life of millions people hierarches of Church took on soul a sin - a silence sin. For this sin before God we repented always. However it seems to foreign Church of it a little. She demands a public repentance of each hierarch and each ecclesiastic for an accessory to the Moscow Patriarchy. Then it has not enough blood of the martyrs who have testified the fidelity to Orthodoxy those terrible years. Who acts today in a role of our judges? Yes those who for many years were behind ocean in perfect security. If they such basic why those difficult years have not arrived to the native land, have not divided with us weight of a cross?. Claims decided, it is clear. And the reason for that, seems to me, one: Russian Foreign Church simply does not wish to lose the independence, is afraid to be dissolved in Russian Orthodox Church, carrying out together with us ministering to the people.
still us have accused of excessive hobby for ecumenicalism: a pier why we do not refuse participation in movement for association of all Christian Churches?
- and really - why?
- Yes because to any sane person, and to the ecclesiastic so the more, it should be clear that today in so intense and inconsistent world any Church including Russian Foreign, cannot leave in isolation. Especially now, when in the world extends batsilla global terrorism. We should and we will communicate with representatives of other faiths and confessions to unite efforts against harm. And here if we will leave in isolation any joint opposition to terrorism at us it will not turn out, and interreligious pressure will accrue only.
in all Christian international organisations in which the Russian Orthodox Church participated, it bore to Sacred Orthodoxy, its presence helped the western confessions to understand an orthodox position better. However never and anybody from those who participated in the international Christian organisations, on a jot did not renounce the belief.
- That further?
- As it is known, a metropolitan of Monasteries became the head of the Synod of Russian Foreign Church. The former head of the Synod, metropolitan Vitaly who in the summer of 2001 has submitted the application on resignation on a status is healthyja and in view of old age, it is unexpected for all has decided not to leave on rest. He has accused a new management of Russian Foreign Church... In intention to unite with the Moscow Patriarchy.
- as you consider, a leah it is possible to return to our native land, Russia, former sanctity?
- to Return former political system it is impossible, and to return to the lost system of values it is possible and even it is necessary. Know, at the time of when our ancestors said that they from Sacred Russia it at all did not mean that Russia haughtily considered itself sacred. Russia aspired to sanctity, cleanliness and impeccability. She only aspired to reach perfections, and after all it is perfect! If we want to revive Sacred Russia, first of all, should seize that hierarchy of values with which we are obliged by the best pages of the history. All it is connected with the conviction, which Russia has absorbed from Orthodoxy: only sanctity is normal for the person. The sin - any even most, apparently, insignificant and extended, is abnormal, because it deforms a human nature. Spiritual maximalism - national line of Russia. It was shown and shown in all. Even Bolsheviks have flashed this line... Russia with a pain, but has endured burden of ministering to false gods.
our Church wanted to survive from light by 1981
- we Will return to the beginning of the fiftieth years: the first years of your pastoral activity. To you it was dreamt, at least in the sleep, about those times, when fetters will fall and church life in Russia becomes free?
- There was not a dream, and confidence that something similar when - nibud will occur. There will be I during that moment on the earth or will pass in the world other - not so for me it was important. Simply I understood that thousand-year Christianity even the most cruel bogoborcheskaja on Russian soil cannot absorb the power. Wherefore God could not leave the people which have so loved It in the former history. And in the further pastoral activity, without seeing decades of a gleam, we did not leave prayers and hope - over hope believed with nadezhdoju, on expression of Apostle Paul (see:Πθμ. 4, 18). We after all knew history of mankind and did not doubt love of God to Its sons. We scooped confidence from this knowledge that times of tests and darkness domination when - nibud will by all means come to an end. Glory to the Lord our Jesus Christ that people and the authorities have understood at last: to wage war with Church and with belief - all the same what to conduct it with own conscience and soul.
- but unless participants of this struggle had conscience and soul?
- They after all too were people.
- for example, Nikita Sergeevich Khruschev - the person vulnerable that was found out, truth, already after the urged resignation, in days of, so to say, pension self-flagellation... Something remembered to you this, undoubtedly, the outstanding fan to give out wished for valid, the figure of the Soviet epoch?
- by Much it was remembered... After all the coil of persecutions and all afflictings is connected with this person in the history of Russian Orthodox Church next and, perhaps, sharpest recently. I believe that the reasons, motivated to renew in 1958 the active antireligious policy, are covered in desire of the first secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU, and at the same time and the chairman of the council of ministers of the USSR to neutralise heat of hatred to it. It as you, I hope has ignited, understand, at all in church circles, and in partijno - nomenclature, and has been called by an unexpected dethronement of a cult of personality of the leader previous - Joseph Stalin at XX congress of the CPSU. Khruschev urgently needed by the most evident image to show to associates the adherence and loyalty to business of the main leader of world proletariat, with maniacal persistence pursuing Russian Orthodox Church from first days of capture of the power in Russia Bolsheviks.
under the direction of Khruschev the adventurous plan of the accelerated construction of communism in the USSR - by 1981 has been quickly developed. light the future, on an idea of this really outstanding schemer, should accept exclusively released from a religious dope the Soviet people. The CPSU with frantic force has begun to carry out the problem set by the leader: the Church to the planned term was required by any image to survive simply with light.
that here has begun! Central, and after it the republican and local government, it is frequent contrary to the Soviet legislation, and also many international agreements under human rights, have fallen upon church wards, achieving under any pretext of their self-dissolution. It conducted to closing of set of temples, houses of worship, communities. The special attention was given to closing of cathedral churches. To destroy the tradition of baptism of children widespread and saved in the people, have established obligatory check in of passports of parents: now data on the taken place baptisms of children were by all means informed in a place of work of parents. Sometimes it involved serious consequences, up to dismissal from work dared on this, from the point of view of the authorities, an anti-Soviet step. The authorities forbade partaking of children, did not suppose them on worship services in temples. Even the order of worship services should be defended in struggle against atheists. So, for example, in 1960 paschal religious processions, ostensibly from - for hooliganisms have been stopped during a night office of vigils. In the first year and I have obeyed, ministered for Easter in the morning - in order to avoid misunderstanding with the authorities. Has served and has understood - not that!. There is no life-giving paschal pleasure either at ministering clergy, or at congregation. For other year has solved: come what may, and I will serve everything as it is necessary, at night. To the people has gathered much, a matin have begun, as well as it is necessary, to minister after religious procession on a parvis that the feast was felt by all gathered. Certainly, was not neither hooliganisms, nor spiteful barrackings. Since then paschal worship services again began to be made at night. For believers it not a trifle. And at me the special pleasure was: has not given in and has defended an ecclesiastical law. Then it is possible to resist...
but, perhaps, most terrible is that mansions have undergone to persecution. The overwhelming majority them have closed without any explanations. In operating monasteries of the power aspired to reduce to a minimum quantity naselnikov. For example, in Estonia, considerable reduction of number of rural wards was contributed by deportation of local residents in connection with collectivisation and struggle against Estonian nationalism in 1940 - 1950.
acts miropravitelej darkness of this century (Eph. 6, 12) on destruction in souls of people of belief were various, appear, there is no limit of their refined crafty ingenuity. But the most terrible, perhaps, was that at Church the future was resolutely selected. And without that small Spiritual educational institutions were ruthlessly closed. Everything became in every possible way to complicate and not to admit, finally, receipt there necessary quantity of pupils, no less than to prevent acceptance of worthy entrants.
closing threat has hung and over Aleksandro - the Neva cathedral in Tallinn, and over the Uspensky Pjuhtitsky female monastery...
- your favourite holy sites?
I have asked Money for repair of a temple for Patriarch ALEX I
- Here - that also there has come a limit to your long-suffering?
- Matter is not in my long-suffering. To understand by then I already there was simply much in surrounding life, and with experience there was also an ability to confront with its main misfortunes. Since June, 1957 and to mine arhierejskoj hirotonii I was the prior of the Cathedral of the Dormition in Tartu and decent Tartussky district. In August 1958 - go has been erected in a dignity of the protopope, and in half a year it is appointed by decent Tartu - Viljandinsky district in which 30 wards were. In Estonian wards I made worship services in Estonian language, in Russian - on church slavonic. Happens so that the prior of the Cathedral of the Dormition in Tartu me have appointed on the threshold of commemorating 175 - summer anniversary of the basis of this cathedral. The building was in a terrifying status, the fungus transformed rotted through floors into dust. Has reached that in 1958 in a side-altar for the sake of the Prelate and Miracle man Nikolay during worship service the floor has failed. Urgent repair was required, but anybody from local authorities was not going to allocate money for it. Then I have dared at a desperate step, have got on a train and have gone to Moscow. From the Riga station has gone straight to the patriarchal residence, which and then settled down in the Pure lane. There has met the secretary of Patriarch Alex I Daniel Andreevichem Ostapovym. He has attentively listened to me, has like sympathy and has soon presented to the Most holy Patriarch. Having learnt about my misfortune, the Patriarch has disposed to allocate necessary money. Directly from residence I have contacted the Lord John, in arhipastyrskom which care there was at that time a Tallinn archdiocese, and has received its blessing on cathedral repair. Thus, one of the oldest temples of Estonia has been rescued.
- And you are so successfully presented Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia Alex I. Its Svjatejshestvo has well remembered your persistence?
- I do not know, what exactly was remembered about me by the Patriarch that on a broader scale has had time to make out in some minutes of ours with it of dialogue, but something, probably, it was pleasant to it. In two years he has called me on arhierejskoe ministering.
- for you it became the big unexpectedness?
- the Most holy Patriarch Alex I has explained you as - that the choice?
- No explanation existed. But I have felt at once its fatherlike care of me. On this basis there was a huge trust with which the Most holy Patriarch Alex from the very beginning of my activity as the diocesan bishop, and a bit later and the vice-president of Department of the external church intercourses (OVTSS), immutably concerned me. In 1964 on representation of the Most holy Patriarch by Definition of the Sacred Synod I have been appointed Operating affairs of the Moscow Patriarchy and became a constant member of the Sacred Synod.
the most holy Patriarch completely trusted me the decision of the majority of internal questions of life-support of Church. And still he liked to remember the parents, often did it at me. And after my trips to Switzerland every time by all means was interested at me, a leah I called in in Veve where his parents liked to spend summer? I brought to the Most holy Patriarch of a card and photographic kinds of Veve, it considerably pleased him. Modesty of the Most holy Patriarch Alex, its nobleness, high spirituality - all it made on my huge, not passing impact. Last worship service which it has made shortly before the demise, was in 1970, on Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary. In the patriarchal residence in the Pure lane after its withdrawal in the world other remains the Gospels opened in words: Nowadays otpushchaeshi Thy slave, Vladyko, on Thy verb, with the world... (Lk. 2,29).
on a postthreshing barn I have extended a lot and have saved the name
- That, on - to yours, moves the person to lives?
- the Purpose. A clear aim which each of us should plan to itself by all means. The person aspires to this purpose and, probably, will achieve its achievement all life. But it should reach it because differently life will turn to nonsense. The purpose is a movement, in its achievement sense of human existence.
- your vital purpose?
- Adequately to pass a way of pastoral ministering which centuries there took place prelates of the Earth Russian. To achieve perfection in the business - ministering to the Lord our Jesus Christ.
- but today you, your Svjatejshestvo, are at top of the church power, have managed to reach, apparently, all!. Unless not so?
- And all are not present perfection... Look, how much ill-wishers have again appeared at Russian Orthodox Church, how much essential problems press its heavy burden!., To a certain extent, I would like to consider myself as the collector of our today`s Church, and it means that all cargo of responsibility for all event lies on me. So, as you can see, before achievement of my vital purpose to me still to go and go.
- in due time you became one of the youngest bishops of Russian Orthodox Church. But it after all not in church tradition: to put in hierarches of the youth - experience it is poorly, the worldly wisdom practically is not present. And all - taki you have devoted in a dignity of a diocesan - why?
- On a broader scale - those 32 years - age not such young. And the main thing - canonical for bishopic hirotonii. But I understand, about what you, and I hurry to tell: No protection, especially nachalstvennyh from the state instances and other shifts in mine narechenii is present instructions. The Principal cause of so fast soar of young priests is in those days a so-called demographic emptiness which, unfortunately, was formed in shots of Russian Orthodox Church after known drama events of 1917. It is known, for example, that in communication only with one campaign for withdrawal of the church values, begun in February, 1922 in Russia, Bolsheviks have shot more than ten thousand ecclesiastics and believers. Among them there were many church hierarches, for example a metropolitan Petrograd and Gdovsky Veniamin. Before an innocent victim of red terror there was abbess Marfo - the Mariinsky mansion in Moscow grand duchess Elisaveta Feodorovna. The Church has incurred huge human losses in the thirties... Besides the system of Spiritual educational institutions has been liquidated, the rigid course on reduction of number of bishops and a non-admission to arhipastyrskomu to ministering tserkovno active candidates was showed. To the beginning 1960 - h in Russian Orthodox Church remains a few arch-flamens possessing regular doctrinal preparation, received by them till 1918. That is why our Orthodoxy chronically did not suffice both ecclesiastics, and hierarches. Not I one have received such honour, but to me is pleasant, as I have appeared among them.
- last year you had an anniversary: it was executed forty years your monastic a postthreshing barn and yours arhierejskoj hirotonii. Tell, please, as it was?
- Monastic postthreshing barns I, being the protopope, has accepted on March, 3rd, 1961 in Troitsk a cathedral Piously - Troitsk Sergievoj of Monastery and has been named by Alex - in honour of prelate Alex, a metropolitan Moscow. On a shrine with the relics of Venerable Sergija Radonezhsky two lots - with names of prelate Alex and Venerable Sergija have been put. I have extended the lot which has saved my name.
Narechenie in a diocesan Tallinn and Estonian occurred in native Aleksandro for me - the Neva cathedral church of Tallinn on September, 2nd, 1961. A rank narechenija made an archbishop the Yaroslavl and Rostov Nicodemus (Rotov), an archbishop Gorki and Arzamas John (Alexeys) - it I replaced on stand of the Tallinn and Estonian diocesan, and also a diocesan the Kostroma and Galichsky Nicodemus (Rusnak). Certainly, during those instants me the most raised feelings which I have tried to express in a word traditional for such event at narechenii in a diocesan owned.
- you could remember today about what spoke more forty years ago?
- I spoke about great confusion endured by me and thrill, about consciousness of the infirmity and inexperience, about my youth, about difficulties of this high ministering expecting me. Spoke about the fidelity to covenants of the Christ of the Savior for shepherds of Sacred Church - the soul to believe for the friends (In. 15, 13), about necessity to be for correct the sample in a word, in life, in love, in the spirit of, in belief, in cleanliness (1 Tim. 4, 12), in truth, Godliness, belief, love, patience, mildness, podvizatsja kind act of faith (1 Tim. 6, 11 - 12). I bore to the derznovennoj to belief that the Lord will strengthen me and spodobit as the maker nepostydna, the right pravjashcha a true word (2 Tim. 2, 15) to give the worthy answer to court Dominical for souls of the congregation entrusted to my guidance.
I hirotonija has been made on Sunday, on September, 3rd, 1961, behind the Divine liturgy in Aleksanro - the Neva cathedral church the same arch-flamens.
- and how reacted to yours hirotoniju the power?
- the Soviet power in the name of the authorised Advice on affairs of religions at Ministerial council of the USSR across Estonia, certain Yana Samojlovicha Kantera, has prepared for me worthy a gift : in the very first days of mine arhierejstva to me have informed that else summer of 1961 the decision on closing of the Pjuhtitsky female monastery - the only thing at that time in Estonia is accepted. Pskovo - the Pechersky monastery was a part of the Pskov archdiocese, and Pjuhtitsy remained now in loneliness. Also were subject to closing 36 unprofitable temples.
- that means this strange expression an unprofitable temple ?
is a pretext and more anything. Under such pretext the atheistic authorities liked to close orthodox temples in Estonia in days of Khruschev`s approach to Church.
- but at least this pretext had any basis?
- the Formal basis, of course, was. You see in Estonia Orthodoxy very difficultly won to itself a place in the sun . Affected strong German - Lutheran influence. For example, at Nikolay I the general - governor Lifljandii so then the part of Estonia was called, was a baron a background of Palen - the German. The chief of the Russian gendarmerie have besides put the German - well-known count Benkendorfa. In Lutheran wards pastors Germans ministered too basically. Big land-owners in district - Germans all actually!. In the thesis for a doctor`s degree devoted to Estonian Orthodoxy, I result scandalous examples of how the people who have put on a dagger on a neck and wished to pass in Orthodoxy, awarded to 60 blows by a thong and the penalty in 15 copecks silver for use of this thong... Therefore if also it was possible to achieve the temple building licence, badlands were for this purpose allocated exclusively. And it, notice, in territory of the Russian empire!
here, let us assume, settlement. In the centre - Lutheran kirha. And only in three - four kilometres from settlement where - nibud in wood, there is an orthodox temple. When peasants moved on horsies, to reach a temple it it was simple. But then horsies pootbirali in collective farms, and in due course there were they a fashion. Municipal progress has replaced people to public transport which it is known as goes, - and orthodox churches became less accessible to ordinary church-goers. The Soviet power long thought, with what with a dirty trick us still to award and, at last, has thought to declare orthodox temples seldom visited, and consequently, not profitable. A word - that what have found!
- but for you such a gift was as a knife in a back! As there was it almost right after fulfilment hirotonii...
- the Situation became complicated that time even on reflexion, without speaking about any actions, at me practically was not. Closing of temples were going to begin within the next few days. Term of ruin of the Pjuhtitsky monastery - has been appointed on October, 1st, 1961 also. On its place of the power were going to open rest house for miners...
- here to you and year of cosmonaut Gagarin! Judging by a newsreel, the country exulted: As, the first-ever person, touched space, became the simple Russian guy... Man`s reason victory and so on... And on the earth, it appears, not well-founded injustice was managed scandalous, by anything reasonable. What have you undertaken?
- Began to argue and, moreover, has forced to listen to my arguments bogobortsev.
Well, unless there can begin a young diocesan the ministering in archdiocese with an assumption of mass closing of temples and ruin obshchepravoslavnoj relics - the Pjuhtitsky monastery? As I will have a talk with congregation to whom I can prove that is not guilty personally of such blatant injustice, after all anybody and not begins to listen: at what arch-flamen have closed a temple, that bishop and is guilty! With these questions I was converted to representative Ja.S.Kantoru. The person it has appeared in general - that quite good, it is possible even to tell, sincere. It, in turn, has finished my ardent arguments on corresponding instance, having found them, on my happiness, quite reasonable, and immediate closing of a monastery and temples has been postponed to the best times as they then were expressed.
in defender Pjuhtits I have called justice.
- you have received a small respite, but also only. It was impossible to believe, what you so also Church, suddenly will leave alone?
- In it anybody also did not believe. The atheistic power understood and took into consideration only political arguments. It is good to declare, of course, that the Church should remain under any circumstances out of a policy. But when these circumstances finished to the point of irrationality, take by the throat? When speech comes both about spiritual, and about a physical survival - it is not less? No, I was not going to respond to meanness still the big insidiousness, it is absolutely unacceptable for the ecclesiastic. However to be idle too did not gather. Those heavy years for Church in our arsenal was not so many ways of influence on the power. But which - that appeared... For example, a leah of effective results was possible to achieve at a positive mention of that other mansion or a temple in a foreign press. To organise similar publications it was, of course, uneasy, but other exit I simply did not see. Has started to find out, how it can be made. The plan has blossomed. To carry out it to me the Most holy Patriarch Alex has helped. I have received from it one more, extremely responsible obedience - have been appointed by the vice-president of Department of the external church intercourses. The department put a problem of expansion of interchurch contacts because it there was very strong argument in favour of the Church survival during that hard time. We developed not only peace-making ministering of Russian Orthodox Church, but also interreligious cooperation, came into rather useful contacts with inoslaviem. Thus, I had a possibility to go abroad. Thanks to it in the beginning of 1962 I have managed to invite, and then and to bring in Pjuhtitsy the first delegation evangelichesko - Lutheran Church of the German Democratic Republic as a part of seventeen persons. They have visited a female monastery, were moved from seen, and soon in the German newspaper Neue Zeit enthusiastic article with photos has been published. Not to notice it in power structures where each foreign word in our address was especially carefully fixed, simply not could. But while official reaction was not, I had one more happy possibility - to invite in a monastery Protestant delegation from France. As it has been noted by new correspondence in a foreign press. Notice, rather benevolent for the Soviet authorities...
- we know that your father just heavy was sick at this time...
- Yes, it lay with a heart attack. And I have been urged to go together with delegation to a monastery that all it there properly to show... I accepted for the first time foreigners as a diocesan, experience was not, only one pressing forward - to rescue a monastery! The father as anybody understood me, was well informed about my idea. When said goodbye, has wished me success. Despite illness, hotly prayed for me, and then rejoiced to successful end operations . For any moment he even felt better...
my plan of rescue of Pjuhtits has worked! However, about one year danger of closing of the Pjuhtitsky monastery was still saved, but after so active interest of foreigners its destiny the question on mansion ruin as - that has decayed and more in the sharp form did not arise.
- and in to the stupid form - was? It is not believed, what so aggressive power, having lost at the first stage, it was receded once and for all from the conceived meanness?
- it was not receded, certainly. In 1964 the management of Jyhvinsky district executive committee has made the decision on alienation from the Pjuhtitsky monastery of a temple in honour of Venerable Sergija Radonezhsky and the former summer residence of prince Sergey Shahovsky as they are out of a monastic fencing. It was valid so wherefore to enclose all territory of a monastery with a new fencing we then simply had no possibility. It became clear to me that to protect a temple and residence, specifying in impossibility of closing of operating church, it will not be possible. To us have declared: in a monastery there are three more temples for satisfaction of religious needs - was at the Soviet validity and such expression. What to do? To start suit with any district executive committee business terribly ungrateful. Small officials the big pigheads, and demagogues so simply monstrous!. I also have decided to call in defenders of Pjuhtits neither much nor a little - justice.
- What justice could help you with the totalitarian state of militant atheists?
- Historical! Historical justice always on the truth party, instead of forces. Here and me it was possible to prove that destruction or transformation into the next club of amateur performances of a temple where there is a tomb of governor Estljandii of prince Sergey Shahovsky, is so much forces put on association of Estonia and Russia, is illogical not only with historical, but also substantially from the political point of view. The outstanding statesman of the past who considered that only a generality of religious confession can strengthen our people and unity of the state, and has very much made for this purpose, has merited rest in a monastic temple... To convince of necessity strictly it was necessary to observe historical justice not only opponents of Church from the mighty of this world, but also simple citizens, especially from the new Soviet intelligency, frequently concerning Church and a monkhood, as to something alien and hostile. Should admit that quite often such relation was contributed by minor orders, with pride, to suspiciousness or from jealousy not on reason not wishing and not able to find common language with the while compatriots far from belief. So, for example, in the Pjuhtitsky mansion as a result of several misunderstanding and mutual suspiciousness the conflict between a monastery has inflamed and... The local doctor! The regional authorities have passed in its conducting the former hostel for pilgrims which was directly at gate, behind a monastery fencing. The conflict essence was simple: the doctor expecting that a monastery will be any day it is converted In rest house for miners where he expected to hold a leading post, began to interfere actively with mansion affairs, without reckoning with monastic foundations. Commanding in a mansion igumenija Angelina responded it hostility and suspiciousness. I have decided to understand the conflict itself. We long talked to the doctor on the most different subjects, have found certain mutual understanding on many questions and eventually have appeared are nice each other. Know, than that history has ended?
- the doctor remained without good work.
- the Doctor remained the doctor, anything bad with it does not happen. And here both sons of this doctor became subsequently priests!
- have remarkably talked!. Admit, your Svjatejshestvo, you feed special feelings to the Pjuhtitsky monastery? It is connected with your children`s memoirs or with something else?
- Yes, likely, only gradually... For the first time I have got to this mansion the baby, in diapers. Parents came often here and, of course, took me with itself. I grew in the face of nuns, they with me were nursed, played. Has come to love this mansion very much. So for me it is the first love, and it, as it is known, is not forgotten. Therefore the Pjuhtitsky Uspensky female monastery to which this year 110 years, a subject of my special cares and cares are executed. And after the mansion managed to be rescued from, apparently, inevitable closing and ruin, it to me became even more expensive.
at this mansion really the nice history, and me would be desirable it you to tell in brief. In vizitatsionnom report 1608 stored in archive revelskoj of a consistory, it is written down that at the Isaaksky chapel there are some peasants who speak exclusively on - russki. They reluctantly allow to catechize itself in the Christianity that is why converge not married . On Russian border there are villages which do not belong to any Church, and peasants from them have dared to construct Russian chapel where ministers visitors from - for borders the priest. The ancient legend which has been written down in annals of orthodox Ilinsky church of village Syrenets on the bank of Chudsky lake, narrates about how once the shepherd - the Estonian has seen the majestic woman surrounded with radiant light, on the Pjuhtitsky mount. This mount Estonians - lutherans named Crane, orthodox - Bogoroditsky, both those and others together - Pjuhtitsky, that is sacred!. And so, the shepherd fascinated seen, has decided to approach to the woman. But when it began to come nearer, vision has disappeared. However it was necessary to it to turn only to flock as the woman has appeared again. The next day the shepherd has called with itself fellows villager, and all has repeated in accuracy, as in previous day. They were bewitched by the same vision but when have approached more close, the woman was dissolved in solar streams of a decline. For the third day already the crowd of peasants was to contemplate this miracle. And all has repeated. Then daredevils have got on a mount. On a place of wonderful vision, under an old oak, they have found Uspenija Bozhiej Materi`s icon. Taking an image, Estonians have passed its orthodox peasants of village of the Hole: Take it to itself, we do not pray to images, and you, Russian, pray . Orthodox, having accepted with awesomeness and pleasure the shown icon, have constructed on that place a small chapel in honour of assumption of the Birth-Giver of God of Bozhiej of Mother and there have put an image. Since then the cathedral priest from Narva annually came on August, 15th to make service for pilgrims coming here. Then an icon have transferred to Narva, in a cathedral. When in village Syrenets the church to it in 1818 have attributed the Pjuhtitsky chapel has been constructed. The wonder-working icon of Bozhiej of Mother has been transferred in syrenetskuju church, whence it every year on August, 15th religious procession delivered in Pjuhtitsy. In 1842 vezenbergsky a merchant Nesterov has received from Uspenija Bozhiej Materi`s Pjuhtitsky icon healing from a serious illness. In acknowledgement it restored a chapel, and an icon has decorated with the silver gilt chasuble...
on northern slope of a mount, near to the Uspensky chapel, the ancient cemetery is located. When it was formed, it is not known, but there is a local legend that Russian warriors here are buried. On fighting tools and an armour found in the XIX-th century at excavation of barrows, it is possible to carry occurrence of these tombs up the time of wars sacred blagovernogo prince Alexander Nevsky with livonskimi knights. The mount sole, against a ledge on which the chapel is constructed, has a spring water source. Not only orthodox, but also all okrugoj this source admits zhivonosnym and curative. Tell about many cases of healing from illnesses both from an icon, and from water from a source.
In XVIII and XIX centuries to conduct about these miracles were carried across all Russia. On Uspenija Bozhiej Materi`s feast in Pjuhtitsy pilgrims not only from Estljandii, Lifljandii, but also many other provinces, Especially Pskov, Peterb began to comeurgskoj, Novgorod, and not only orthodox, but also lutherans. The Estljandsky governor prince Sergey Vladimirovich Shahovsky has seen a link contributing in a unification of Russian and Estonian people under cover of Orthodoxy in these events. He has considered that the Pjuhtitsky relic which was saved within centuries by the people, should carry out a historical problem on suburb of Russia that is why it is necessary to construct a monastery on this place.
to that there were big obstacles, but resistance of Lutheran clergy and neighbouring landowners has been broken after an exit of the imperial decree from April, 22nd, 1891 about alienation of the earths for corresponding compensation . A considerable role in this business the Ievvensky brotherhood which has arisen at the initiative of prince Sergey Vladimirovicha as branch of an orthodox Baltic brotherhood of the Christ of the Savior and Bozhiej of Mother under the chairmanship of princess E has played. D. Shahovsky, spouses the general - the governor. The nearest problem the brotherhood saw in prizrenii and education of orphans of orthodox confession, and also in rendering of medical aid to agricultural population without distinction of confession in the wards based by it and clinics. The device of a female mansion on the Bogoroditsky mount where the charitable establishments opened in Ievve could be transferred was the main purpose. The question on alienation in favour of again open orthodox Pjuhtitsky ward of five tithes of the earth has originally been started. After alienation of the earth for the Ievvensky brotherhood the Most holy Synod has allowed to found on the Bogoroditsky mount the Pjuhtitsky Uspensky female community on such quantity of sisters what it was to contain in a status on the means. On October, 23rd, 1892 the community has received the monastery status, and the monastic divine service circle already has been in full entered. In a mansion there were already 60 novices. Of them have formed two choruses. One chorus sang in church slavonic language, another - on Estonian. Sermons in a monastic temple were said also in two languages. So the sanguineous orthodox life which is not interrupted more than for century never has begun in Pjuhtitsah.
many forces were given by me to correct organisation here to monastic life. In the first years of my bishopic ministering a monastery headed igumenija Angelina (Afanaseva), the person elderly, with the undermined health. It was hard to it to operate a mansion which actively extended, turning to Orthodoxy centre on Severo - the country West. It was necessary to look for to it replacement. In 1963 I have heard about two vilenskih nuns - the Barbarian (Trofimovoj), the present abbess of the Pjuhtitsky monastery, and Georges (SHCHukinoj) which bears today obedience of the abbess of the Gornensky monastery in Jerusalem. I have invited them to Moscow to get acquainted, and have suggested the mother to pass the Barbarian in the Pjuhtitsky monastery. Then she has refused, having referred to the age: only 33 years - experience, anything... But I have not receded, and in five years she has agreed to bear heavy obedience of the abbess of the Pjuhtitsky monastery, and on my representation the Most holy Patriarch Alex has blest her on igumenstvo in Pjuhtitsah. This purpose of has justified: life in a monastery building quickly was adjusted, has begun. And after, during the stay of I wash with metropolitan Sankt - Petersburg and Novgorod, I put abbesses of revived mansions young igumeny. They are full of strength and well understand essential problems. It is assured that such approach of justifies and today.
From the end 1960 - h years the Pjuhtitsky Uspensky monastery became one of the centres of spiritual life not only in Estonia, but in all our huge country. Actually these years in the USSR there were very few operating female monasteries: Koretsky, Riga, Pjuhtitsky and two Kiev. They basically have provided and have saved preemstvo a female monkhood, have saved experience of monastic life and tradition obshchezhitelstva till times when opening of mansions became possible. Koretsky of a monastery, as a rule, left abbesses for the Ukrainian mansions.
today more than ten igumeny from Pjuhtits bear the ministering in different mansions. Preparation naselnits - business responsible. It takes not less than year. People usually come to a monastery from cities where individualism where at times neighbours in one staircase do not know each other is very developed. And in a monastery it is necessary to work together, together trapezovat, together to pray. Therefore young novices live with more skilled staritsami, under their spiritual okormleniem. To get used to obshchezhitelnomu to a monastery, time is required, and after all it is necessary to receive also skill klirosnogo obedience, reading, singing, it is necessary to fall in love with work in a kitchen garden, a garden and on kitchen. Recently began to accustom sisters and to small repair work: and masterok in hands that could hold, both a brush, and a saw. In monastic life very many it is useful!
I ministered often enough in the Pjuhtitsky monastery. Russian and Estonian clergy gathered from all archdiocese. Uniform worship service united people. They realised that them will not leave in private with numerous problems and sorrows.
- but today the Pjuhtitsky mansion is abroad Russia. To go there, it is required to make out the visa. And there is no at you time that when it will want, to make pilgrimage on childhood relics. But any communication with this monastery at you remains?
- Know, when communication with Estonia has stopped, and not only my personal - before after all it is a lot of pilgrims from the most different archdioceses of Russia with pleasure visited Pjuhtitsy, - I have created the patriarchal farmstead of the Pjuhtitsky monastery in Moscow on Rozhdestvenke. Its abbess became igumenija Philaret which of the 66 years 36 bears obedience at me and is my permanent housekeeper. Despite respectable age, it is surprisingly creative person. After all the Pjuhtitsky monastery many long years was besides other the exemplary agricultural enterprise: of 76 hectares of an arable land process all monashestvujushchie. Yes so that else at the Soviet power, the chairman of the council on affairs of religions at Sovmine of the USSR - big for those times for us the chief! - examining an economy, with amazement has noticed that similar beds in state farms - collective farms never met. In a monastery collected good harvests of exclusively tasty and useful production. The harmonious combination of prayful exploit to fertile agricultural work has entered into traditions of Pjuhtits. On the Moscow farmstead - in the centre of the Russian capital - kitchen gardens, of course, you will not dissolve. Here nuns also have become sad, began to be converted to me: Give us a monastery where we could grow up vegetables, fruit, to get poultry, and even nanny-goats, lambs, cows. I long disagreed: live in a city, all amenities have, do not starve, do not live in misery, that else it is necessary? And then to me on a name-day suddenly give a poem with rather tempting name the Dream also will read to it. As if the wonderful dream that the Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia has given at last - that to nuns a monastery in Moscow suburbs has come in dream. What it was necessary to me to do after so touching gift? Anything other how to search for the earth under a monastery and to give it pjuhtitskim to nuns. The Earth was allocated in the Odintsovo area, with six hectares. Philaret`s mother has constructed there the two-storeyed house for sisters. Six cows, chickens have already got. The orchard is planted, kitchen gardens are cultivated. By the way, such activity of monasteries should be greeted only. In spite of the fact that in Russia today to agriculture, to put it mildly, it is far to appropriate level, our monasteries, as a rule, provide with foodstuff of.
itself I minister, itself I sing, itself thurified I submit
- you have defended Pjuhtitsy, and it is valid has induced. But 36 unprofitable wards - what their destiny? As - that is not believed that bogoborcheskaja the power has left Church alone. Unless Khruschev did not spend across all Soviet Union the purposeful policy on destruction of orthodox relics?
- the Same was and with wards. I have declared that I can not begin with their closing. Me have understood. However the part of temples during my management of archdiocese nevertheless has been closed. It has been connected not with pressure of the authorities which in most cases to me managed to be neutralised, and that in countryside among Estonian population the quantity of church-goers was sharply reduced from - for alternations of generations. The old people saving in a shower belief still with dosovetskih of times, died, and the new generation was nurtured at the best indifferent to Church. Therefore the part of temples as though on the sly became empty and fell into decay. But even in a situation when there were at least some church-goers or even hope of their occurrence, I within several years am artificial supported such temples, paying for all of them taxes from diocesan, obshchetserkovnyh or personal means. So the ward to Kavilda where the temple has been closed only after death of the protopope of Michael living nearby Voznesensky, for example, was saved.
- On what there lived your ecclesiastics? Time is not present church-goers, means, is not present both offerings, and other incomes which appear only at sanguineous church life?
- Position of clergy, especially material, was the heaviest. For the priest in Estonia was considered normal to minister in four, and even in five temples from which the majority were temples without wards. Thus many of them had time to work on service temporal - firemen, postmen, accountants in state farms. Priests catastrophically did not suffice, and at the same time it was very difficult to provide for them at least the minimum material compensation. There was even a gloomy by-word: Itself I minister, itself I sing, itself thurified I submit . But, probably, more than a material hardship of Estonian priests oppressed their thin temples when for service gathered at most 10 - 15 believers. I tried to support all measures accessible to me Estonian clergy, especially senior generation which today, unfortunately, almost completely has gone to a better world. Almost everything, even before pension age achievement, I managed to provide with pensions from the Moscow Patriarchy - pensions to clergy then paid Church, instead of the state. It is at times called bewilderment Russian clergy, on what I responded: you pray with the congregation, and they and it have no . Ministering of Estonian clergy was really selfless.
- Then that politician Khruschev of the big harm of your archdiocese did not deliver. Why so has occurred?
- Means, on that there was a will of Bozhija. But also we, from its part, in process of our modest possibilities, were not idle. As one of the major victories I consider that we managed not to admit desecration of Tallinn cathedral Aleksandro - the Neva cathedral which, appear, has been doomed. For me it very much a sad story, but I to you will tell it. On May, 9th, 1962, in light days of paschal pleasure, my father the protopope Michael Aleksandrovich Ridiger, the prior of a temple in honour of the Icon of Kazan of Bozhiej of Mother, almost given svjashchennosluzheniju in the Tallinn archdiocese has died twenty years. I buried it on Saturday, on May, 12th. Right after funeral the representative has approached to me on affairs of Russian Orthodox Church and has suggested to think of what of the Tallinn temples should become a new cathedral church. I have bewildered asked: And how Aleksandro - the Neva cathedral church? It appears, the city youth has wished to convert a cathedral in a planetarium as happens not so long ago in Riga, and it has appeared quite sufficient basis that the main orthodox temple of Estonia has been closed. I have asked the representative to wait a little with the decision - to the Trinity feast. It was required to collect the thoughts and operate.
To begin with I have decided to collect and carefully to prepare materials about tragical destiny of Aleksandro - the Neva cathedral which as I already told, wanted to blow up in 1924. To remind, as nationalists raised money among the population, and even from schoolboys, on reorganisation of the orthodox temple topped with traditional gold domes in the form of bulbs, in the Pantheon of Estonian independence. The photomontage from architectural magazine 1930 - h - a kind of Tallinn without crosses and domes of Aleksandro - the Neva cathedral became years powerful aesthetic and political argument in cathedral protection. Other serious argument has appeared that fact that right after occupations of Tallinn by German armies in 1941 the cathedral has been closed and stayed idle actually before total surrender of Hitlerites in 1945. Before leaving the German authorities have decided to dump the well-known cathedral bells from a campanile, but it it was not possible to make it: they could remove only language of a small bell. Despite mounts of sawdust and other safety measures, language has broken at falling a parvis of a side-altar for the sake of prince Vladimir.
on a broader scale bells of Aleksandro - the Neva cathedral - special our pride. The big bell in weight in one thousand poods carried ringing of church bells on 12 kilometres. It used seldom enough, only on special feasts, being afraid of the authorities.
revanchists in Germany here will be delighted, - I have told, passing the note in high imperious instances, - that fascists have not managed to make, the Soviet power " will make;. Thus I managed to convince the authorities of Moscow and Tallinn that cathedral closing becomes a fatal mistake. When for the Trinity, as well as agreed, we have met the representative and have started talking about a cathedral he to me has told: a leah a little that will want youth, we will not follow her tastes! It is necessary to notice still that the same decree by which I have been appointed to the Tallinn stand, it was entrusted to me to operate temporarily and the Riga archdiocese. It proceeded, truth, is short - prior to the beginning of 1962. But I have had time to visit Latvia twice in this time. Has made worship service in a cathedral church, the Riga female monastery, Preobrazhenskiy pustynke. Unfortunately, the historical cathedral church has been closed at my predecessor, and the temple of the Troitsk monastery became a cathedral church. In the Riga archdiocese there was a same problem which stood at the beginning and before Tallinn, - how to prevent closing of temples and mansions. But at me of anything it was not possible to close. However, soon I have been released from management of the Riga archdiocese - at own will, in connection with new duties in Moscow, in Department of the external church intercourses.
It was necessary to take a smaller sin on conscience to avoid a sin bolshego
- Department of the external church intercourses for the priest - same all the same that the Ministry for Foreign Affairs for the official: you get for such work and children`s dreams receive real possibility of a wonderful embodiment! The world ploughs up the far not to everyone treasured doors accessible in Soviet period. You remember the address of the first foreign business trip?
- Certainly. Both the address I remember, and time. On November, 14th I have received appointment to the post of vice-president OVTSS which was headed at that time by an archbishop the Yaroslavl and Rostov Nicodemus (Rotov), and at once have been directed by the Sacred Synod on island Rhodes, as a part of Russian Orthodox Church delegation - on first Vsepravoslavnoe soveshanie. And has then gone in Nju - Delhi, then... In a word, the world has seen and thus, I dare to hope, something useful has made.
- And truth, what without the knowledge of Committee for State Security any trip for limits of Soviet Union at that time could not take place? And the citizen who has received such possibility, especially constant, should, at least use, favour of this omnipotent organisation?
- could not. It were eyes, ears and as they then spoke, even a sword with a board of ruling communist party. The mouse without them it is permittedija is not dared to jump over border, especially the person, in addition the priest... But the matter is that the relation to Russian Orthodox Church slowly, but gradually changed. The persuasive desire of the USSR constantly contributed in it in any degree even to show to the people of globe the extremely a peace-loving policy, and also, ostensibly, an openness to cooperation of two socially - the political systems, not mentioning ideology. It has motivated the country leaders to support a peace movement irrespective of the fact which konfessionalnoj and political orientation they adhered. As a rule, religious peace-making ministering meets in the international, state and public spheres the most serious to itself the relation and to those really renders ozdoravlivajushchee influence on burdensome conditions in our distraught world. Then, in conditions cold war And deep political confronting in Europe which has paralysed normal dialogue of the people and the states, only Churches and religious associations saved certain possibility vzaimoobshchenija and cooperation. So from the point of view kagebeshnikov, probably, I was quite necessary for security strengthening the person. Anyway, abroad me let out free.
- as you there conducted yourselves? You, for certain, tormented with questions about horrors of the Soviet power as well as everyone leaving in freedom and democracy world ?
- Once in Sweden, on the air of any popular TV program me have asked: How you think of the Church future in the communistic state? I was voiced in that spirit that the christian always should be the optimist and believe in unalterability of words of the Savior about eternal abiding of Church on the earth.
- But how Khruschev with its maniacal pressing forward to construct in twenty years in Soviet Union communism and any ecclesiastic by then in the country not to leave?
- It is paradoxical, however in the conditions of official militant atheism the government of our country at that time not only did not interfere with development of interchurch communications both in the USSR, and behind its limits, but, to the contrary, showed to it heightened interest. Certainly, it was not Khruschev`s deviation from the purpose, and was quite thought over tactical reception more likely. But anyway, the sixtieth years it is necessary to recognise exclusively fruitful for intensive continuation of brotherly relations sew Churches with Pomestnymi Orthodox Tserkvami and developments of its cooperation with inoslaviem.
- However, that officials of Advice on affairs of religions, main supervising behind activity of ecclesiastics of the organisation in Soviet period, - were entirely employees of KGB?
- it is difficult To me to judge it, they to me did not confess. Though, of course, former employees of special services who were as they speak, do not happen, in this Advice met. During the Brezhnev`s period, not to mention gorbachevskom in spite of the fact that the absolute power of Advice on affairs of religions has fainted, however still remains norm it is state - church relations. And all of us have been urged to be considered with it to save our Church. To take on the conscience a smaller sin, to avoid a sin bolshego... During the, very terrible time Patriarch Tihon and metropolitan Sergy with bogoborcheskoj the power have covered with compromises Church. And on our share has dropped out to cover with its different ways, including loyalty intoning to the existing power.
- Some years ago - remember, your Svjatejshestvo? - The country has overflowed, and it should be noted at once, it is accurate someone the planned wave of the compromising evidence on the higher figures of Russian Orthodox Church - from private declarations of love to the Soviet power before ministering to it belief - truth. Many, and even, forgive, you, your Svjatejshestvo name agents of KGB . Than, on - to yours, attacks are called this?
- I well remember those newspaper publications, especially in the early nineties in which the subject " was beaten; Church and KGB . To me at once it became clear, what purpose is pursued by organizers of so-called exposures. This hot desire introduced, by the way, from the outside to split our Church, to undermine to it trust of believers and especially those who on a way to orthodox belief. And in today`s Russia to such people, unfortunately, is on whom to lean. In the country declared Democracy, but atheism suddenly after all has not disappeared! For the figures, all life shriving bogoborcheskie sights, there was the present shock that people have directed in Church. How to stop it: to continue to shout: God is not present! ? It became unfashionable... Then have thought up among other dirty tricks and such: do not go there, there agents of KGB. In what, it would be interesting to me to learn it, sense - in sense betrayers of belief we, a leah that? I already spoke to you, what at us was a situation as we have been urged to build relations with the power. But and here agents? Recently the past of our Church is quite often exposed distortedly, its diocesans become object of ill-intentioned slander. It generates at babies in belief prevratnoe representation about the episcopate. It also becomes meaningly: I Will amaze the shepherd, and sheep (Mf will dissipate. 26, 31).
- you have told, what remember slanderous publications, means, All of you read them personally?
- it is possible, not all. But unless in it business?.
by means of Bozhiej we have prevented nuclear Armagedon
- Happened in your life of minute when it seemed to you, what all against you, around - only ill-wishers and is not visible a gleam? How you struggled with despair?
- In especially heavy for the Orthodox church as, of course, and for other Churches and religious associations, great value mutual support which was rendered each other by various Christian faiths had years. Kind relations connected the Orthodox church in Estonia first of all with Lutheran Church which was headed by archbishop Jan Kijvit, the person intelligent and formed. It, the same as also I subsequently, was the president of Conference of the European Churches (KETS). This organisation promoted mutual understanding between Tserkvami and christians of the East and the West of Europe and helped their cooperation with ministering for the mankind blessing. Throughout almost forty years many arch-flamens, shepherds and laymen of Russian Orthodox Church successfully worked in KETS. Since IV General assembly of this organisation which was passing in October, 1964 onboard the Danish ship Bornholm and to H General assembly which has taken place in Prague in September, 1992, I fulfilled duties of president KETS.
is there was a heavy cross?
- Believe, this work was at all from lungs. With gratitude to the Lord for Its omnipotent help, I remember these 26 years of life and I store deep gratitude to my brothers and sisters, workers of Churches of Europe, for their benevolent relation to me, is frequent for the self-denying help, and the main thing - for the shown trust to me as to the representative of Russian Orthodox Church. Thank God for all!
- you could name the main achievements of Conference of the European Churches?
- It is impossible to overestimate that useful that has made KETS for forty years of the persistent works directed on overcoming of confronting between east at that time east and western parts of Europe, for overcoming cold war . It is Enough to remember that the idea of creation of Meeting on security and cooperation in Europe (1973 - 1975), so-called Helsinki process, belongs KETS. Employees of this organisation have made all from them depending to involve the European states in peace-making process, to support them and to help them to come to so important for destinies of our continent to results. And as to my native archdiocese under my initiative in Tallinn the Council of churches which contributed in the decision of many problems and acceptance of the weighed decisions at local level has been created. For example, in our archdiocese Christian peace-making movement was widely developed. The authorities have supported it officially.
- your Svjatejshestvo, and what such mirotvorchestvo from the point of view of the believing person?
- Mirotvorchestvo in understanding of the believing person it that saves sacred gift of life from destruction. During that time peace-making movement represented moral force which irrespective of political ideals of its participants often far from each other, by means of Bozhiej was capable to prevent a nuclear Armageddon of mankind. Mirotvorchestvo it is carried by our Lord to the higher cultural wealth, following which leads to heavenly pleasure. Peacemakers are blissful, - the Savior in the Sermon of the mount has proclaimed, - wherefore they will be named by sons of Bozhiimi (Mf. 5, 9). The church which is, on the Apostle, a column and the true statement (1 Tim. 3, 15), it urged to conduct the people God`s to Eternal life and rescue, and mirotvorchestvo, including Jesus Christ precept about reconciliation ministering (2 Barks. 5, 18), it is primary and it is firm enters into its sacred mission.
- there is a set of expoundings of the Apocalypse and simultaneously every possible gamble on a subject of a future end of the world. Inevitability of terrible events can give rise to pessimism, despair. How you personally concern this problem?
- We never should forget about eschatological measurement of human history. The Lord who has called us to be ready to Its new Coming, expects obedience to Its ox. Seeing the sea of a sin raging around and defect, we should not despair, and opposite, are obliged to store firmly saving belief, trying, how much it is possible, to keep the world from falling in an abyss (2 Fes. 2, 7) and to work for the sake of its spiritual updating on the basis of Christ`s True, for the sake of rescue of human souls. In it the sense of ministering of the Church made even during the heaviest time also consists. We know that the whole world lies in harm (1 In. 5, 19), and the distance of the modern person from God becomes menacing. But thus nobody can take away from Church great obetovanija Bozhija: This is the victory which has defeated the world, our belief (1Θν. 5, 4).
We, orthodox christians, know that the terrestrial history has the end, and we expect second coming of Lord Jesus Christ. But we also know also that The Lord has told about it:... Not your business to know times or terms which the Father has put in The power (Dejan. 1,7). Any predictions of date of end of the world have no blessing of Bozhija and Church blessing. Expecting the history end, the christian should not plunge into despair, it should clear the soul and the life that in any day and hour to be ready to meet the Lord before whom we should give the account on the affairs, words and thoughts.
fidelity and patience is that should be in me always
- Tell, please, your Svjatejshestvo, and what you do, when suddenly understand, what are not right? All of us people. To you happens such?
- Happens. Nobody is innocent. All are mistaken.
- you are difficult for overpersuading in something?
- If I understand that I am mistaken to overpersuade me probably.
- what lines of the character you have inherited from parents?
- Much... I was at them the unique son, they have enclosed in me the pure orthodox souls, their hearts always for me were ill, and I tried to borrow at them the most light parties of their characters.
- yes will not seem to you it is immodest, but could name you human quality as which consider as the main worthiness?
- I Think, this patience. When - that in Estonia I have visited Barclay`s museum de Tolli, the hero of Patriotic war of 1812. On its arms has read the motto: Fidelity and patience . It very much was pleasant to me. I believe that fidelity to the debt and patience is that should be in me always.
- And to each of us following would not prevent this motto! Once again forgive, we have exorcised your Svjatejshestvo, but time about worthiness how not to ask you about lacks. A leah is they at you and if are available, you could designate the main?
- Irritability. But in the course of time I overcome this main lack. It was contributed by indelible impression which has made on me an appropriation of fair hallows venerable and bogonosnogo the father of our Seraphim Sarovsky. It learnt us stjazhaniju to gifts of the Holy Spirit which consecrate, rescues and strengthens everyone who with belief and a hope is converted to God. In venerable Seraphim to us the validity of words of the Christ that Tsarstvie Bozhie in you is (Lk is shown. 17, 21). But this Kingdom enters into us only God road. Ourselves should clear in ourselves a place for above pleasure. Only it is not necessary to forget thus that serafimovskaja the spiritual pleasure was a fruit of long-term heavy exploit. And serafimovsky the peace spirit, and its pleasure about Anastasis of the Christ of the Savior has been got through soraspinanie to the Lord, through transferring of many tests and troubles. Original following to venerable Seraphim is possible for us only in the event that we in our own life will see the cross assigned to us by the Lord, and we begin to execute sincerely, chastely and fairly the Christian and human debt. We will not be frightened by tests dropping out on our share. If we learn in all circumstances of life not to murmur on the Lord that He visits us not only the blessings, but also troubles, means, we are already near from a sacrament serafimovskoj pleasures, wisdom and integrity.
we have carried by hallows of venerable Seraphim Sarovsky through all Russia: from Petersburg through Moscow, Noginsk, Orehovo - Zuevo, Vladimir, Arzamas, Nizhni Novgorod - in Piously - Troitsk Serafimo - the Diveevsky monastery. It was in 1991. Restless, disturbing time when to all of us was vital to aspire to understanding, indulgences, kindness and geniality. I on the experience knew and I know that if the person has no peace spirit in itself, is not capable to gain this spirit if it is constantly irritated it is passed surrounding it and in what creative cannot result. And on the contrary, when on a shower easy and peacefully, it too is reflected in associates, on a family, on colleagues, therefore the world and the consent in many respects depend on each of us. To me, I consider, especially it is impossible to dare to be irritated. On a post. Though sometimes it is necessary to behave both it is sharp, and it is firm, but on this case Apostle Paul has told: Being angry, but not sogreshajte (Eph. 4, 26). Wisely? Because it is possible to talk to the person rigidly if, of course, on that there is a serious reason, but most thus not sogreshat - not to run into anger.
- and what, interesting, can force to exorcise you rigidly? We will tell, the offer to reunite Church with the state, and Orthodoxy to declare the state religion is can?
- Well why I should answer such question rigidly? To the contrary, I am always ready, though in thousand time, easy to remind that I am old and quite consecutive supporter of separate coexistence of Church and the state. It is enough us to depend on someone and furthermore the presence someone to irritate, irritate, - have suffered much, will suffice. In due time, during the stay of I wash Operating affairs of the Moscow Patriarchy, I could feel sharply enough an absolute must of basic changes in the painfull sphere most, perhaps, for us - tserkovno - the state relations. My position and then, and today consists that the Church only then can breathe a full chest, toogda it will be really separated from let even the most marvellous state.
on December, 17th, 1985 I have made an act which became rotary in my destiny: has sent the letter to the new Secretary general of the Central Committee of the CPSU to Michael Sergeevichu Gorbachev where has in detail stated the reasons about it. I consider that in days of the Cathedral 1917 - 1918 the clergy was not ready yet to real disestablishment. The main point which was put in negotiations with a temporal power, - not to separate Church from the state under no circumstances. There was a centuries-old communication between Church and the state, she created strong inertia which the strong-willed decision was not to overcome at once. And in Soviet period the Church also has not been separated from the state. State intervention in orthodox life, even in its such sacral areas as fulfilment of Ordinances, created shocking restrictions in divine service practice. Nation-wide terror was frequently aggravated with simply ugly, extremist tricks and interdictions of representatives local level .
- For example?
- Such examples great variety. So, in Rostov-on-Don there was a decision to baptise children till two years, and then only from eighteen! On what basis entered such restriction? And in Kuibyshev baptised at any age, but from schoolboys demanded the inquiry that educational institution against baptism of the pupil such - that of a class does not mind... Surprisingly, but such inquiries gave out. I have informed of the local representative that this disgrace intend to regard as Decree infringement about disestablishment and schools from Church. He has thought and has agreed. Has asked me not to take out rubbish from a log hut - not to lift on it to annoying misunderstanding noise in Moscow. With infringers of the Soviet decrees arrived severely... Approximately at the same time the Ufa archbishop Feodosy has complained that in its archdiocese if someone at mature age has decided to be christened should write the application addressed to an executive office such - that of ward. But there is more to come: two full age witnesses should certify in written form that does it it, being in full mental health and without being exposed to any pressure. A first minute I could not believe that such is possible!
certainly, all it demanded immediate changes. But I realised that the Church and the state has also general problems. Wherefore historically the Russian Orthodox Church always, throughout all thousand-year history was with the people in pleasures and the tests which have dropped out on its distressful soul. Questions of morals and morals, health and culture of the nation, a family and education demand joint efforts of the state and Church, the union equal in rights, instead of submission to one another. And in this connection I asked to reconsider obviously out-of-date legislation on religious associations.
- in the country at that time reorganisation only was developed. And you, having heard the first April impulses of approaching religious liberty, have accepted kept away dry thunder peals for coming nearer thunder-storm?
- Something something like that with me also happens. My letter has reached Gorbachev, he ordered to dispatch to its all members of the omnipotent Political bureau, but simultaneously Advice on affairs of religions has specified what to bring up such questions yet does not follow. Reaction of the authorities was completely not reorganisation, and most that is the Soviet: the Synod has discharged me from key at that time posts Operating affairs and has appointed to the Leningrad stand. However, I have not conceived such turn of destiny painfullly. On the contrary, I consider that four years spent by me on the Leningrad stand, became one of the most light in my life. After all on my eyes there was a revival of church life in unique archdiocese on the history. Besides for me management and the Tallinn archdiocese as the orthodox clergy of Estonia asked that I did not leave them was saved. Thus, under mine okormleniem there was all Severo - the country West where it was required to restore normal church life. And this business on me. I was accepted to it with pleasure.
- you want to tell, what the honourable link delivered you even pleasure?
- those years I had been almost lost homing. As Operating affairs of the Moscow Patriarchy I should participate actively in external church communications, prosecute all subjects of internal church life. All was necessary for combining it with management of the Tallinn archdiocese. Ministering demanded from me accurate distribution of time and its use with maximum efficiency. My life in a literal sense became nomadic. Working in Moscow and in the first years without having a capital residence permit, I could live only in hostels, every month moving from one in another. And wandered between hostels Ukraine and Soviet . And after all for a month and books you get, and things any you acquire - where will order to put it? Has decided to bring all in the study: at first in the street Ryleyev, then in the Pure lane. But every month, and even more often, I left to native Tallinn where solved essential diocesan questions and spent arhierejskie worship services. I even considered that 34 - j the train which plied between Tallinn and Moscow, is and there is my house. I admit, I with pleasure waited for these hours per a train when it was possible to honour and stay easy alone with itself.
- Means, administrative duties to you not in pleasure? And as the Patriarchal ministering - the circle of cares and duties has increased repeatedly...
- From cares and the duties I never ran and I do not run, see. Here which a day I talk to you, and could honour the good book... Do not take offence, it so, to a word. As to my personal sensation from the Patriarchal ministering it is defined by one simple church precept: On a cross do not ask, but also from a cross do not run . Cκΰζσ in secret: the main thing for me all - taki not execution of administrative duties, let even at the highest level, and pastoral okormlenie the verbal sheep the people. The basis of this ministering - fulfilment of Divine service at a holy table of Gospodnja - takes the most important place in my life, allows forces to bear all the others of obedience.
- if will allow, some more words about the construction superintendent of reorganisation Michael Sergeeviche Gorbachev: it turns out, what you at it and have not found due understanding?
- Know, that there was, I am grateful to Michael Sergeevichu for its understanding, in my opinion, the main thing: it is free or involuntarily, but last Secretary general of the Central Committee of the CPSU all - taki has realised what to wage war with Church and belief means to conduct it with own soul. And as to changes they simply should occur. I highly appreciate vital exploit of tens thousand shepherds and millions believers which contrary to bogoborcheskoj the authorities changed a society the Christian certificate and everyday work, suffering ponoshenija and discrimination.
on the eve of 1000 - letija epiphanies of Russia we were converted into Advice on affairs of religions with the request for commission creation, it is desirable at the governmental level adequately to celebrate anniversary of Orthodoxy. To us have responded that neither the state, nor the public will not accept in it participation. It is internal church anniversary, and there is nothing to excite all people about it. Then in 1983 we have formed the commission and began in process of possibilities to operate. To begin necessary with creation of the spiritual and administrative church centre. We have asked the mighty of this world that they have passed us one of the Moscow monasteries whom we could use in compliance with the purposes. Looked both Don, and New Spassky monasteries, but in them possibility of new building was excluded.
there was still, of course, Danilov a monastery - in it the colony for minor criminals took place. But it was in such unattractive status that its authorities even did not offer us. And all - taki we have stopped on this mansion. Me have appointed the chairman of the commission on restoration and building. Have got down to business, and in some years this place became almost unrecognizable so all was changed, transfigured in Danilovom a monastery. And only one prevented to look to this beauty on - to the present festively: The temple of Voskresenija Slovushchego next to a monastery on - former remained decapitated, and in its walls the Moscow factory on manufacture of umbrellas carried out the next five years` plan. To release a temple building should in 1987. We have invited the factory manager to session of our commission where have asked it to allow to result to us the God`s temple at least from outer side in an appropriate status. He has responded that should consult to collective... A week later the director has declared that the question of repair of a temple has discussed their party committee. The decision such: the collective of factory of umbrellas cannot work under crosses. On what I, without having kept, has asked: And how in the Kremlin, in an environment of crosses of the Kremlin cathedrals pass communist party congresses? he has frowned and has left. Soon a temple have started to restore.
Only before the main festivals devoted 1000 - letiju epiphanies of Russia, in 1987, Michael Sergeevich Gorbachev has accepted in the Kremlin the Most holy Patriarch Pimena and members of the Sacred Synod of Russian Orthodox Church among whom there was also I. We have put before the secretary general of an order of thirty essential questions for our Church with which he has promised to understand in the near future. After that Church and state relations have really started to change, temples and monasteries have started to come back believer. Commemorating 1000 - letija became, as a matter of fact, the second epiphany of Russia.
I will repeat once again: I am convinced that the Church should be separated from the state. The church is obliged to state an event estimation in a society and the state from moral positions, a leah it is not so obligatory to it to be concordant with the official state approach to that other problem, especially when speech comes about war and peace questions. So was in 1991 when the state has sent tanks against unarmed people in Vilnius, and then in Moscow, - our Church has resolutely denounced an event. So was both in Nagornom Karabahe, and in Dnestr region, both in Abkhazia, and in Serbia. Wherever blood flew, the Church debt, its ministering by all possible measures to contribute in the fratricide termination.
today for me as Head of Russian Orthodox Church abundantly clear: in present Russia it is necessary to build tserkovno - the state relations only on the basis of a moral estimation of political actions, respect of a world outlook choice of the person, voluntary interaction of Church, the power and a society in any pleasing to God business.
to Putin Gospod will return a hundredfold
- But now - that all on - to another! Church which urged to reconcile and unite people, it is creative leads the sanguineous life. It is restored not only the main Russian temple - Christ the Saviour Cathedral, but also a historical role of Orthodoxy. A characteristic example: the modern master of the state first of all the orthodox christian, and then already the largest in the country the chief. After all without your blessing Vladimir Putin the presidential fast did not begin to occupy. Unless not so?
- all so, thank God! But has put, of course, not only in my blessing. More than ten years the Russian authorities show to a society the immutable pressing forward to save, revive and increase a spiritual legacy of Fatherland. Yes the Lord will return a hundredfold to them!
In Russia there was an updating of the government which nowadays aspires to fruitful interaction with Russian Orthodox Church in the most different areas. Yes, people on - former suffer affliction - suffer affliction from poverty, injustice, enmity, bloody conflicts and their consequences. But the answer on rozn this world there should be a world Christ`s. Life of the state and a society in canonical territory of Russian Church remains rather hard, however nevertheless gives signs on kind hope. To our people the historical memory, since the old days spiritual it spiritual and cultural shape comes back. Today speak about the unifying idea, capable to help to overcome a crisis state of our society much. Anybody, perhaps, will not deny that such idea vital - in the XX-th century we suffered affliction from enmity and dissociation too much, and the further development of this fatal tendency can lead Russia to national accident. However I do not think that the national idea can be invented or borrowed. It already is. It anywhere did not leave national consciousness. But it grew dim, deformed by a sin of intellectual and physical violence. Nevertheless, she continues to live in subconsciousness of the people. Also there is no it today only one: appropriations of full freedom. Then it will be possible this idea to realise in all its completeness that it to live. This idea and this general expectation - in a harmonious combination of high morals, spirituality and fair work of all members of our society. The rest - will be put.
- you sympathise with Vladimir Putin?
- Vladimir Vladimirovich - the person deeply decent, fair. It does not hesitate of the belief, because kreshchen in the childhood. And its spouse, Lyudmila Aleksandrovna, sincerely believes. And their girls, the daughter, I know, kreshchenye. A perfect orthodox family! It to me especially imposes both as to the shepherd, and as to the Russian Patriarch.
not all, of course, to president Putin manages to be made, as it would be desirable that both to him, and all of us, but he tries, and it for my part calls the big hope and understanding. It is pleasant to me and that Putin gives paramount attention to a question of prestige of Russia. He wishes to make so that with our state in the world were considered, that about us nobody dared more to wipe feet . Should tell that for the person whom, without having taken place the big diplomatic school, became the President of the country, it with honour and worthiness represents today Russia on international scene and much does for strengthening of its integrity, power and achievement of the blessing of people.
recently, being on the sacred earth of Valaam, talking to friars, but not as the President of the country and as the simple pilgrim - all it occurred during Vladimir Vladimirovicha`s short-term holiday - Putin has told: There is no Russia without Orthodoxy, and there are no Orthodoxies without Russia . Such a mouth of the head of our state did not utter for a long time.
- what Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin worked in due time as the security officer, does not confuse you?
- At all. Boris Nikolaevich Yeltsin on a broader scale was the first secretary obkoma the CPSU and even the secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU... Matter is not in volume who whom was. Important, than was engaged, a leah there were these employment to a cut with conscience, in a case with Putin - with conscience of the true christian. As far as I know, Vladimir Vladimirovich on Church did not participate in persecutions, ideological and others bogoborcheskih orders gave to nobody - ministered to the Fatherland as he understood it, adequately.
- you meet often, communicate with the President of Russia much. How the person much younger, Vladimir Vladimirovich asks you advice?
- At times there are questions, but they are not connected with the years our President. For example, before official visit to Italy we have in detail discussed Putin`s possible meeting with the Pope. I had not to prompt something to it, about something to ask. Vladimir Vladimirovich has told at once: I understand, That the Father not only the head of the state Vatican, but also the Head of the Latin church. It cannot arrive to Russia only under one my invitation... at a former management when Victor Mihajlovich Tchernomyrdin went to Rome, I had to explain it...
or here recent tragedy - destruction of the nuclear submarine Kursk . Vladimir Vladimirovich has called me next day after the meeting with families of the lost seamen and has told that people ask to open a temple in Vidjaeve. It, as seemed to me, has been strongly anxious by this request of grieving relatives. In three days the temple has been opened, and ecclesiastics began to give spiritual support native the lost submariners.
- as, on - to yours, Vladimir Putin searches for itself any personal benefit or it is selfless?
- It is selfless.
- you should communicate with people of the power and business very much. Leah often meet among them deeply and sincerely believing?
- Yes, I meet more and more people who believe sincerely. Perhaps, they not all votserkovleny therefore as it is impossible to dismiss seventy years of violence over Orthodoxy in Russia, education of children in the spirit of negation of belief and moral Christian values. But today all at bolshego numbers of politicians, businessmen, public figures appears accurate comprehension of that without belief to live worse. I was amazed with the president of Uzbekistan Islam Karimov who on commemorating 125 - letija educations of the Central Asian archdiocese so directly and has told: Without belief it is impossible to live!
Today to many statesmen from those who was not kreshchen, comprehension of that it is necessary to be baptised comes. And many are baptised.
- speak, you and Yury Luzhkov, the mayor of Moscow, baptised...
- Baptized Yury Mihajlovicha. And many other things. But it is not accepted to tell about such things much.
- Venerable Anthony Great wrote that only at sudden change of winds art of skilled helmsmen " opens; meaning added upon spiritual sense. It concerns your activity to the full. You have appeared at the head of our Church during a time of rough changes. How you conceive them, what dangers consider as the main things and what purposes desired?
- Only the Ancient Church, Church of the first centuries, can be compared with the past century on number of martyrs and confessers. Temples of Bozhii are destroyed and defiled, but the temple God`s in a shower of the person is destroyed and defiled also. There is no today a problem more important, than restoration of this temple. We will miss some more generations, we will not create at them moral immunity, we will not revive in all souls of belief and love, Pravdy Bozhiej search - and there will be no Russia on light. At least, that which we know and we love.
Today we can recognise that the love among people runs low. To return to its people, to return tolerance to each other - here that it is necessary today. It also is light ideals of mankind. It also is our problem in so uneasy for the country and the people time.
- how to consult with so challenges? Whence to scoop optimism and energy?
- Eyes are afraid, hands do. This Russian proverb - about work, how it is necessary to concern the debt. When otstranenno you will look at religious neglect of the Russian society, it becomes terrible. But when you see, how that in one in other person sparks of belief, love are lighted, meeknesses and prayers, - the despair leaves.
we do not know, what destinies wait Russia, but we should execute the Christian debt. We owe our pleasure about the Christ Risen, our love to present as it is possible bolshemu for quantity of people.
And the main source of optimism and force - reverential trust. In our tests the Lord is close to us. It will not leave us. We far have left from It and consequently we feel a pain. However the belief in the Lord returns and strengthens hope. The Lord to us submits tests, temptings, but It submits to us forces, patience and wisdom to overcome them. Prothinking of Bozhie about us we see that many greatest relics through which the Lord shows to us signs of the favour, have returned to our life.
anything so is not opposite to God, as divisions in Church
- it is difficult to consolidate a society, when that day, new troubles. Undoubtedly, the decision of Vatican on creation of four archdioceses in territory of Russia became one of them for the Orthodox church. Henceforth in documents of Rimsko - the Latin church the territory of our country will be called a church province which metropolitan Tadeush Kondrusevich heads. You have strongly taken offence at roman catholics?
- to the Christian it is not necessary to take offence. Besides, according to a precept Christ`s, it is necessary to love all people, without distinction of beliefs and the nations, including, certainly, and roman catholics.
- but the impression that is not present today in the world of the big antagonists, than Orthodox and Roman catholic " is made; Churches - Sisters . Though in struggle against the same totalitarian sects the Latin church, apparently, the most natural your ally.
- it would Seem so, but... Russian Orthodox Church have presented with a fait accompli: the decision connected with increase of level of presence by Rimsko - a latin church in territory of Russia, was accepted without any coordination or consultations of the Orthodox church. It cannot be regarded differently, rather than as demonstrative disregard to all of us in the face of other world. Similar initiatives need preliminary discussion of interested parties - such is the standard practice of the international and interchurch relations, rules vzaimouvazhitelnogo and responsible dialogue are that. For example, there is in Switzerland, in Freiburg, a roman catholic diocesan. When it appointed, the nominee was co-ordinated by Vatican and with the state federal authority, and with Protestant federation. And now we will remember, how roman catholic archdioceses in Russia were established. If Vatican why - that believes that in our case it is free to operate and arrive by any other rules which are distinct from what are accepted all over the world, this deep error. An eloquent detail: on the eve of promulgation of the decision on roman catholic archdioceses in Russia the meeting of delegation of our Church which has arrived under the invitation of Vatican in Assizi, with the Roman pontifex has taken place. But during that moment the Pope has not mentioned a word about the decision accepted by it which have seriously complicated pravoslavno - roman catholic relations.
- a leah could happen so, what the pontifex was simply not in a business course? Judging by TV programs, the state of his health leaves to wish much the best.
- Physically the Father today, really, is weak. But it in a course of all affairs. Without his permission, I know it definitely, become nothing.
- and meanwhile roman catholics on - hozjajski accustom to our country. In the Russian press sharp article of the Vatican cardinal of Casper in which he among the other has declared that has been published: the Latin church does not recognise a principle of canonical territories ; the Orthodox church recognises pastoral and evangelizatorskuju weakness and consequently is afraid of a Catholicism which, despite the small number, operates more effectively ; The Russian Orthodox Church has met extremists and zealots ; the Russian Orthodox Church lives under the double standard ; aspires to fix the hegemony to the detriment of a personal freedom and so forth. Besides, reminds of material aid which arrives from roman catholic structures of Russian Orthodox Church. And, at last, considers a Russian Orthodox Church position as heretical. These both other similar estimations and arguments sound and in a number of other publications of the Russian newspapers that bears to the propaganda approach developed by roman catholics which yields certain results. What do you think of it, your Svjatejshestvo?
- Abundantly clear that similar statements represent a propaganda smoke screen under which cover the acts contradicting the standard practice of interstate and interchurch relations are made, to spirit of brotherly and responsible dialogue, mutual respect and pressing forward to consider interests each other. With reference to sphere of interhuman relations the similar line of action would everywhere be considered as impudence, demonstrative disregard and frank disrespect for another.
what unfriendly initiatives of Vatican so have been conceived, known statements of our Church and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia, and also sometimes an acute reaction of the Russian public bear. Wherefore speech, in effect, goes that on blessing of the Pope in Russia the roman catholic structures parallel to corresponding structures of Russian Orthodox Church have been founded, and our country having thousand-year orthodox tradition, besides own will has found suddenly the ambiguous status a church province Vatican.
an inevitable consequence of it was freezing pravoslavno - roman catholic dialogue and a distance without day uvrachevanija of some the acute problems many long years saddening the relations of two Churches. In this situation to the roman catholic party does not remain anything else, except a fabrication backdating arguments in a substantiation own rather to a vulnerable position in that regrettable conflict.
analyzing similar arguments, it is easy to notice obvious substitution of concepts to which it is necessary to resort to Vatican. Roman catholic propagandists can reject as much as resolutely concept of canonical territory of national Church. And meanwhile till now it regularly ministers the effective working tool of creation healthy mezhkonfessionalnyh relations in a Christian family which, on - visible, have ceased to be unconditional value in the opinion of Vatican. But unless not about the same subject Apostle Paul is absolutely definitely voiced, referring to own pastoral experience and as if converting the word from a deep distance of centuries to the essence of our today`s disagreements with roman catholics: Besides I tried blagovestvovat not there, where the name Christ`s was already known not to create on another`s basis (Rome. 15,20). Truly promyslitelno these words not in any other text of Apostle Paul, namely in it " have sounded; the Message to Romans . One ancient commentator of the Scriptus accompanies this line from the Message of Apostle Paul following expounding: I am far from subordinating to myself another`s pupils and to do it for own glory . Unfortunately, it it is impossible to tell about roman catholic mission in Russia.
the Concept of canonical territory rejected by Vatican from tactical reasons, lies more likely not in dogmatical, and in istoriko - a church plane and concerns those countries in which the majority is made traditionally by roman catholics or orthodox. However presence in the world of the states, with the prevailing roman catholic or orthodox population, is a reality of spiritual and religious life of the people, it is impossible what to deny.
Told above has a direct bearing also on a problem roman catholic prozelitizma, that is, to unacceptable for relations of two Christian Churches to practice of catching of souls human. However, priests and prelates of Rimsko - a latin church immutably take away rebukes in carrying out of a similar missionary policy, asserting that they select only neutral the stray souls. However enough certificates of catholicizing orthodox, including because of insufficient awareness of people on religious distinctions between a Catholicism and Orthodoxy or even their heavy financial position are known. But also, it would be desirable to know, what sort of soul roman catholics consider as ownerless and neutral in the country to which two third of population belongs to Orthodoxy either on belief, or on baptism, either on education, or on cultural self-identification, or it is simple owing to natural historical preemstva from a train of orthodox ancestors.
the argument according to which the Orthodox church ostensibly is afraid of pastoral activity of Vatican from - for uncertainty in own forces is so crafty and deceitful. Confirming it it is necessary only to advise to stand at a fencing of any orthodox temple in Paschal night. I speak at a fencing instead of in a temple because our temples and even territories adjoining to them not in a status to contain all wishing to take part in worship service. At the same time head of the Russian roman catholics does not hide that the roman catholic congregation in the expired decade essentially has not increased. It says only that, despite missionary activity of roman catholic ecclesiasts and not comparable with ours material possibilities of roman catholic wards, people in Russia do not recant from fatherlike belief. Thus, we do not have reasons to be afraid of appreciable growth of roman catholic influence in Russia. We only aspire to normal, vzaimouvazhitelnym, to constructive and benevolent relations with Rimsko - a latin church, but at all to that religious rivalry in which us now in every possible way try to involve.
in this connection would like to underline with all definiteness: our Church essentially not priemlet transferring attempts on sphere mezhkonfessionalnyh relations of ideology and principles of a market competition. There would be still half-misfortunes if it was a question of vulgar liberalism, last years replaced with itself in some heads a vulgar materialism. However it is a question of things of much more serious wherefore to the Russian society thus try to impart tolerance to the theory of the free market of ideas and confessions which all essence denies cultural - religious and national - historical originality of Russia. Bring the appreciable contribution to this process and roman catholic missionaries.
As to charges of our Church by Vatican in use of the double standard here we, on - visible, face a phenomenon of transferring known from psychology on another of own lacks. Our roman catholic critics solemnly specify in presence in the Western Europe of archdioceses of Russian Orthodox Church. But, in - the first, orthodox priests okormljajut basically compatriots and the coreligionists who are abroad, unlike the roman catholic missionaries working generally with the Russian congregation. And in - the second, our archdioceses cannot receive till now official check in in such countries, as France, Austria or Argentina where positions of Vatican are traditionally strong.
it is remarkable that in the West Vatican operates in strict conformity with the norms accepted in the civilised world and procedures. So, purpose of a roman catholic diocesan in the Protestant country is preceded by the coordination of its nominee with temporal powers and conference of Protestant diocesans. And only in Russia as have shown latest developments, roman catholics can to burden themselves with similar ceremonies. If it is not display of a policy of the double standard concerning Russia the cathedral of the saint Peter is not in Vatican.
and, at last, that the criticism of actions of Vatican in our country, appears, is attempt at the rights and personal freedoms. I will repeat once again: observance of the standard norms of mutual relations and respect to national - to religious traditions and features of the country is not connected in any way with a problem of the rights and freedom. But also, interchurch relations and the rights of the person are the questions lying in different, in this case not crossed Planes. Attempt demagogically to give out one for another involuntarily forces to remember receptions from an arsenal of propaganda wars of the recent past.
article of cardinal Walter Kaspera, the chairman of Papal Advice on assistance to the Christian unity, published in the Italian magazine CHivilta kattolika and then reprinted by some Russian editions, not only ascertains a serious divergence of our positions concerning relations between two Tserkvami, but also bears to ignorance by this roman catholic hierarch of realities of Russia and Orthodoxy that inevitably leads to incorrect conclusions and false conclusions.
for the sake of justice it is necessary to notice that the Russian Orthodox Church maintains kind relations with separate roman catholic archdioceses, monasteries, educational institutions and the charitable organisations, simple believing Rimsko - a latin church. But it not those roman catholics who come to us for the only purpose - to convert into the belief as much as possible the Russian citizens. Therefore the link of the cardinal of Casper on certain the help to us of roman catholic structures in this case it is absolutely wrongful. As some roman catholic organisations co-operating with our Church in educational and other programs, do not hide the negative attitude to unilateral actions of Vatican in Russia. Experience of our mutual relations shows: confidential dialogue and mutual respect are quite possible between orthodox and roman catholics. It gives to hope that present difficulties nevertheless carry a temporality and can be overcome in the spirit of love, follow which zapovedano to all christ`s pupils. And on the contrary, the statements similar to volume with which the cardinal Casper has acted, cannot contribute in creation of conditions for development of that Christian unity in any way, promote to which head of Papal Advice is called already on the high post.
- ambitions of Vatican can be considered and in a context of international political conditions. A leah is not present here, in your opinion, communication with the tendencies designated recently to globalisation, to an establishment of a new world order? A leah you feel on yourselves, your Svjatejshestvo, pressure from political forces, western or Russian, on purpose to change your position? A leah seems to you, what simultaneously with the decision on creation in Russia roman catholic archdioceses campaign for Russian Orthodox Church discredit has sharply amplified? How you estimate such coincidence?
- We have not the right to ignore that fact that Orthodox and Roman catholic Churches are real and influential spiritual powers in Europe and the world. The present society in many respects losing adherence to traditional moral values, today more than ever needs in modern spiritually - the moral certificate of the Christian Churches, capable to offer the modern person the worthy answer to temptations and calls of this century. I am convinced that the Moscow Patriarchy, Vatican, other Pomestnye Orthodox and other European Churches are called for interaction with various institutes of the uniting Europe for the sake of that during integration processes the religious factor of life of the people has not appeared is forced out on periphery of public attention. To a regret, the conflict called by Vatican, weakens potential of such certificate in the face of sekuljarnogo - released from church influence - the world. Meanwhile, the decision of problems of such scale is impossible without association of efforts orthodox and roman catholics. It is necessary to regret only that for the sake of momentary and illusive benefits Vatican endows strategic prospects on the value of Interchristian cooperation.
as to a question on activity of Vatican in Russia in a context of processes of globalisation and a birth of a new world order I am not inclined to see here direct and obvious interrelation. At the same time claims of Vatican not a certain universality, on planetary measurement, on some kind of spiritually - religious megalomaniju - and the megalomania still lead up nobody to good - are looked through quite distinctly. Practically this pressing forward is shown in practice prozelitizma, in cruel utesnenijah orthodox minority Greek - roman catholics in the western areas of Ukraine. At the heart of a similar policy of Vatican the basic unwillingness lies to reckon traditional is religious - cultural values of the orthodox people. However, the history bears that roman catholic expansion to Russia chronologically coincided more often with the periods of time easing of Russian state and the Orthodox church. If to speak about rather recent times, it is enough to remember attempts of Vatican to fasten dialogue with the Bolshevist government at the height of the most severe persecutions on the Orthodox church or participation Greek - roman catholics in activity nationalist, first of all Antirussian forces.
speaking about antichurch publications in the Russian press, I want to notice that they, fortunately, make insignificant percent from total number of materials, nepredubezhdenno both adequately telling about life and problems of Russian Orthodoxy. As a whole the society is objectively informed on the nature of the present conflict to Vatican and in appropriate way it estimates, though, certainly, the voice of the Church is audible in domestic mass media still insufficiently.
As to the driving reasons of occurrence of antiorthodox publications in the Russian press them there can be a set. In one cases this genetic, absorbed since the state atheism, aversion of Church, as institute. In others - jealousy of steady authority of Russian Orthodox Church in national perception. In the third - the irritation called by unsuccessfulness of someone`s attempts to place Church in the service uzkopartijnym, to corporate, group interests. In the fourth - far-sighted understanding of that the Orthodox church is not only the influential force confronting moral corruption of the country, but also one of few spiritual skrep, uniting people on the post-Soviet territory from what follows that the way to easing of Russia lies through Church easing. At last, there are the ambitious persons movable by unquenchable feeling of the contradiction and is false understood independence - such in the roman catholic country would subject to attacks Vatican, and in Russia blacken Orthodoxy. Or the people having any own abacus to Russia and the Orthodox church: they use Vatican as a pretext for an antagonism with us.
- that further - unbounded confronting?
- We always acted and we support dialogue because we understand that we live in the interdependent world. I never refused a constructive meeting with the Pope, considering it, first of all, as the working tool of overcoming of the collected problems and the decision of urgent problems. But to us declare that anything to discuss and solve at such meeting it is not necessary that for its tremendous success and the world resonance will be one smiles and embraces before objectives of television cameras enough... To agree on it I do not wish, I can not and I have no right.
- you already said that at all the Russian Orthodox Church became the initiator of strain of relations with Vatican, hence, and their normalisation depends not on you. A leah it is possible to formulate exact and exhaustive conditions of reconciliation? What particularly should make Vatican that mutual relations of two Churches were normalised?
- My meeting with Pope John Pavel II can take place only after the common position on the basic questions of interchurch relations will be developed. In particular, both parties should denounce prozelitizm in all its displays, agree concerning inadmissibility unii as method of achievement of unity in the past, the present and the future, to recognise and strictly to observe a principle of canonical territory. Differently, first of all, should find the definitive and fair permission prolonged the conflict between Greek - roman catholics and orthodox in the Western Ukraine where three orthodox archdioceses - Lvov have been actually crushed, Ternopol and Ivano - Frankovsky. The Orthodox church in this region more should not be exposed to any afflictings and discrimination to a religious sign, having had necessary conditions for development of normal parish life. Besides, Vatican should refuse practice prozelitizma among traditionally orthodox population of Russia and the CIS. Thus, normalisation of mutual relations between Russian Orthodox and Rimsko - roman catholic Tserkvami is possible only under condition of good will from Vatican and assumes quite concrete steps which would bear to sincere pressing forward to renewal of the dialogue which has interrupted not through our fault.
- a leah it is possible, at least theoretically, such variant of renewal of dialogue at which your meeting with the Pope will take place in neutral territory that excessive effects have not prevented constructive search of an exit from a difficult situation?
- the Meeting of the Head of Russian Orthodox Church with the head of Vatican was already planned once and should take place in Austria in 1997. The huge spadework has been done, the parties in a preliminary order have co-ordinated extremely important for the future pravoslavno - roman catholic relations total documents. However this historical chance has been missed because of the roman catholic party when the Pope with own hand has excluded a question on relations from documents already prepared for signing between orthodox and Greek - roman catholics in the Western Ukraine.
Russian Church on - former is deeply convinced that the similar meeting will make sense only in the event that will serve uvrachevaniju hitherto bleeding wounds of the past, to the real permission of painfull problems of mutual relations. Us try to convince that the main thing - the fact of a meeting of Heads of two Churches. However visit of the Pope to Ukraine bears: the similar format of a meeting not only does not contribute in the constructive decision of the collected questions, but also is fraught still with the big aggravation of divisions existing in a society. Rejecting idea of carrying out of the world information show before objectives of hundreds television cameras, we remain supporters of achievement of the unfeigned consent on the basis of firm arrangements.
- however you congratulate the Pope on Easter immutably?
- Both with Easter, and with other great orthodox feasts. But it is official messages, no more that.
- why, in your opinion, at times there are situations and the conflicts conducting to deepening of splits even in the most orthodox environment? How you regard them?
- There are no already direct or disguised persecutions, there is no Church threat from the outside. But it has appeared that it is even more difficult to overcome temptings and dangers internal. Our problem - to contribute today positive, constructive and in every possible way to confront with destructive, dissenting tendencies. Intoning of religious freedom in the countries which are in canonical territory of the Moscow Patriarchy, gives ample opportunities of interorthodox creative cooperation. However at the same time proisshedshie geopolitical changes bring positive factors new, unfortunately, not always in relations of our Church with other Pomestnymi Tserkvami.
On - former the Estonian problem not solved hitherto to the full negatively influences relations of Russian Orthodox Church with Constantinople Patriarchy. I already told to you that orthodox people in Estonia never ceased to conceive themselves as children that Pomestnoj of the Orthodox church who has arisen long before revolution, becoming independent in 1920. In 1923, in the heaviest poslerevoljutsionnyj Estonian Church has passed the period when Patriarch Tihon was in the conclusion, under jurisdiction of Constantinople Patriarchy, and in 1941 - m has returned to a bosom of Mother - Churches and has divided with it weight of the subsequent persecutions. So, since Yaroslav the Wise, the Russian Orthodox Church built there temples, it was its mission in Estonia. If to compare a century and last 18 years, we, I think, we have more rights to jurisdiction to Estonia, rather than Constantinople Patriarchy... To me speak: times change, circumstances change.
the church supposes some evasion from canonical norms, understanding their historical conditionality. Such approach is called ikonomiej. And so, the extreme limit ikonomii has been reached Russian Orthodox Church at negotiations with Constantinople Patriarchy in Zurich, in 1996. According to arrangements on voluntary delimitation of wards and the urged parallel existence in Estonia two orthodox jurisdictions joint cooperation two Patriarhatov in a question of representation of their position to Estonian government was provided. To make it followed that all orthodox in Estonia have got the identical driver`s licence, including the right to historical church property. Any other conditions was not. All fine understood that our consent to occurrence in Estonia parallel orthodox jurisdiction - a concession extreme, in any canonical norms not entered. However from Constantinople after negotiations in Zurich new conditions continued to be laid down. For example, the requirement of a recognition of Constantinople jurisdiction in Estonia as unique Independent Church in this country. And it when the Estonian Orthodox church of the Moscow Patriarchy surpassing in tens of time Constantinople jurisdiction in this country by quantity of believers and during many hundreds of years present at this country, long did not admit the authorities and till now has not received legitimate rights for property historically belonging to it.
- therefore you cannot come to see the " in any way; the small native land ?
- But I on an extent here cannot really come to see nine years a tomb of the parents in Tallinn. All these years Estonian Orthodox church in jurisdiction of the Moscow Patriarchy unsuccessfully achieved official check in in Estonian state, actually existing out of a legal field that was not only a legal nonsense, but also was a constant source of set of the most different problems. In the spring of 2002, thank God, check in, at last, is received. The first step is made, and we hope for fair settlement of a painfull question on assignment of Estonian Orthodox church concerning church property. The earlier believers of our Church will start to feel in Estonia full and dear citizens, the becomes faster possible and my visit to the country where I was born, has grown and has for ever connected the life with the Orthodox church.
- the situation and in the Ukrainian Orthodoxy is not less painfull. Here split is, seemingly, aggravated?
- the Most numerous and unique canonical Orthodox church in territory of Ukraine is the Ukrainian Orthodox church under control of Blazhennejshego of metropolitan Vladimir. However it should carry out the ministering in the most complicated conditions of counteraction from supported by political circles of nationalist orientation of dissenting structures - so-called the Ukrainian orthodox church of the Kiev patriarchy and the Ukrainian autocephalous orthodox church. And, last actively tries to find support in the person of Constantinople Patriarchy. We have entered negotiations with Constantinople Patriarchy and on these problems, hoping that through cooperation of two Churches and with support of all Orthodox Completeness we can find the correct decision promoting overcoming of splits and aboutbedineniju the Ukrainian Orthodoxy.
- it is very little known about problems in mutual relations with the Romanian Orthodox church. What they and how can be resolved?
- these problems by creation in canonical territory of Russian Orthodox Church of structure under the name " Are called; Bessarabsky metropole . And the dialogue purpose between our Tserkvami on this question - a finding of the mutually acceptable status of the Romanian wards in Moldova. The Representation of the Romanian Orthodox church in Moldova would be the form of presence of the Romanian Patriarchy comprehensible to Russian Orthodox Church in territory of Moldova. Very much I hope that this unique kanonicheski faultless model of presence of one church jurisdiction in territory another will be claimed for the permission of the given problem.
- with Russian Foreign Church we already spoke about features and complexities of mutual relations rather in detail. .
- It is necessary to hope for immeasurable Bozhie mercy, on All-good Promysl of the Lord, leading the person multivarious ways to spiritual rescue. We again and again call for an appropriation of canonical unity of all orthodox believing in the diaspora, connecting the church life with spiritual ideals of historical Russia, but for various reasons abiding out of canonical dialogue with Mother - Church. Russian Orthodox Church, declaring the adherence to idea of dialogue for the sake of the prompt overcoming of the division generated by historical tragedy of our people in the past XX-th century, converts the voice to all Russian people abiding in dispersion, with an appeal to that unity which was bequeathed to us by Jesus Christ:... Yes will all common; as You, the Pater, in Me, and I in You, and they yes will in us common, - yes the world will accept that You have sent Me (In. 17, 21).
to Get out in wood practically it is not possible...
- As you personally concern an alcoholic problem and alcohol on a broader scale? After all it is possible to find a little inconsistent judgements in the hagiographa on this bill. Apostle Paul, for example, advises to the pupil to Timotheus to use instead of water wine for health...
- And the same Apostle Paul in the Message to efesjanam writes: Also do not revel in wine from which there is a libertinism; but be executed by Spirit (Eph. 5,18). Contradictions here are not present. In all the necessary reasonable measure. It is possible to use, and it is possible to revel. And when the person the passion to alcohol when he without alcohol is not so capable easy and to live day, it already misfortune seizes. We tell about a drug addiction, but alcoholic dependence - angrily not the smaller much. Nothing should possess me (1 Barks. 6, 12). It concerns not only fault.
- you dare to take alcoholic drinks sometimes at least?
- Strong - is not present. A little good red wine I sometimes allow myself. A desirable grade - Cabernet .
- And still, your Svjatejshestvo, hearings that you the excellent mushroom picker go on the Russian woods. We consider as the debt these hearings to check up. At the same time help to be defined with old dispute of fans silent hunting : properly to arrive with a cep - to unscrew from a mycelium or to cut off a sharp knife?
- There are two ways, and both of them do not harm to a mycelium. After all same the main task of the present mushroom picker - not to do much harm!.
- and not only the mushroom picker, perhaps.
- Certainly! And so, it is possible to unscrew accurately a cep from a mycelium is a first way of extraction. But it is possible to cut off also a knife, only so that does not remain a back because the decayed back strongly harms to a mycelium.
- you prefer what way?
- I accurately cut off. From the childhood ran on mushrooms, as soon as from a city with parents... On all life for me it, perhaps, hobby. Here only last years, unfortunately, to get out in wood practically it is not possible...
- Readers will not forgive to us, if you do not share the recipe of salting of mushrooms with them.
- it is ideal to collect saffron milk caps in dry weather and not to wash. But mushrooms happen in sand more often, therefore to rinse cold water it is necessary, then let it all will flow down, whenever possible. And here if saffron milk caps from a moss then they can to be washed, rubbed off a pure rag and all. Further to stack in a bucket, hats downwards. Necessarily numbers. Each number - to salt. To cover all with a pure rag, from above to cover with the big plate or a cover and to press down oppression.
- and when it is possible to eat this delicacy?
- Two - three days also welcome to a table - mushrooms are ready! And on a broader scale - saffron milk caps it is possible to eat that at once. Cut off in wood, has salted - and eat on health.
- your Svjatejshestvo, forgive for professional curiosity and where you are disconnected from current affairs and cares?
- There is in Moscow suburbs such place - Peredelkino. There I have pets: hens, goats, cows, dogs, cats. With them I have a rest and for any time I am disconnected from daily tekuchki.
- And whom from animals love most?
- the Siskin. She is a doggie such, a Pekinese, to it ten years. And still is kenar, have presented after sanctification of a shelter for girls. To Yury Mihajlovichu Luzhkov have presented two rabbits, and me - singing bird. In couple of weeks ask: Well as kenar, pleases with singing? However, a wonderful voice? I respond: I Leave - kenar still sleeps, I come back - already sleeps . However, now is awake more and sings remarkably.
- your Svjatejshestvo, explain, please, why cows, it is necessary to you to appear only in a cowshed, all at once rise? Saw the eyes, instead of that would not believe...
- I sometimes feed them from a hand - here and rise, because an instinct. At us six cows and three goats.
above the law only love
- your Svjatejshestvo, and on the eve of the main orthodox feast, and even during celebratory worship services in church sermons frequently goes speech not only about the forthcoming or come celebrations, but also about human imperfections. What your mood in such days?
is really takes place. Light of Anastasis Christ`s allows us to see clearly not only kindness and love of Gospodnju, but also our sinfulness, our unwillingness to execute Its good will. Such thoughts at all do not sadden pleasure of a feast. It is a sight habitual for the christian at and at the world. After all fathers of Church very precisely named time of quadragesima in the spiritual spring. Test, a repentance are saving as a hobby. In a repentance the person finds itself - learns to separate itself from the affairs and sins. It really time of spiritual awakening, updating. Through fast to a feast of Anastasis we from a bitter captivity of willfulness enter into pleasure of good obedience Christ`s. A God Victim Christ`s and Its Anastasis learn us to that without killing in ourselves of the sinful, egoistical beginning we will not be revived spiritually. And comprehension of own imperfections, as well as imperfections of a society in which we live, does not reduce our optimism, pleasure of a celebration of life over death, love celebrations. After all boundless love to us of Lord - at the heart of the event which we celebrate. For this purpose the Lord was embodied, has passed through travail and death that, having risen, to resurrect all mankind, to save the world. Therefore Anastasis Christ`s - a basis of our belief, our pleasure and optimism.
- a leah such optimism is applicable to a present situation, to changes in our country?
- It is assured of it. We receive, at last, long-awaited hope of revival of our distressful fatherland, hope that people life will be arranged on the basis of good and justice. Of it convince not only words, but also quite real, notable affairs which are directed on statehood strengthening, maintenance of social and economic stability in our society. We, orthodox, consider occurring positive changes not casual. We see that Christian revival of fatherland yields the fruits, changing world around. The miracle of Bozhie was before our eyes made: people with all sincerity of the yearned heart were pulled to the Christ, to Its Sacred Church. Not casually this beneficent process often name the Second epiphany of Russia. Original returning of the people in the Native home has begun.
and to these good changes many rough events shaking the country last decade have not prevented. Has not prevented and seeming shattering approach to our society of aggressive consumer ideology. But life proves that Russian people nevertheless consider care of a shower more considerably care of a daily bread. And this tradition is based on a gospel ideal. And she continues to live in national consciousness. Besides the people most part is far from such level of a material prosperity when think what such still to consume.
signs of spiritual recover of a society becomes more and more. It is possible to carry to them and that aggressive activity of pseudo-missionaries, leaders of totalitarian sects has practically choked. Still recently they expected to convert into belief alien to our people almost all our congregation. Operated with such scope and a pressure that them supported and the higher our government officials lobbied even. I remember, with what persistence one of former heads of the government and orally, and of missives convinced me to accept the leader of totalitarian sect Aum Sinrikyo . Many influential supporters were and at others ecclesiasts the same sort. Nowadays all these attempts posramleny wherefore are rejected by our people.
- however how you marked, no good changes in a society should cover essential problems?
- certainly, too it is a lot of Them. One of the most painfull - every day on hearing. Speech about the Chechen problem. Unfortunately, and in the come century travails of civilians - the people dishomed still have not stopped, military men, usual civil people, women, children continue to perish. The extremely dangerous there are threats and all new displays of terrorism. Obviously, firm intention of our power to restore a lawful order in the Chechen Republic and to reject pressure of terror. I understand how uneasy to carry out this intention. It is for this purpose necessary not only will, but also a deep exact estimation of an event. It is necessary to understand: to provide in the Chechen Republic definitive - the strong and fair world, it is necessary to consider legitimate interests of all levels of population, all ethnic there ethnic, related, public groups. After all to stifle force will of the people or any its considerable part as the history time and again convinced, it is impossible.
- the Position and the Church voice where is more audible recently in a society, than before. How you estimate the new possibilities, a role and vlijatelnost?
- the Relation of Church to society and state problems is always identical: unlike sekuljarnogo the world which at the best aspires to start with justice, the Church is based on love. Only love for us above the law. It is above right - only favour. And above justice - only a pardon. In it under the statement unique possibilities of Church root in a society of good, high ideals also. There are spheres and cares in which us not under force anybody to replace. It is necessary after all to understand that any state and socially - political activity can carry out only policemen functions: it should and can limit harm, but she cannot cultivate good itself. Church and state relations develop now in Russia on absolutely new basis - free interaction for advantage of the people. And character of these relations is rather beneficent. Our voice, as a rule, is considered by the Russian power by preparation of decisions which concern believers. However some problems demand bolshego understanding. Speech, for example, about Church returning at least that part of property without which our possibilities in educational, social, charities are essentially limited. Having separated in due time Church, the state as though has forgotten to allocate thus to the believing people that he created for the sake of Bozhie and has entrusted Church care. Process of returning by believer of relics and temples goes with considerable resistance, at times aggressive and slanderous.
- disturbing expectations of approach " recently are frequent; an iron order violations of democratic freedom, first of all freedom of speech. How you to it concern, by the way, and the press on a broader scale?
- For me it is doubtless that the public world without an order is inconceivable. All means which are at the state and a society, it is necessary to stop immorality and criminality revelry. If criminal forces influence a policy and economy if people do not feel in security the success of beneficent processes in the country will appear under the threat. Putting in order, however, should not in itself outgrow in other threat. Here pertinently to remind the words of prelate Moscow Philaret told still in the middle of a XIX-th century: As you have come to the country where there are disorders habitual it is necessary as it is possible to lead silently people to an order that the order has not seemed constraint .
As to a freedom of speech it is important to realise: any freedom should be directed only for the blessing, creation, but not on destruction. Responsibility of the press before a society is huge. It finally - responsibility before God. The Lord about it warns: from the words you will justify, and from the words you will be denounced (Mf. 12,37). Unfortunately, more often force and possibilities of mass-media in our country are used at all in good, and in the destructive purposes.
- the official position of an active neutrality of Church in relation to political strike is worthy respect. However during election campaigns, especially in regions, cases when the spiritual shepherd is not present are frequent - are not present, a leah yes will support the incendiary sermon of that other candidate on the state fast. Clearly that it is not bad paid. Than to constrain the highest wave politicians who cynically try to use Church as effective PR - the tool?
- Attempts to involve separate ecclesiastics in political strike were always, they do not stop and today. The aggravation is necessary for presidential elections of Russia, deputies of the State Duma, heads of administrations of republics, edges, areas, cities. We know about it and we take all measures resolutely to stop these attempts unworthy decent christians to split our Church to a political sign.
- but in due time how much we remember, you have visited in people`s choices worked on policy kitchen. It was pleasant to you?
- it is valid, in 1989 Fund for charity and health where I consisted the trustee, has put forward me in People`s Deputies of the USSR. And, it was necessary to that to happen - me have selected. For certain to understand, I have plunged into what atmosphere, the one who has visited it can only.
a misfortune that the parliament is a place where people do not have valid relation to each other. The spirit of eternal opposition, constant struggle there reigns. People are not accustomed to listen elementary each other and furthermore to speak, are not capable to speak normal human language, showing thus the standard norms of worthy behaviour. I had a steady sensation that there there can not be friends at all!. After sessions of congress national deputatov I became simply sick - so this atmosphere of intolerance when acting that slammed, as influenced, likely, arrived in the Stone Age, zakrikivali as happens at times in houses for not absolutely healthy people.
- and so why you against ecclesiastics were selected and country parliament?
- Categorically against. Though, I believe that I deputatstvo was in something useful.
- for example?
- I worked in two commissions: under the pact of Molotova - Ribbentropa and under the law on freedom of worship. With the pact, as it is known, we have understood. And here in the commission on the law on freedom of worship there were lawyers who considered Position about religious associations of 1929 by the standard and did not understand - refused to understand! - why these norms were ripened for a long time by time to change. Certainly, was uneasy to overpersuade these staunch Soviet lawyers, especially, to me deprived in due time of possibility to go in the footsteps of the ancestors and to finish, say, a certain exclusive capital institution under the name Imperial School of Jurisprudence. But I tried to explain to them the, and it sometimes was possible to me.
the Church did not anathematize Tolstoy
- What do you think of authors and products which concern a religious subject, but recede from church dogmas and canons? They after all involve in religion of many people, but at the same time can be regarded as heretical. We mean Lev Tolstoi creativity, Michael Bulgakov and some other.
- I Think, it is impossible to estimate unequivocally products of outstanding creators. It is possible to agree with something, with something is not present, but the categoriality here is inappropriate. I consider Lev Tolstoi as the genius of the Russian literature. Its many products are executed deep force - not only literary, but also spiritual. However it has run into arrogance and has tried to create own Gospels and thus itself has separated itself from belief and Church. The church did not anathematize, it only established the fact of its voluntary renunciation. He has torn with Church. And when me now ask about it is why, speak, to you not to return to Lva Nikolaevicha Tolstoy in the Church bosom? - That I respond: and a leah we in century can impose to the person what he has refused? We can not, certainly. But War and peace Anna Karenina and Tolstoy`s many other products are unsurpassed masterpieces, it is classics of the literature. Though there are also creations with which it is difficult to me to agree. Also it is not necessary to concern unequivocally and the talented writer to Michael Afanasevichu Bulgakov. In its products there is a lot of a correct.
- That more all to you to liking in the Russian and Soviet literature?
- Sometimes I have a rest, reading and re-reading Anton Pavlovicha Chekhov, Ivan Sergeevicha Turgeneva. Language turgenevsky - the most perfect, in my opinion, language... But last years, unfortunately, on reading of fiction of time almost does not remain. It is necessary to study Too many official papers, and their language - alas, it is far not the literary... To honour something as a hobby I presume to myself only in holiday. And, first of all, it is the spiritual literature. Recently has read the book of Barsukova Prelate Innokenty, a metropolitan Moscow . Before I absolutely on - to other imagined this person. But here has learnt about its surprising missionary exploits: same it is necessary - to pass on foot, on dogs, on deer all Chukotka, Kamchatka, Alaska! In Blagoveshchensk there was its stand, and archdiocese - all Far East!
I know the Far East, happened there. It is shaken by its huge open space... The mind boggles, as the person in the middle of the century before last, without having reliable transport possibilities which we possess now, all - taki has passed on those earths and has consecrated with their beam of Orthodoxy. You, for example, know that on Alaska almost all local population: Aleuts, Eskimos, chukchi are orthodox people? They save in America - as they say, on the brink of the earth - primordially Russian Orthodoxy. It is unique archdiocese of the Orthodox church in America where old style was saved...
last year, visiting Japan, I have personally seen fruits of activity of one more Far East prelate - Nikolay Japonsky. 140 years ago the young hieromonk, the priest of the Russian Imperial consulate, has arrived to Japan and began to study its language. Only in five years to it has been permitted to be engaged in missionary activity. And he has created the Orthodox church which exists and nowadays in this another`s country. It is surprising exploit. Even when Russia was at war with Japan, prelate Nikolay has not left the spiritual children. The Japanese sincerely loved it, it the remarkable person was such. I was especially amazed with Russian cemetery in a Japanese city of Hakodate where prelate Nikolay Japonsky has begun the mission. Round a cemetery apartment houses are pressed to each other, each centimetre of the earth is appreciated worth its weight in gold. But Russian cemetery is carefully saved, 140 years to it - all 47 tombs are adequately designated, behind all there is a leaving.
- a leah There were you Alexander Solzhenitsynym? How concern its creativity and activity?
- Yes, I could communicate with Alexander Isaevichem Solzhenitsynym, to get acquainted with its products still when its books were in our country are forbidden. But, understand, from the literature to me, for example, it would be desirable to gather something light. And when with each page the increasing utter darkness such literature personally does not excite me accrues. Certainly, it has opened much from this ugly, scandalous that has worried in Stalin camps, and in historical sense it is valuable. However twenty years` rupture with Russia has removed it from our reality. Why - that Alexander Isaevich has decided that will come back home the prophet... Certainly, it the original writer, but at the same time the person with the deformed destiny because both camp, and the link have left on its the burdensome mark. Its returning - the next courageous step. It is necessary to hope only that it will make out sprouts of the revived Russia in today`s everyday life and it will find worthy reflexion in its creativity. It is necessary to be able to glance and in the future, instead of to live one sad past. The christian - and this my deep belief - should be the optimist.
- What your musical predilections? Truth say, what you very much love Alla Pugachevu?
is not absolutely so... First of all, I prefer classics. I like to listen and the Soviet songs of military times. It is probable, because it is music reminds me about children`s, youthful years, about youth - and that can be more perfect than that time in life! Besides, very much loved always singing to the guitar.
- a guitar play?
- Itself I do not play, but I like to listen. For example, songs of the hieromonk of the Novel I consider perfect.
- a leah Is possible to you to watch film? What is pleasant?
- it is rare. But the certain notion is. Depresses me a cult of violence in modern cinema. Earlier films at us were where is more light and is kinder.
- the most different people reach today for God. To us far behind an example it is not necessary to go: Our friend, and in recent times a known film actor and the disturber of the calmness, a popular script writer and the playwright, Ivan Ivanovich Okhlobystin not so long ago became the priest. We any more do not speak about the merited actress of Russia Ekaterina Vasilevoj who has become by the treasurer of a temple of Sofia Premudrosti Bozhiej in Average Gardeners - many words are told about it, and all surprise of admirers of its talent from its wonderful reference like as behind. As you, your Svjatejshestvo, believe: such figures, undoubtedly talented and already adequately deservedly claimed by a society, will not be lost in the church environment? What heights in a field new to them, on - to yours, can be accessible to these, undoubtedly, to ambitious natures?
- the Talent can minister to God or a devil. One is engaged in an iconography, another embodies fornication. One removes a film about moral exploit, and in a picture of another the rivers of human blood flow. And though it fake, but after all in consciousness of spectators is accurately put terrible thought on the cheap price of human life, elementary bases of moral life are erased. Here also it turns out that one talented creator the abilities ministers to soul rescue, another promotes its perdition. Not art is guilty, and the given subject if it spreads the creations debauchery, violence and cynicism. He searches and tries to express something, and it is shown in such here to the ugly form. Only there is no sphere in culture which could not become consecrated. Certainly, I greet those who has made the choice and have come to the Church bosom. It is pleasant to realise that among art workers, journalists, other influential participants of public processes the understanding of importance of an appropriation the people of Russia of a strong moral core ripens. Understand, when otstranenno you look at religious neglect of the Russian society, it becomes terrible. But when you see, how that in one in other person sparks of belief, love, mildness and a prayer are lighted, the alarm leaves. We do not know, what destinies wait Russia, but we should execute the Christian debt: our pleasure about the Christ Risen to present as it is possible bolshemu for quantity of people.
not to pass Time !
- you go on the country and abroad much. A leah all archdioceses of Russian Orthodox Church have managed to visit? What give you these trips and what they give to archdioceses?
- Is not present, I have visited yet all archdioceses which at our Church in Russia, in near and far abroad, once again I will remind, 128. But I know life of the majority of archdioceses not bad. I hope to visit and where yet was not.
on trips the eyes you see much more, than you learn from reports or according to diocesan bishops. And after all changes in many places are that that else recently it was difficult even to present them. Temples come back believer, the new are restored, open. The number of wards - them at us already about twenty thousand during the last years has sharply increased today. Who could dream of so mighty and all-round revival of Church still any ten years ago? Pastoral ministering 150 bishops and almost carry out 19 000 ecclesiastics. Quite probably that while we talk, these figures have already become outdated - so promptly church life goes today forward. There are sunday schools of which we long time did not dare and to dream! There are orthodox newspapers, in some archdioceses there was a orthodox television.
- to you as to the Head of Russian Orthodox Church, it is necessary to participate and in political life of the country. And for this purpose it is necessary to be politically focused and informed. Whence you scoop the information: Look telecasts, read newspapers or use the help of reviewers, advisers?
- Employees prepare for me reviews of the basic publications in mass media, especially what Church fields of activity anyhow concern. If it is possible, I look information programs on television, I try not to pass Time - it is necessary to be well informed about the events occurring in the country and the world. Besides, throughout already many years I constantly write out two newspapers: News and Vesper Moscow . Them I read in more details. Besides I have a possibility to receive most the essential information and firsthand as owing to the position I regularly meet the state heads, politicians, public figures.
so I in an event course, do not doubt.
fertile experience of Orthodoxy will help us
- Then, you, of course, know that there live our people in the majority - alas, stifling - is still very poor. Why in the United States of America people when they are not pursued by terrorists, live in clover, and at us, what with terrorists, what without them, with rare exception - is always bad? That is Perhaps, not too fatal notorious a transatlantic way of life and we should adopt something from it somewhat quicker?
- Visiting the Vladimirskiy archdiocese, in the city of Kirzhach I have appeared in a thick of hundreds, yes there are no, perhaps, thousand people. Probably, many of them were also not votserkovleny, but greeted me very warmly, sincerely. I have told that is glad to visit their city - remote places of Russia that Kirzhach for me now not simply geographical concept, and live Russian people, their persons, eyes... I have wished these people of health and the world. And they spoke: Wish us better patience! And it not one person has told, and many.
so unless it not a miracle - patience of our people?!
people ask, that they were wished by patience in transferring of those difficulties which they face today.
Political crisis of rough autumn of 1993 has found me on Alaska. I have decided to return at once: in difficult days for fatherland it is necessary to be with the people. Already at the airport the Sheremetyevo me have asked about possible dangers of promptly developing events. I have told that the main danger is a prolithium of blood. Blood always divides... Besides, I was afraid of disintegration of Russia on specific princedoms, understanding that centuries be required again to gather. To me asked to head negotiating process, to mediate between the contradictory parties. I could not refuse... It were heavy three days and three nights of intense dialogue. First the parties named each other opponents, however for the third day have started to shake each other hands. And if without having dug the third ring round the White house, appeals from its balcony to attack the Kremlin armour, to take the Ostankinsky television centre, I am assured: all would end with the world. I remember, how those intense days in the Bogojavlensky cathedral from the Tretyakov gallery the ancient Vladimirskiy icon of Bozhiej of Mother for the first time has been delivered. As the people prayed before this relic! People were kneeling, tears shone in eyes, in hands burnt with a quivering flame of a candle. It was really the wail human to the Tsarina Heavenly about It predstatelstve! I think, therefore that crisis and has ended rather with small losses, scales could be perfect others, though, of course, any quantity of the spilt human blood - tragedy.
as to life in America, so there too at different people very different life. I visited this continent repeatedly, I know. And distinctly I understand that America for us not an example. Stories of the USA two hundred years, all - that! At us more than thousand-year history. We are simply obliged to rise on feet. Also we will rise, do not doubt!
today, as well as it is a lot of centuries back, Russia gathers and created. Sincerely I hope that the Lord will help us, and we will manage to restore the forces and the uniqueness. In fidelity to our primordial spiritual way - hope of the best future. Prelate Tihon, the Patriarch Moscow, in drama poslerevoljutsionnoe wrote time: Any overseas intervention, and on a broader scale anybody and will rescue nothing Russia from nestroenija and ruins while the Just Lord not prelozhit The anger on mercy while the people will not be cleared in a font of a repentance of long-term ulcers, and through that will not be revived spiritually in the new person created on God in goodness and sanctity of true .
From centuries-old experience we, orthodox christians, know that enmity and division, a deceit and defect, immorality and inspirituality, blinding by false ideals, desecration of fatherlike belief and national traditions bear in itself destruction, travail and perdition. All should understand it and the power. Wherefore if duh the people it will be left on an arbitrariness of the elements raging today over the world to look ahead to us it is necessary with alarm and fear.
- and all - taki as, on - to yours, is hope at present generation of Russians, what all is formed in the nearest future and we, at last will begin to live adequately?
- At once to achieve it it is impossible. Why when the Moses deduced the people from the Egyptian captivity, it went forty years with it on wilderness? That the generation with slavish mentality has left. We want, that for ten years the mentality of the huge people that relations the friend to the friend, to children and old men, to our distressful nature have changed has changed. It will not turn out at once. Time Is necessary.
- a leah exists for you today a problem, to solve which to you yet on forces, and it torments you daily and nightly?
- There are such problems, them, unfortunately, it is a lot of. But the most disturbing question: What Russia we, the senior generation, will leave to the grandsons? This most important thing that dares today - the power, the people.
- and how you will designate the Church role?
- the Church always was with the people - in pleasures and in tests. So was and so will be. The church immutably helped spiritual formation of the people, specifying it moral reference points. Today, having transpassed a threshold of the third millenary, the mankind in fear has shuddered before an impact of extremist and terrorist madness. Growth of pessimism and uncertainty in tomorrow, loss of moral principles become sad realities of our days for many people. Therefore in a new century with such sharpness there is a question - where the person where its spiritual and social values, what it does for rescue of the soul moves? Fertile thousand-year experience of Orthodoxy should render assistance in search of vital answers, helping people to create the life by the Savior word: What advantage to the person if it gets the whole world, and to the soul will hurt? (Mf. 16, 26).
I believe that our people will return to fatherlike belief and will construct to itself the worthy future.
God save you!