Father Frost has returned from exile giving thanks “the researcher of New Year`s and Christmas Russian traditions, professor Sankt tell About details of private life of the main New Year`s character - the Petersburg university Elena Dushechkina and the expert in Father Frost Soviet history, the philologist Svetlana Adoneva.
1. Has suffered from political repressions?
- In 1927 the Soviet power has forbidden suit New Year trees. And Father Frost became the enemy of the people. The atheists who have developed in the country uncompromising struggle with religious prejudices and superstitions have tried. In published in 1927 “ Materials to antireligious propagation in Christmas days “ for example, it is told: “ Children deceive that gifts to them were brought by Father Frost. Religiousness of children begins with a fur-tree. Dominating exploiter classes use “ the darling “ a fur-tree and “ kind “ Father Frost also to make of workers of obedient and patient servants of the capital “.
Some propaganda materials convicted the verses called, obviously, to eclipse a known song “ In wood the fur-tree " was born;:
“ Christmas -
the Disgusting feast bourgeois will be fast,
the custom ugly Is connected from time immemorial
the capitalist will come To wood,
Inert, correct to a prejudice,
the Fur-tree will cut down an axe,
Having released a malicious joke “.
In a word, as ideologically correctly joked then communists: “ Only the one who the friend of priests, is ready to celebrate a fur-tree “.
However as early as two years large fur-trees of the country passed without Father Frost. Its first official phenomenon performed by actor Garkavi has taken place on January, 1st, 1937 on the first Kremlin fur-tree.
2. When the bearded aged man was born?
- In shape of the kind and nice old man habitual for us Father Frost has appeared only in 1840 - m in the story of the prince and writer Vladimir Odoevsky “ the Frost of Ivanovich “. It was literary processing of a national fairy tale “ Morozko “ - about the bad grandfather who to death has frozen the lazy girl who has not pleasant to it. In the softened variant of the writer lenivitse the death, and only a necklace from icicles gets not.
3. Unless Moroz Ivanovich not always was the nice fellow?
- Is not present, in the beginning the Grandfather was premerzkim type. Morozko the people represented in the form of the aged man who the crosier operated demise of all live. According to legends in winter solstices of it dedulju it was necessary umilostivit. Humoured it... The young virgin whom adhered to a tree and left to freeze in a wild frost. If for a day stiffened - means, the victim is accepted. And Father Frost bag has been first intended for gathering of gifts. The crosier the vile old man banged disobedient children or intimidated their terrifying stories. Only to the beginning of the XX-th century the grandfather became definitively kind thanks to a known children`s song about a fur-tree, written poetess Raisa Kudashevoj in 1903.
4. A leah is at the grandfather a family?
- According to legends the Grandfather was married at Spring. But for a long time already nobody remembers it. And it is correct: otherwise it would be necessary to answer foolish questions supposedly where the spouse, why not together?. It is not known - truth has got lost in the heart of centuries.
5. “ a red nose “ always brought with itself a fur-tree and gifts?
- Is not present, in spite of the fact that New Year`s traditions have come to us from the Western Europe in the middle of the XIX-th century, the Grandfather has affirmed not at once as a role of the donator. Only by 1880 the fur-tree and a bag with gifts were strong co-ordinated to image of the wood old man. However, its Father Frost yet did not call: it was “ svjatochnyj the old man “ “ the Christmas grandfather “ “ the fur-tree grandfather “ and even Sacred Nikolay. Only since 1910 it began to appear on a fur-tree alive in quality massovika - the inventor, with ruddy cheeks and a wadded beard.
the Party has told “ It is necessary! “
“ In pre-revolutionary time bourgeoisie and officials of bourgeoisie always suited for new year to the children a fur-tree. Children of workers with envy through a window looked at a fur-tree sparkling by multi-coloured fires and children of rich men having fun round it... Any, precisely “ left “ zagibshchiki defamed this children`s entertainment, as a bourgeois invention... Follows this wrong condemnation of a fur-tree which is perfect entertainment for children, to put an end... We will arrange a good Soviet fur-tree in all cities and collective farms... “
the Komsomol has responded “ Is! “
“ the Evenings devoted to a meeting of New year, should pass cheerfully and organizovanno on the basis of amateur performance of pupils: singing, the recitation, music, sports performances and games, without supposing on these any evenings of reports on school activity... “
(from Central Committee VLKSM decision.)
BY THE WAY
the Snow Maiden Whence undertook?
Only in 1873 thanks to Alexander Ostrovsky`s play “ the Snow Maiden “ Father Frost has got the young assistant - a daughter, which later writers and poets “ have altered “ in the grand daughter. Why - too it is not clear. And after “ reprisals “ 1927 - 1935 the Snow Maiden on a broader scale for a long time was gone. As the constant companion of the Grandfather it was revived only in the beginning 1950 - h thanks to efforts of children`s classics Lva Kassilja and Sergey Mikhalkov which wrote scenarios for the Kremlin fur-trees. The place of its birth is challenged today by two settlements of Russia: the Kostroma region where in a manor ShChelykovo Ostrovsky has written the well-known fairy tale, and St.-Petersburg where has created the immortal opera Roman - Korsakov. However, since a century before last the shape of the grand daughter - daughters has strongly changed: from sexless and cold it has turned to sex - to the star. Not without reason in sections “ Leisure before New year “ even more often there are phones “ Snow Maidens “.