Rus News Journal

War in thy city: the Lenin area of Voronezh

In Leninsk area the main place of battles was Chizhovsky base. Fights on Chizhovke did not cease 204 days and nights since July, 6th, 1942 before the clearing of Voronezh - on January, 25th, 1943. An impact of the opponent constrained   warriors 6 - j, 100 - j, 159 - j and 206 - j shooting divisions, 11 - j and 229 - j shooting brigades, 25 - go the tank case, 14 - j a separate tank brigade, a part of artillery strengthening and special purpose division.

For fascist aggressors this area had important strategic value. From abrupt right coast there was an excellent review of a left bank. From it pjatachka Hitlerites were going to make a throw towards Michurinsk, Tambov, Borisoglebsk and Balashova.

on July, 7th, 1942 after fierce four-day battles German armies have occupied chizhovskie mounts. But the triumph of the enemy was short. Our command has established connection between right and left coast. And also the foot bridge disguised in ruins of the blown up Vogresovsky bridge has been built. It has given the chance to forward at night of fighters on right side.

on July, 26th 125 - j the regiment has managed to be fixed in a zone of the opponent, having occupied in streets Loskovoj and Free sixteen houses.

Soon this small base taken by summary divisions 6 - j a shooting division on east suburb Chizhovki at the Vogresovsky dam, has been considerably expanded. On the night of August, 12th on the right coast the armour that Germans did not expect has gone. And in the morning approach of shock grouping 40 - j armies has proceeded. Together with 6 - j a division of Chizhovku stormed 100 - I a shooting division under command of colonel Perhorovicha, 111 - I shooting, 14 - I tank and 16 - I istrebitelnaja brigades. They were supported by batteries 1109 - go and 595 - go army artillery regiments, 128 - j minometnyj a regiment, some battalions katyushas and aircraft. Each house   defended in the most severe fight. Our fighters showed mass heroism. As a result the Soviet armies have much more moved ahead along street 20 - letija October and left on a boundary of streets of Charles Marx and Lev Tolstoi, to building institute, rozariumu, to communication school, a military camp and wood Shilovsky`s northern edge.

And in 5 mornings the third storm of Chizhovki on September, 15th has begun. 40 - j armies have joined shock grouping 25 - j the tank case, 159 - I and 206 - I shooting divisions, 229 - I a shooting brigade. Also the group took part in September fights from 112 national civil guardsmen of captain Grachev.

Approach 40 - j armies has come to the end by September, 30th. Further fights went with variable success on a line: Charles Marx`s street - building institute - a military camp - wood Shilovsky`s northern suburb. From settlement almost remains nothing. Wooden houses have burnt down practically at once after the beginning of military operations.
only in battle 15, on September, 16th and 18 40 - j armies have lost parts of shock grouping killed, wounded men and missing persons of 17 thousand fighters, commanders and political workers.

Clearing of a city of fascist aggressors, at the same time and Voronezhsko - Kastorensky operation have begun from Chizhovki. From here on January, 25th, 1943 our soldiers have put one of the main blows on enemy forces.

the Communal grave 21 (lanes Dneprovsky, 1)

Here repose warriors who were lost in violent fighting in territory of Chizhovki in 1942. The burial place has appeared in 1999. In the spring at carrying out of civil work in territory gerontologicheskogo the centre Care Remains of two our fighters have been found out. Their ashes with military honours have buried here. Later workers have found remains of 29 more soldiers who have laid down lives on Chizhovsky base. Their ashes also have transferred to this tomb. Now from 31 military men names of 16 private soldiers are known. They have given the lives during battles from August till November 1942 - go. In 2000 on a tomb have established a granite monument.

the Photo: Alexander ZINCHENKO.

the Memorial complex Chizhovsky base

This memorial is created in memory of our warriors who were lost in July 1942 - go - January 1943 - go on Chizhovke. It is placed with a communal grave 1 in which it is buried more than 15000 persons.   but surnames only 3545 soldiers are known. 718 names of heroes are brought in the Book of eternal memory of a memorial Chizhovsky base . This biggest burial place of times of the Great Patriotic War in Voronezh.

the Photo: Alexander ZINCHENKO.

And the name such - honestly, fighting!

What streets of Lenin area remind us of war

Street Shaposhnikova

Is named in honour of Boris Mihajlovicha Shaposhnikova - the marshal of Soviet Union, the chief of the Joint Staff, a member of the rate of the Sovereign main command. Participated in workings out of plans of operations 1941 - 1942. Has brought the considerable contribution to the theory and practice of building of Armed forces of the USSR.

the Street Ljulina

Is named in honour of George Dmitrievicha Ljulina - the senior lieutenant, the assistant to the commander of the battalion storming abrupt slopes of Chizhovsky mounts. Heroically was killed in battle for Voronezh on September, 15th, 1942.

the Street Chernyakhovsk

Is named in honour of Ivan Danilovicha Chernjahovsky - the general, twice the Hero of Soviet Union. It was the commander 60 - j army which has taken direct part in clearing of Voronezh. Chernyakhovsk was lost on February, 18th, 1945 in fight.

the Street Zlobina

Is named in honour of Paul Aleksandrovicha Zlobina -   the pilot 41 - go the Voronezh assault aviation regiment. Was lost in fights for Voronezh on July, 2nd, 1942.

the Street Lishenko

bears Yemelyan Jakovlevicha Lishenko`s name -   guards of the major, the commander of a battalion 2 - j the Guards mechanised brigade. Heroically was lost on February, 16th, 1945.

the Street Kolesnichenko

Is named in honour of the Hero of Soviet Union Vasily Efremovicha Kolesnichenko. It carried a rank of the second lieutenant,   was the pilot 573 - go istrebitelnogo air defence aviashelf, on personal to bill 92 of a fighting departure. Was lost at protection of Voronezh on July, 1st, 1942, having made taran.

the Street Matrosova

Is named in honour of the Hero of Soviet Union of the private soldier of guards Alexander Matveevicha Matrosova. It has made exploit, having closed a body an embrasure dzota. Was lost on February, 23rd, 1943.

Demyanov`s Street

Is named in honour of Michael Aleksandrovicha Demyanov - the pilot 41 - go the Voronezh assault aviation regiment. Was lost in fights for Voronezh on July, 2nd, 1942, having repeated exploit of Gastello.

the Street Kutsygina

bears a name   the commissioner istrebitelnogo group of Daniel Maksimovicha Kutsygina. It was lost in fights for Chizhovsky base on September, 17th, 1942, the first having gone in to the attack.

the Street Vinogradova

Is named in honour of Jacob Antonovicha Vinogradova - the younger political leader, komsorga 460 - go a shooting regiment. Heroically was killed in battle for Voronezh on Chizhovsky base on August, 17th, 1942.

the Street of Marshal Nedelina

Is named in honour of Mitrofana Ivanovicha Nedelina - the main marshal of artillery, the Hero of Soviet Union, and during the post-war period - the deputy minister of defence of the USSR and the commander-in-chief by rocket armies. Was lost at rocket test on October, 24th, 1960.

Street 100 - j the Shooting division

the Division has started to be formed on November, 1st, 1923 as 45 - I territorial letters a shooting division. Since September, 1st, 1941 was a part 24 - j of army of Reserve front. On September, 13th   the division has arrived to Voronezh for replenishment and rest. For fighting exploits and heroism of staff on September, 18th, 1941 it is transformed in 1 - ju a Guards shooting division. In it has been included as supernumerary 4 - j the Voronezh voluntary shooting regiment. Baptism of fire has received in battles under village the Lime Valley and village Sakunihoj against ramenskoj groupings Guderiana.

Street 121 - j the Shooting division

on July, 10th, 1942, in some days after capture by Germans of a right-bank part of Voronezh, 121 - I the division participated in offensive operation in which result after violent fighting Hitlerites have been beaten out from areas of agricultural institute, regional hospital which settled down before war around present street Burdenko, and are rejected to stadium the Dynamo . Warriors 121 - j a shooting division continuously participated in intense operations in northern part of Voronezh. And on January, 15th, 1943 divisions of a division with fights were included into a city from party SHI and regional hospital on streets Clinical (nowadays 45 - j a shooting division), Plehanovsky. On January, 25th together with other military units have released Voronezh from Hitlerite aggressors.


Great commander George Zhukov

the Great commander was born in a family of the peasant in a village of Strelkovke near Kaluga. Its military career has begun in 1915 when young George has got to army. In a rank   younger unter - the officer of a cavalry participated in World War I. For its courage shown in battles have awarded with two Georgievsky crosses.

In Red Army since August 1918 - go. In Civil war battled against the Ural Cossacks near Tsaritsyn, fought with Denikin`s armies and Vrangelja, took part in suppression of revolt of Antonova on Tambovshchine and has been wounded.

in the Summer of 1939 it managed to perform successful operation on an environment and to crush grouping of Japanese armies of general Kamatsubary on the river Halhin - the Goal. Zhukov has received a rank of the Hero of Soviet Union and order of the Red Banner for these merits.

In days of the Great Patriotic War Zhukov held a post of the assistant to the Supreme commander in chief, ordered fronts. To it to the first during war the rank of the marshal of Soviet Union in 1943 has been appropriated. After a number of crushing defeats on Western and Jugo - Western directions have displaced on July, 29th, 1941 Zhukov from a post of the Chief of Joint Staff RKKA and have appointed ordering Reserve front. Since July, 31st it continued begun in July, 1941 (within the limits of Smolensk battle) the Soviet armies unsuccessful counterstrokes, and then has spent forces 24 - j armies offensive Elninsky operation (on August, 30th - on September, 8th). It became the Second World War first in a course where our approach has not suffered defeat.

After that Zhukov have appointed ordering Leningrad front. Under his supervision front armies together with the Baltic fleet have stopped approach of group of armies the North field marshal Wilhelm a background of Leeba to Leningrad in September, 1941. After front stabilisation near Leningrad and the begun blockade, Zhukov have withdrawn on the central direction Soviet - the German front (has headed Reserve front about October, 8th and the Western front since October, 10th). Our fighters have crushed armies of group of armies the Center the field marshal the Side background near Moscow also have dispelled a myth about invincibility German - fascist army.

In 1942 Zhukov ordered armies in the Moscow counterattack (till January, 7th 1942 - go); Rzhevsko - Vjazemsky operation (on January, 8th - on April, 20th 1942 - go); First Rzhevsko - Sychevsky operation (on July, 30th - on August, 23rd 1942 - go); second Rzhevsko - Sychevsky operation - Mars (on November, 25th - on December, 20th 1942 - go).

in 1943 - m Zhukov co-ordinated actions of fronts in operation the Spark at break of blockade of Leningrad. And in the summer in fight on the Kursk arch at its fate the Hitlerite plan " has been ruined; the Citadel also armies of field marshals of Kljuge and Manshtejna are broken. Victories are connected with a name of marshal Zhukov under Korsun - Shevchenkovsky also. After the successful termination of this operation in hospital general Vatutin on February, 29th, 1944 has died. Then Zhukov has headed and 1 - j the Ukrainian front (former Voronezh). Armies under its command in March - April 1944 - go have spent offensive Proskurovsko - Chertovitsky operation and have released a right-bank part of Ukraine.

At the final stage of war 1 - j the Belarus front headed by Zhukov, took Warsaw on January, 17th, 1945, has crushed group of armies And the general a background of Garpe and field marshal Shernera in Hung - Oder operation and has victoriously finished war by grandiose Berlin operation. On May, 8th, 1945 in Karlshorste (Berlin) the commander has accepted from the Hitlerite field marshal a background of Kejtelja unconditional surrender of fascist Germany. On June, 24th, 1945 marshal Zhukov accepted triumphal Parade of Victory in Moscow.

In 1955 - 1957 The marshal of Victory was the Minister of Defence of the USSR.

George Konstantinovich Has died on June, 18th, 1974. Him cremated, an urn with ashes have buried in the Kremlin wall on Red Square in Moscow.


the Major endurances from reports of last days of war

on April, 22nd, 1945

Within April, 22nd the Central group of our armies continued to conduct offensive combats on the Dresden and Berlin directions.
on the Dresden direction of an army have occupied 10 cities, on Berlin - 5. To the north of Vienna armies 2 - go the Ukrainian front with fights have occupied in territory of Austria more than 30 settlements.

on April, 23rd, 1945

Armies 1 - go the Belarus front, having gone over to the offensive from bases on the western coast of Oder, have broken through strongly strengthened defence of Germans covering Berlin from the east, have moved ahead from 60 to 100 kilometres, have seized   Frankfurt an der Oder and more 8 cities then have rushed into Berlin.

Armies 1 - go the Ukrainian front have broken through strongly strengthened defence of Germans on the river Naas, have moved ahead from 80 to 160 kilometres, have seized 12 cities and have rushed from the south into capital of Germany Berlin.

Simultaneously on the Dresden direction of an army of front with fights have occupied 5 cities and left on the river Elba severo - to the west of Dresden.

Armies 4 - go the Ukrainian front in territory of Czechoslovakia storm have seized the city of Opava - the important site of roads and a strong strong point of defence of Germans.
In territory of Czechoslovakia jugo - to the west of Godonina of an army 2 - go the Ukrainian front with fights have occupied the city of Mikulov and more 7 settlements.

on April, 24th, 1945

Severo - to the west of Berlin armies 1 - go the Belarus front have seized 4 cities. JUgo - to the east of Berlin forced the river to the Lady and have incorporated to armies coming from the south 1 - go the Ukrainian front.

Armies 1 - go the Ukrainian front with fights have occupied in a southern part of Berlin 4 city   area also have incorporated to armies 1 - go the Belarus front.

on April, 25th, 1945

Armies 3 - go the Belarus front have seized last strong point of defence of Germans on Zemlandsky peninsula - a city and a strong hold of Pillau -   with large port and military - sea base of Germans on Baltic sea, and also have occupied   5 settlements.

Armies 1 - go the Belarus front cut all ways going from Berlin on the West, and   have incorporated severo - to the west of Potsdam to armies 1 - go the Ukrainian front, having finished, thus, a full environment of Berlin.

To the west of Berlin armies 1 - go the Ukrainian front were released from a German captivity were by the prime minister - the minister of the French republic Errio.

In territory of Czechoslovakia severo - to the west of the city of Godonina of an army 2 - go the Ukrainian front have occupied more than 50 settlements and have fastened fight on suburbs of a city of Brno.

on April, 26th, 1945

Armies 2 - go the Belarus front forced east and the western Oder to the south of Stettin, have broken through defence of Germans on the western coast of Oder and have moved ahead on 30 kilometres. Have seized a chief town of Pomorze and large seaport Stettin, and also have occupied 4 cities and 10 large settlements, forced channel Randov.

Armies 1 - go the Belarus front continued to conduct persistent street fights in Berlin and have seized two more city areas in east part of a city, have occupied Gerlitsky station. severo - to the east of Berlin front armies have occupied three large settlements. To the west and jugo - to the west of Frankfurt an der Oder with fights have occupied 5 cities and 11 large settlements.

Armies 1 - go the Ukrainian front continued to conduct street fights in jugo - the western part of Berlin. On western to river bank of Elba of a front army the cities of Torgau and the Arrow have occupied.

Armies 2 - go the Ukrainian front have seized large industrial centre of Czechoslovakia - a city of Brno, and also have occupied in Czechoslovakia more than 30 settlements.

on April, 27th, 1945

Armies 2 - go the Belarus front have seized cities two important cities in the western Pomorze, and also have occupied 16 settlements.

Armies 1 - go the Belarus front have seized three cities in the central Germany. Simultaneously front armies continued street fights in Berlin.

Armies 1 - go the Ukrainian front blow from the east and the West rassekli front of German armies and on April, 25th in 13. 30 have incorporated in the centre of Germany in the disctrict of the city of Torgau.

Armies of front with fight have seized the city of Wittenberg on the river Elba and continued to conduct street fights in jugo - the western part of Berlin.

on April, 28th, 1945

Jugo - to the east of Berlin in lesisto - lake area of an army 1 - go Belarus and 1 - go the Ukrainian of fronts have surrounded considerable group of German armies and conducted fights on its destruction.

In territory of Czechoslovakia, to the east and jugo - to the east of Brno, armies 2 - go the Ukrainian front have occupied 11 settlements.

About war in Left-bank area read on April, 29th.