How to grow up tasty cucumbers?
cucumber is known to mankind for a long time. This useful and tasty vegetable has appeared in culture 6 thousand years ago. The cucumber native land - subtropical areas of India and China where it grows till now under natural conditions. On the south of Russia this culture has got from Greece, and on jugo - the east - from China. Already to the beginning XVII-th century the culture of a cucumber has extended to Moscow, and therefrom across all Russia.
Today it is difficult to present our table in the summer without fragrant fresh cucumbers, and in the winter - without crackling salty. That the crop was good, to cultivation of cucumbers the special approach is necessary.
the temperature mode
Cucumbers Is observed love heat, light and a moisture. The daily average temperature is necessary for their growth not more low +15 ˚ S.Pri the most short-term frosts, at 1,5 ˚ About cucumbers perish, temperature more low +8 - 10 ˚ With conducts to various diseases of plants. And if the cold snap proceeds long time, they stop growth and do not give a crop. At temperature above +35 ˚ With pollen in tsvetkah at cucumbers becomes incapable of fertilisation. Is better fertilisation goes at 25 - 30 ˚ With. Root system is better develops at temperature in soil 20 - 25 ˚ S.Nizhe 25 ˚ With in soil absorbing by a nitrogen and phosphorus plant considerably worsens, and growth of root system is late.
cucumber Plants badly transfer draughts, windy weather, strong movement of air, cold rains. The cucumber loves warm waterings, prefers inactive air, top dressing. Before crops it is necessary to bring in soil 4 - 6 kg of manure on 1 m ² superphosphate - 40 g, sernokislogo potassium - 40 g and ammoniac saltpeter - 18
In the Siberian climate the favorable period for development of cucumbers very short. Therefore we practise early crops and it is used dry seeds. If soil warm, for the accelerated shoots seeds namachivajut, prorashchivajut. For crops it is better to use 2 - 3 - summer seeds - they give more pistillate flowers and faster enter fructification.
Crops of seeds make on depth 1,5 - 2 sm, on distance 8 - 10 sm x 80 - 90 sm on 3 - 4 grains subsequently to leave 2 strongest plants. Thin out plants when shoots will get stronger, there will be 2 present sheets. After prorezhivanija it is necessary to loosen soil on depth 2 - 3 sm, combining with weeding and a lung okuchivaniem each plant. This reception contributes in education of new active root system.
That it is better to use an area under crops and to create an optimum mode of light exposure for a plant, it is possible to use easy arches from any material, to connect them from above thin laths, to fix and direct thongs on them. It allows fruits not to concern the earths, as a result they are exposed to illnesses and pollution in rainy weather less, not so are strongly hurt by slugs.
to accelerate fructification over 4 or 5 sheet prishchipyvajut a stalk top.
Than “ to feed “ cucumbers?
Defects of fruits of a cucumber are connected with a potassium lack more often, thus fruits get the pear-shaped form. If the fruit tip is made narrower and bent, as a beak, thus it usually brightens is a lack of nitrogen. If the fruit has “ a waist “ - the reason in the big difference of temperatures at night and in the afternoon, sometimes it occurs from - for watering by cold water. If fruits are bent dugoobrazno, they are necessary for removing and using in salads. If it is shown at hybrids, there was a reentomophily if at high-quality cucumbers - non-uniform watering affects.
Happens also such that zavjazi turn yellow, do not develop, dry up and then fall down. In what the reason? There was no pollination or from - for too high temperature, or from - for the big humidity, or from - for a long cold snap and incessant rains. Sometimes it occurs at puchkovom fructification: one - two fruits grow, and other of this bunch dry up - the food lack affects, it simply does not suffice on all.
If cucumbers have got bitterness, it has an effect valuable connection - kukurbetatsin, possessing antineoplastic action. The bitterness is shown more often at sharp change of temperatures, a long cold snap, watering by cold water. It needs to be avoided, and if the bitterness has arisen - to give top dressing kaltsievoj and natrievoj saltpeter. The best podkormkami are special fertilizers for a cucumber: “ Sudarushka “ “ the Giant “ “ Agrikola “ “ the Biomaster “.
If on cucumber leaves there were yellow stains which soon become dry and vykroshivajutsja, are signs of that has appeared bakterioz. Excellent means against it - “ fitosporin “. To water on leaves of times in two weeks. If there was a continuous marble colouring on leaves, cucumbers do not have not enough magnesium, microcells are necessary. There was a white touch on leaves is a usual mealy dew. Will help to rescue a plant processing “ Teovit - dzhetom “ and also means “ the Topaz “ and “ It is fast “.
we Struggle with wreckers!
the Basic wrecker of a cucumber is the web tick. When it occupies a plant, exhausting juice, leaves turn yellow and die off. The tick very small, but under its magnifier it is well visible - he lives on the bottom parties of leaves. Against the tick spraying by preparations " well helps; the Spark - Bio “ “ agrovertin “ or “ fitoverm “. These preparations are soaked up by sheet and within 3 weeks protect a plant from all sucking and gnawing wreckers. In food fruits from the processed plants can be used in 48 hours, preliminary having washed. Also it is possible to use garlic infusion, but only to process from the bottom party of sheet. Then the advantage will be doubtless.
If cucumbers are attacked by a plant louse (usually in second half of summer) against it it is necessary to apply “ Green soap “ a solution margantsevo - sour potassium, horsetail broth. The matter is that at a plant louse very gentle little body and even hot water (45 - 53 ˚) it will ruin, without having done much harm to a plant. Other national way: infusion of bitter red pepper together with a tobacco dust. Infusion to filter and add 3 - 4 spoons of wood ashes. JAdohimikatami (“ the Commodore “ “ the Spark “) It is necessary to process paths, a roof in a hothouse, doors, it protects from occurrence of a plant louse.
we Choose a grade
the Cucumber “ Altai “
Rannespelyj a pickling grade. Weight of fruits - 85 - 90 the Grade rather holodostojky and sredneustojchiv to illnesses. It is intended for cultivation in an open ground and under film shelters.
the Cucumber “ Bidretta “ .
the Ultraearly hybrid: fructification enters on 35 - j day after shoots. Plants srednepletistye. Productivity of 5 kg/ sq. m. Fruits cylindrical, bugorchatye in the length 14 - 18 sm, weight 100 - 120 Without bitterness. It is steady to olive pjatnistosti. Perfect pickling qualities of this grade have won hearts of many generations of truck farmers.
the Cucumber “ Graceful “ .
Rannespelyj, a salad and pickling grade of selection VNIISSOK for an open ground. Srednepletistyj. It is steady to olive pjatnistosti, possesses high cold constancy. Fruits melkobugorchatye, beloshipye, length 10 - 13 sm, are suitable for conservation.
the Cucumber “ Sectional “ .
One of the most popular rannespelyh grades for an open ground. A bush compact, zelenets 9 - 12 sm, weight 100 - 120 Productivity 10 - 12 kg/ sq. m. Amicable return of a crop, good flavouring qualities, universal purpose.