The Kirghiz who were tired of the anarchy: “ we Wait, when Russian will return and will introduce at us an order “. A part 1
the Special correspondent « » Darya Aslamova has tried to understand, why Kirghiz so like to arrange revolutions and a leah is at it « a splinter of the USSR » chance to become the stable state.
GROUPS of WOMEN OF SPECIAL FUNCTION
How much are revolutions? Expensively, if it is a question of the traditional sluggish country with firm conservative views and languid temperament. (To shake, for example, Germany, Hitler`s mad charism and all power bank and military - the industrial capital were necessary.) In billions dollars have flown to the West « tsvetochno - fruit » revolutions in territory of the Eastern Europe. Revolution (or revolution - choose that is pleasant) where - nibud in Africa costs not more expensively second-hand « Mercedes ». (It is curious, a leah is at revolutionaries bookkeepers? At Bolsheviks, we will put, were.)
The is more often there are revolutions in separately taken state, the they krovavee, more promptly and more cheaply. Kirghiz, inhabitants of the small trusting Asian country Kyrgyzstan, twenty years shaken with meetings, revolutions, stirrings and pogroms, assure that the following Kirghiz revolution will cost, as the newcomer « Zaporozhets ». Cheap but good. In Kirghizia there are no unsuccessful revolutions, there is not enough vodka. The scheme is simple, as a thick glass tumbler: in any village the feast, « is had; that » on which the considerable part of a sort, one and a half - two thousand persons, old men and young hot Dzhigits gathers. Cut rams, adjust buses (!) With vodka. The head of clan (local politician) says an inspiring speech on a subject « How long? ». Meat is eaten, vodka is drunk. The crowd which has become stupid from alcohol load in buses and carry on meeting on a main square in Bishkek. Still it is possible to give to drink the poor from city suburbs, to collect the cream of geeks, to distribute to all on 200 catfishes (about four dollars) and to carry on the same meeting. Or to drive OBON - « group of women of special function » (local political nou - hau of which Kirghiz in secret are proud). The crowd of noisy, noisy, vigorous women in motley rags rushes into any state institution and for the same 200 catfishes on a skirt demand truth, justice or world peace. Or shouts « Ketsin! » (« Leave! ») To the next chief. It is not important that to shout. It is important that television cameras work, women cry out, the power is rumpled, protection capitulates. Not to shoot really at women?
further the most interesting. Broad masses dvizhutsja to « to the White house » and already on approaches to it there is a weapon (it rozdano, it is grasped or thrown - depending on a revolutionary situation). « the Bang - tah - tah! The next president escapes, and the crowd amicably goes to plunder Turkish shops and to set fire Chinese, - speaks eks - the deputy of the dispersed parliament Ishak Masaliev, had time to sit in prison after April revolution. - well than to you not the revolutionary romanticism? »
| Darya Aslamova was convinced - revolutionary ruin in Kirghizia do not hurry to clean. And what for? Suddenly again revolution?. |
« All our revolutions are made on aesthetic soil, - with taste the professor of faculty of journalism of Kyrgyzsko - the Russian Slavonic university, the doctor of sciences Alexander Katsev speaks. - us nurtured in the spirit of revolution of 1917: it is necessary to do revolution, opening gate to a palace. And then the historical: « Sentry was tired ». Here all our revolutionaries also run to « to the White house » grasp, throw out computers from windows. Then hang up the poster: « Dirty Jews! Be cleaned! » Well who can be still guilty, except us, Jews? Then wet Uzbeks or defile orthodox cemeteries. Normal psychology of thugs. And, certainly, a robbery. To me told charming story about last revolution: the family from suburbs where there live self-builders, and is not present either light, or water. The husband has plundered computer shop, and the wife - a boutique of the French underwear. I and see this picture: she puts on the French shorts, it opens the laptop, but the electricity thus is not present! And both feel rich ».
Pressing forward to receive something for nothing and there is a motive power of all revolutions. But revolution, distributing bonuses and overturning the reasons of national discontent, in itself does not become creating force. To destroy easily, to build difficultly. On the eve of new parliamentary elections Kirghizia, is so much years raving drunk volnitsej, has slightly sobered up. It became clear: the state will not transfer the third revolution. Being on the threshold of civil war, the country has fondly desired sedative - « the strong and fair government ». Only where it to take?
not TAKEN place STATE
Kirghizia - small poor highland on severo - the east of the Central Asia. Kirghiz - the temperamental freedom-loving people which have come up from night where fires of nomads flickered, and managed to create the primitive form of breeding democracy. In the theory - Moslems, in practice - the secular people without religious prejudices, with pagan traditions and mad thirst of life. Islamizatsija, so successful at settled Tadjiks and Uzbeks, at Kirghiz seriously has not passed. Russian were with civilising mission in the XIX-th century middle, but for 140 years of the sovereignty and have not managed to impart to Kirghiz idea of the state and to lift them with feeling of breeding, clan consciousness to consciousness national.
« When in the reorganisation beginning foreigners here have started to go, they first of all asked: Kirghiz - sunnity or Shiits? - Professor Alexander Katsev tells. - I responded them: at Kirghiz oral Islam. Nobody wants to read the Koran. All consider that they and so it know. The same with our statehood. Nobody wants to learn to operate: we - the nation dvoechnikov. At us forty sorts, and on a flag forty gold beams. And all these forty sorts should a little bit povlastvovat ».
« Kirghizia as the state has not taken place yet, - the local political scientist Mars Sariev is assured. - we also did not have a statehood to ward imperial, and then the Soviet power. Nations gathered on kurultaj that, in effect, and there is a parliament. There was a nomadic military democracy, the union of nations which united under the khan. But this khan selected leaders of nations, it was possible to clean at any moment if it was not equitable to someone`s interests. Actually that we now also do with the next objectionable president. It is such return to the past, a deja vu. Kirghiz live very strong corporate, rodoplemennymi, clan interests unlike Uzbeks who have passed through Khivan and Bukhara khanates. The power has been built, and in their mentality it was fixed ». « Then the Soviet power has not taught you to statehood? » - I ask. « no. The central power in the name of Moscow did not get in rodoplemennye affairs. Yes, Moscow put at the head of republic of the necessary person, and all local fasts (heads of regional administrations, chairmen of collective farms and other) have been assigned to clans. It was the European packing with the old Asian maintenance. In Soviet period (and now) funeral where the maximum quantity of members of a sort gathered were the tool which normalised relations in a clan, first of all and all serious questions were solved. In effect, as then 200 families corrected, and now correct, and struggle of old and new elite does not calm down per day. And while we will not break this scheme, we will not come to the state in the European understanding of this word ».
AS THEY LIVE
In spite of the fact that the average salary in the country 150 - 200 dollars, Kirghiz live very cheerfully. The country which is not believing in tomorrow, spends money easily and beautifully. One million the guest workers working in Russia and Kazakhstan, regularly send home from 800 million to billion dollars a year. With an electricity naprjazhenka, but the night clubs full of prostitutes, are shone till a dawn. At restaurants of Bishkek in the evening there`s not an inch of room. The whole tables cops and customs officers directly in shape sit. Widespread gamblings for which so idleness and a crime are greedy. Public plays, as on the eve of great assize. A casino, playing automatic machines, elite habitation. For whose bill this banquet?
« for 20 years Kirghizia with the five-million population has received 2 billion 800 million dollars of credits, - speaks eks - the deputy from Party of communists of Ishak Masaliev. - Considering that fact that any factory or factory does not work for us, it is easy to understand: we have simply eaten this money and we are not going to return. « new Kirghiz » well eat, drive on jeeps, own the big houses. We, as well as Greece, live beyond the means. And when to us it is bad, we ask money from Russia - there them to receive easier, than in Europe, there there are sympathising. We still brothers! »
« our first president Askar Akaev spoke in 90 - h years: give me three years of presidency, and I will make Kirghizia the second Switzerland! - Doctor of Economics Zhumakadyr Akeneev tells. - We the first of the Soviet republics have accessed to WTO already in 1998! Us have invited as « Democracy islet ». We, Kirghiz, have an expression: « Heroes without a thing ». It was economic « exploit »: to close a chest an embrasure dzota when no chances of a survival are present. We have left from the Customs union with Russia and Kazakhstan, have come off the economic centre and have appeared in proud loneliness on the post-Soviet territory. Remained in isolation, we have transformed the country into a double-exit courtyard. All member countries of the WTO have the right to import to us the goods in any quantity with the customs duties not above 8 percent (into realities five). And nearby China! For comparison: the customs duties in Russia on import of ton of reed sugar make 300 euros - almost 50 percent from the cost price. So Russia protects the manufacturer of a sugar beet. Having accessed to WTO, we have killed the Kirghiz manufacturer.
but here our people have not become puzzled. They have spat own manufacture and have started to trade in the Chinese goods, roughly deforming the official statistics: China shows that delivers to us of the goods on 10 billion dollars, and we show 800 million. Feel a difference? The customs on weight accepts the goods, not important, there is a car with TVs or with fig. From this figure the tax - 12 % of the VAT and 5 % of duties really these of 17 % should be raised from 10 billion is paid. 1,7 billion dollars annually vanishes on border! Same Klondike, a fantastic source of enrichment! The customs committee directly submits to the president of the country. To get to customs though on half a year, people pay the whole statuses. Because know: has sustained six months and has not got, means, has provided a family for life. But when will earn Russian - the Kazakh customs union from which we in due time it is proud have refused, it is necessary to pay for resale of the Chinese goods the duty.
| the Kirghiz militia is always ready to new « to national rebellions ». But why - that all the same not in forces them to stop. |
a photo: AP
the GOLD HOLE
Was at us and the Soviet inheritance: 18 enterprises which we, economists, suggested to give under jurisdiction of Russia for 3,5 billion dollars by instalments. Where there! The enterprises have decided to nationalise. Delivery of components has stopped, Russian experts began to leave. All factories have on the sly taken away, have sold all that could, and machine tools were taken out on scrap metal by Chineses and Iranians. So we have lost the industry. There was our pride - zolotorudnoe a deposit « Kumtor ». Into history will enter as swindle of a century, and for us, poor Kirghiz, millenary swindle! In 1992 - m « Kumtor » have given without the tender (!) The Canadian company for 20 dollars (it not a joke). Thus that only the USSR has spent 150 million dollars for gold investigation, a lining of roads and an electricity. At Akaeve the contract has been signed: Canadians pay 66 %, but not from the extracted gold, and from profit! Certainly, every year it turned out that poor Canadians work hardly probable not at a loss to themselves. Business « kryshevali » both presidents. « Kumtor » - the closed subject. Neither the national committee, nor tax inspection, deputies - could make the way nobody for years on a deposit to look that there Canadians get up. On the official statistics, it is extracted for all years of 240 tons of gold (to check up figures it is impossible). At the average price for gold of 20 dollars for gramme (and today all 43) is made production on 4,8 billion dollars! Kyrgyzstan has received a maximum of 250 million from this enormous sum.
Gold, the rare-earth metals, the stolen electric power - in Kirghizia all becomes shadow economy. But its main part - the narcotraffic.
the COUNTRY « RED » HEROIN
In Kirghizia large families not a rarity, especially in the south. Sensible parents traditionally send one - two sons to minister in militia or on customs, others - in narcobusiness that provides impunity and well-being to all family. The great silk way, ancient road of merchants and conquerors, works smoothly and now, delivering to Russia from Afghanistan through Tajikistan, Kirghizia and Kazakhstan (Northern route) at all silk, and about 60 tons of heroin a year. Business ancient and inevitable, as death. The question price - 30 thousand the young lives annually lost by Russia. (For comparison: for ten years of the Afghani war we have lost 15 thousand persons.)
- When to you say that we supposedly will overcome or we will destroy a drug mafia, do not believe talkers: we are confronted with the most powerful, negatively loaded social phenomenon which it is impossible to destroy, - the director speaks Is central - the Asian centre of a narcopolicy Alexander Zelichenko. - It is possible to speak only about how much the state supervises a situation, i.e. holds a hand on pulse. Among professionals there is an opinion: the most effective service on struggle against drugs in the world withdraws no more than 10 percent (it is the highest EFFICIENCY), differently business would be unprofitable. But the most terrible problem at all narcobusiness, and narcocorruption - it washes away all foundations. We have entered the term « red » heroin. It is the heroin belonging to law enforcement bodies (unlike « black » - toriminalnogo) which sell on « red » mentovskih holes. In 2008 the personal order eks - president Bakieva had been without assigning any reasons closed service of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Kyrgyzstan on struggle against narcobusiness. Next year have abolished Agency on control of drugs. As the state employee, I have no right to make comments on these actions. Conclusions do. It is more than year in the country there was a full vacuum of control over a narcostream. It just now decided to recreate former services.
last bakievsky the mode suited the ingenious washing machine on money-laundering - Agency of investments and innovations which has been conceived to involve on purpose means from every corner of the globe, without being interested in their origin. As soon as money arrives on the state bill of Kirghizia, any bank of the world of their signs already as lawful. You look, how much in Kirghizia, the country with the small income, a casino, expensive restaurants, elite habitation, and all it finds the buyer and the consumer. Any expert in the field of money-laundering to you will tell: the building boom, gambling institutions, gembling all kinds - an obvious sign of that in the country goes big « washing ». Russia in this situation - the affected party: to traditional Russian alcoholism the drug addiction and sharp increase in death rate among the young have increased. As the victim Russia has the right to interfere with a situation, to ask questions and to demand resolute actions.
the termination in the following number.