Why Russia does not have contract army
Then has been declared stage-by-stage transition of parts to completely contract way of acquisition. Even have accepted the Federal target program (FTSP). Such programs it was typed already a little. For their performance the government otvalilo together almost 300 billion roubles. But all plans have not been finished. Politicians began to reproach generals that they - de absurdly spend money. Generals snapped: the pier, each rouble is used, and all the same it is not enough finance. But how much it is necessary - could not tell anybody. Then have decided to make experiment to understand: in state treasury, say, one how much will manage completely a contract division?
experimented on the basis of Pskov
(76 - air - a landing division. First of all among just typed contract employees have interviewed: How much you would want to receive in a month? People responded: 12 - 15 thousand. It such sum have promised and began to pay... Almost twice it is less. Here - that the future pros have started to run up. And on their place under the same promises typed the new. But also they left for the same reason, without having held on even till the end of the first contract. Business went on single turns, for nothing devouring huge money. And, though barracks have altered in convenient hostels for contract employees - bachelors, and for family have started to build houses, flight has not stopped. Experiment was in the heat and demanded from the government and the Minister of Defence (MO) serious updatings. But it declared... Successfully finished.
and the contract service in fighting parts of the Russian army both was, and remained a crude half-finished product: from - for the same scanty salaries wishing to become the pro was a little.
MO pressed on commanders, demanding to give the plan, and many of them quite often solved a problem simply: Urged (at times even threats!) The soldier - srochnikov to sign contracts and sent upward victorious reports. But as soon as at false contract employees there came a demobilisation, they umatyvali home. And on their place typed same « professionals ». And the huge money allocated with the state on the decision of a strategic problem, left, as a matter of fact, in sand. And in the meantime some political parties, public organisations, legal experts continued to run into the power, demanding the prompt transformation of army into completely contract. And the idea pomalenku has got accustomed in heads of simple citizens: today, according to sociological researches of Levada - the Center, it support already more than 60 % of the population. So behind what has put became?
reform, kru - at - at - gom!
From present military reform very many waited gulliverovskogo for a step towards contract army. As the management of the Minister of Defence and the Joint Staff in the end of 2008 - go declared creation of 85 parts of the constant battle readiness completed only with contract employees! It encouraged: it would seem, still hardly - hardly - and, to great pleasure of the people, there will be a historical decree about definitive cancellation of an appeal in Russia. And here - gloomy sensation! To create the army fully completed by contract employees, it is not planned. About it the chief of the Joint Staff (GSH) Nikolay Makarov has declared. Also has explained that « after long-term efforts in a management of the Minister of Defence have come to understanding that the contract employee should prepare on absolutely other methods, than it was earlier ». Also that « we increase an appeal, and a contract part we reduce ». Makarov recognised that that problem which was put - construction of professional army, - has not been solved. The understanding was gave to generals difficultly, the recognition - is easy.
And after all it was planned that the number of soldiers and sergeants - contract employees will increase with 22 100 in 2003 to 147 600 in 2008 - m. But have not held on... again a failure: money have spent much, and « the goods » have received a little. Well directly a vicious circle! As here you will not reflect: and a leah is on a broader scale the right to life at contract army to Russia or preservation of the former (mixed) system of acquisition of armies at us is inevitable?
It is reversible to the facts.
14 years ago Boris Yeltsin has signed the well-known decree ¹ 722 about creation in Russia professional army. Say that the idea belonged not to it, and two politicians of a liberal warehouse. EBN the tempting idea was pleasant - on a nose there was presidential election, and a rating strongly « limped ». And millions mothers grateful to Yeltsin, fathers of recruits and recruits have voted heart for the candidate, promising to cancel an appeal. And as differently - vote or you will serve...
but when victory has been gained, Yeltsin who has sobered up from euphoria... Has corrected the decision and instead of cancellation of an appeal since spring of 2000 in the text of the new decree ¹ 1356 there were words « in process of creation of necessary conditions ». And then and on a broader scale has charged to develop the concept of military building in the Russian Federation already till 2005. So process has accepted slow character. And again in a society furious discussions have gone. One politicians and economists with foam at a mouth proved: « Acquisition of the Russian army only on a contract basis - while absolutely excessive burden for the state ». Others complained to the Kremlin on « a tightening of reforming of the military organisation of the country » also repeated that « Professional Armed forces are a historical choice, and other possibility at us will not be ». And the state should pay for such possibility much. How much?
How much is the volunteer?
According to scientists spetsov, for creation of contract army the military budget still at that time (the middle 90-) should be trebled a minimum - from $10 - 11 billion approximately to $30 billion But in Russia in the heat was the period « big hapka » the state budget was filled inertly, therefore about so generous expenses on « non-profitable » army could not be and speeches. Hardly - money for feeding - odezhku hardly sufficed it, and the quantity of contract employees increased the turtle rates. Therefore first of all was the course on army reduction is taken. Since 1992 number of Armed forces consistently decreased: from 2,8 million to present 1 million military men (and about 800 thousand civil personnel). Thus, the quantity of mouths in army has decreased for 1 million persons. Military expenses have in this time increased almost in 5 times - about $11 billion to $53 billion it would Seem, according to the logic of things of contract employees at us should become let not in 5 times but though in 3 times it is more. Them, to the contrary, becomes ever less. We hear someone`s angry voice: « Generals have plundered money! »
yes, the question, as they say, is: according to the Main military Office of Public Prosecutor, with 1992 for 2010 for any economic crimes almost 300 generals and admirals were involved in a criminal liability. Plus for the same - more than 10 thousand officers. But together for the past 20 years they would withdraw from military sphere from $1 to $1,5 billion Yes let and $5 billion! All the same it should not become such an insuperable hindrance for increase in number of contract employees from among soldiers and sergeants. In what has put?
First of all in that, in our opinion, that every year the lion`s share of the growing military budget was eaten by growing inflation. Judge: if in the beginning 90 - h one tank T - 90 in home market cost $300 thousand now - $2 million Approximately in the same proportion all nomenclature of military technology and the weapon has risen in price also. Yes actually and all military expenses. Therefore the Ministry of Defence has been urged to spend 70 % of the budget for the maintenance of army and only 30 % - on its re-equipment and development.
certainly, in this situation about sharp increase in expenses at contract employees could not be and speeches. But there are also other reasons. And on the first place here - a low monetary contentment (DD) and not arranging many (first of all married men) living conditions. Today « the starting price » (it DD) - 8 - 9 thousand rbl. - is less than contract employee, than at the semipoor peasant. And results of polls show that DD should exceed the average salary on the country (today - 20 383 rbl.) On 20 %. Otherwise the contract service (KS) will not be competitive on a labour market. To go on such expenditure of the power have not dared yet.
the main same argument - economic possibilities of the state do not allow. Though here, as they say, still it is necessary to look. No, not in the magazine list « Forbs ». Look is better, as the host of officials where they live and by what go grows. Them already in 10 times more, than in imperial Russia the sample of 1913. And on everyone money is necessary. And that you want - at them after all economy « ROSES » - raspil, recoil, drift? That as - that to justify « appetite loss » to contract army, other generals declare that almost all armies of the world are completed by the mixed principle. But this slyness. Wherefore there is more than half of states of the world has refused an appeal.
And what behind a hillock?
armies of the leading countries - contract.
the USA. Army on 100 % the contract. Expenses on life-support of one military man make not less than $115 thousand a year. Expenses for habitation building, the insurance, credits for study, various bonuses, grants and forthcoming pension double this sum. And taking into account money for combat training for a circle there is $400 thousand a year. It is a lot of? How to tell. Sending and the maintenance of one « dzhi - ah » in Afgane initial preparation of the pilot - in as much manages in $1 million Only.
Great Britain. Army on 100 % the contract. It at an aggregate number of 180 thousand persons takes the second place in the world under military expenses. One « tommi » manages to Its Majesty in $120 thousand a year. Expenses on combat training of infantrymen less American, and here « spetsnazerov » proud britty adore: to prepare elite fighter SAS manages in $2 million - and as differently if the Bond, James Bond, ministered there.
Germany. The Bundeswehr - the most efficient army in Europe. Number - 325 thousand military men and 75 thousand civil. All full age citizens of the country without fail serve on an appeal. Third from them remain on extra urgent service. Besides it, in the Bundeswehr contract employees (term of their service from 2 till 12 years) and professional soldiers total number over 250 thousand persons (77 % from the general) minister. And now the Bundeswehr will call soldiers only to prepare them to service under the contract. The maintenance of one « gerri » manages to the budget twice more cheaply American « dzhi - ah ».
France. An appeal have cancelled 7 years ago and have passed to professional army. Number of armed forces - 389 thousand people, including civil servants. Charges of one military man make about $80 thousand a year.
certainly, these figures outright do not appear in military budgets. And it will be simple to divide the sum of the military budget into number of armed forces incorrectly: at each country the features. But these expenses are discussed in parliaments and the governments, are available in their reports or in a press where we and have found them. And here with the Russian army all is more difficult.
Salabony and contrabasses
Having got stuck between invocatory and contract models, our army has lost advantages of the first and has not reached level of the second. Having spent thus to 99 billion rbl. only for one Federal target program! But this money, according to authoritative researchers, was spent for everything, only not on increase DD of those who has decided to minister professionally. The deputy chief of the Joint Staff the general - colonel Vasily Smirnov asserted that material maintenance of the soldier - the contract employee « far more than 35 thousand which are received by the machinist of an electric locomotive ». It is difficult to argue with the general, but crowds of machinists at military registration and enlistment offices why - that are not noticed. And after all the named sum where above the average salary across Russia.
Truth that the majority of men neither on an appeal, nor under the contract do not want to minister. The first - because do not want to do it it is dependent and almost free, the second - because pay in it a little. And, though the data about expenses on the maintenance of military men is closed, from military financiers in the press the curious figure has fluttered out: the maintenance of one soldier - srochnika manages to the state in 100 thousand rbl. a year. Or about $3300. Hardly here something is considered, except regimentals, feeding, washing - pomyvki, light - heat and cold water in barracks, analginum, zelenki and ridiculous DD (500 roubles a month!). Really: regimentals - 26 thousand rbl.; a diet on norm ¹ 1 - 28,8 thousand rbl.; DD - 12 thousand rbl. for a year; total - 66,8 thousand rbl.
the transitional economy Institute estimates real specific expenses on each military man almost in 900 thousand roubles ($30 thousand) . It already is more similar to truth. But scientists too do not say that has entered into this sum and about what soldier - srochnike or the contract employee - speech. And now do not fall from a chair: in Russia almost 20 years the problem was put to create professional army, but in this time in « tops » never it was not discussed: and it will demand what financial expenses? From giving of military men the next Federal target program (FTSP) was accepted, under it was allocated next one hundred billions roubles « on contract employees » money was smeared on garrisons (sometimes them used on furniture purchase), and on it all came to an end. Before acceptance new FTSP...
Continuation - in the following number.
As the quantity of contract employees changed?
|Years||Kol - in|
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