SobolyokFor those who does not know: it is a sable - a legendary small animal, the protagonist of the Siberian nature. To see a sable in the summer sitting here so easy on a tree it is almost impossible - it is reserved, careful, quick. But this small animal especial. Ohotovedy, studying sables on Kamchatka, have presented a handsome man to my friend, the journalist to Michael Zhilin, and he lived at it - slept in a cage at night, and skipped on rooms in the afternoon, to stroke itself was not given, but fearlessly licked from a finger condensed milk, got on specially for it left srubok birches as a cat, caught the rag mouse, liked to doze between window frames.
once we took sobolka in wood - properly posnimat. It, certainly, has escaped, but we have put on a back pad to the fidget nogavku, and it, having understood, it is impossible what to get away, easy posed. Before you its portrait.
the sable consists related to ermines, minks, columns, polecats, gluttons, otters and especially with martens. Brem named a sable a version of martens. Aljaskinsky martens Russian settlers named sables. Are very similar! But there are distinctions, and the main thing from them - quality of fur. All the same olden time of Brem named a sable “ a jewelry “. But the fur became prokljatem a remarkable small animal. There lived a sable only in Russia, on huge spaces from Pacific ocean almost to Moscow, and for a long time was currency - anything from extracted by the person in wildlife was not appreciated so highly, as fur of sables. No wonder that hunted on a beast diligently, despite difficulties of this hunting, and to Ural Mountains the sable has been exterminated absolutely.
fur eldorado there was Siberia. The sable became here stimulus of a promovement zemleprohodtsev on the east to ocean. Everywhere they forced natives to pay jasak (tribute) and by all means demanded sables. It is curious that the tribute was not too burdensome for local people. The same as fur of the beaver on Alaska, sable skins were not worldly practical, skins of dogs and otters were above appreciated. And natives, giving to dealers for a knife five skins of a sable, considered that make the successful transaction. And from Moscow constantly demanded: sables! Sables! The sable fur coats distinguished correct sluzhak the tsar, allowed to ambassadors - to gift lords of Europe. In 1595 tsar Feodor Ioannovich, sending embassy to Vienna, has given to it of forty thousand sable skins “ for donation to the necessary people “.
To Moscow the sable furs “ flew “ from Siberia. And, of course, their craft quickly reduced the number of sables which was very big. For twenty five years of an initial craft the number of small animals on Kamchatka was reduced five times. Knowing it, you start to believe, as mammoths on the Earth were exterminated by the person.
and Moscow continued to demand sables. And after extraction of their hundreds thousand in 1914 have extracted with great work of all of thirty five thousand. The small animal disappeared. In 1925 one skin especially valuable barguzinskogo sables in New York has been sold for twenty five thousand gold roubles. At such prices finished small animals. On all space of Siberia of a zone of dwelling of a sable looked now only specks.
the sable in Soviet period by a hunting absolute prohibition, creation of reserves and systematic moving of sables in their places former obitanja has been rescued. Grandiose and very labour-consuming this work (to extract sables live it is exclusively difficult) has crowned by success. Soboli have again extended in Siberia, and since 1941 on them strictly adjustable hunting has renewed systematic, but. Catching and moving of sables have allowed to study properly life and habits of the well-known native of Siberia.
a sable - the inhabitant wood. In impassable taiga krepjah it finds I peep and escapes from enemies. On trees feels confidently, though and not “ flies “ between trunks, like martens. But the sable always on the earth hunts, pursuing mice, chipmunks, creepers, ermines, ruins the bird`s nests, dares to attack hares, black grouses, the wood-grouses much more exceeding its body weight. Courage and impudence of a small animal are that that, having seized a neck, for example, a wood-grouse, he does not throw a victim even flied up and quite often the considerable distance flies by on a mad bird. The hour the cutting from the newspaper of 1983 here has waited. “ after detour the watchman of a poultry farm of Karatuzsky state farm (Krasnoyarsk region) peacefully drank tea in a witness mark. Suddenly behind a wall in hen house noise was heard. The watchman has turned on the light, and a same minute, having concerned with a fluffy tail of a valenok, a bullet has flown by darkly - the brown small animal who has whisked in a crack between floor boards. “ a sable!. “
but how it has got to village - to wood of more than ten kilometres? The riddle was resolved, when near to a farm in snow have found gluharinye feathers and bones. Possibly, the small animal has seized to a wood-grouse a neck when that in snow spent the night. The bird filled with horror has incurred “ the horseman “ up hill and down dale. When oslabla - has fallen on the earth. The equestrian, having feasted at dichiny some days, has got to try happiness in a hen house “.
the Major food for a sable - pine nuts. He eats them very much willingly and constantly keeps in kedrachah. On privadah hunters it first bypasses unfamiliar food, but having tried out, eats all successively: fish, bread, porridge, macaroni, frozen meat, the sugar flavoured with a valerian. Special weakness of a sable - medical “ Soul will give for honey and condensed milk! “ - the hunter in the Far East told to me. At wood borti wild bees for feasting for five - six days gathers two - three ten small animals, than and hunters use. The case when sobolku which have treated with honey in a cage, have given the chance to leave on will is described. But the desire to eat up a delicacy has forced a beast to return to a cage.
at a sable not so it is a lot of Enemies: a hawk - teterevjatnik, an eagle owl, in the Far East - the big marten harza. But most of all perishes small animals at fires and it is exterminated by the person - to a course there are guns, set of smart traps. Hundreds years of continuous prosecution have developed at a small animal care and timidity, ability to be hammered into such blockages of a taiga, whence to expel or entice it it is impossible.
Character the sable dared, even derzok, like a fox never loses presence of mind and quite often finds freedom, escaping from traps, sometimes, truth, with the turned off paw. Endurance of the carrier of precious clothes is amazing. The warm fur allows the small animal who has got to a trap to remain live five - six hours at a frost in 25 degrees. But do not love soboli the sun, are always buried in a shade and if necessarily it will appear what in the full glare of the sun, with it there can be a heavy attack. And, happens, the fright kills a small animal, “ From hundred one or two perish from shock in hands of the hunter “.
Characters, at some common features, it is separated at sables - one small animals are spiteful, others, having fallen into a trap, are there and then capable to lick condensed milk from a finger of the hunter and in a taiga izba behave so as if all life resided under a roof. “ at me sobolyok in an izba even mice caught. Will sit down at a mink and as the cat, long-sufferingly waits the victim “ - the hunter from settlement on Angara told to me.
absolutely not timid does small animals hunger. In one of reserves they came to hungry winter to be fed to settlement - dug, as the run wild cats, in garbage, caught hens, were accustomed to resort on a sound of the bell convoking people in a dining room for a dinner, and took meal from hands.
but hunting for a sable is difficult and dangerous from - that it is necessary to get in impassable fix a taiga. My friend Erofej Sazontevich Sedov with whom the family of ascetics of Lykovyh has reduced us, having broken away from geological group, thought to be fed with hunting for sables. Did not leave. Professionals - field men extracted for a winter more than two tens small animals, Erofej (the hunter - the fan) - only seven - eight. Many subtleties in this hunting, and an inept craft do not pay back an expense of forces, transport, equipment.
the old craft of sables, strangely enough, has not allowed to study all habits of a small animal, a way of life, physiology. Was considered, for example, that gon at a sable passes in the beginning of spring, and in one and a half month soboljushka brings puppies. It has appeared, spring gon at a sable false. Present gon - summer, and pregnancy lasts not one and a half month, and about nine. The germ for a while ceases to grow in a belly of mother and then grows quickly, being born to summer of next year. Hunters and not biologists - poleviki, and workers of the Moscow zoo in 1929 have found out it not. The further supervision, already in the wild nature, have confirmed this opening. Mature soboljata by the autumn in year of birth, but breed, bringing five - six puppies, only at three-year age. Sables, having spent many efforts, have learnt to plant and in bondage (from - for furs, certainly). They How much live in the wild nature, to establish difficultly. But in bondage the old age overtakes them in thirteen - fourteen years - are erased teeth, sight, hearing weaken, mobility disappears.
and what destiny of it here a handsome man living in a town house? One of these days I have called to Kamchatka to the friend and have asked about all. It has appeared, sobolka have tried to acquaint with the girl-friend, same beautiful and statnoj. Anything from an invention it has not turned out - small animals fought, and samochku it was necessary to bring to wood. Long time I force a sable divided with a bird kedrovkoj. Taiga these neighbours know habits each other and under a roof at the person lived almost that in friendship. Zanjatno was to observe, how they hide cedar nutlets on different cracks. To find kladovki the neighbour both obvious pleasure gave. But sobolyok tried and to hunt for kedrovkoj that will quite be co-ordinated with its nature of an inveterate predator. It was necessary to let out a bird. And then freedom was found also by a sable. Itself. He liked to lie down at a window between frames and, apparently, once has unintentionally touched a latch of an external window leaf. “ have come home, and sobolka is not present. Had a look at snow below - on it traces from a jump from above and a chain of traces straight to wood “. It is that “ heppi - end “ (the happy end) in gostevanii at people of an appeasable small animal.