Investigation has declassified archive on “ to the Munich arrangement “
the Service of external investigation of Russia (SVR) has declassified archival materials of 1938 which were stored under a signature stamp “ confidentially “ the whole 70 years are the given investigations and reports of diplomats and analysts about the Munich agreement 1938 which has begun the Second World War, informs RIA “ News “.
All these razveddanye, in particular the intercepted dispatches of foreign diplomats, intended only for eyes of the top management of the USSR. From the declassified archive it becomes clear, as the political management of the USSR was informed on underlying reason of a meeting in Munich 29 - on September, 30th, 1938 the prime minister - the minister of Great Britain Nevilla Chamberlain and premieres - the minister of France Edward Dalade with rejhskantslerom Germany Adolf Hitler and the prime minister - the minister of Italy Benito Mussolini.
we Will remind, “ the Munich arrangement “ Is an agreement on a partition of Czechoslovakia, signed by heads of the governments of Great Britain, France, fascist Germany and fascist Italy.
As a result of the agreement and pressure from the Western Europe Czechoslovakia has been urged to pass Germany Sudetsky area - the territory in the north of Czechoslovakia (even earlier it belonged broken up in 1918 to Avstro - Hungary) on the ground that in this area traditionally was lived sudetskie by Germans. In 1938 the pronazi Sudetsky German party suited large disorders in frontier areas of Czechoslovakia then it was converted to Hitler with the request for the help. After the Munich agreement the Sudetsky area was a part of nazi Germany with 1938 for 1945.
the Munich meeting was maneuver of English and French diplomacy which have justified before the world community the fact of joining of a part of territory of Czechoslovakia to Germany and have pressed to Czechoslovakia that she has refused Sudetsky area.
the European politicians thus tried, as they thought, to pacify Hitler that it has not gone on military operations and has not begun war in Europe. But instead have kindled its appetite.
Having returned from Munich to London, the British prime minister Chamberlain has declared to Englishmen: “ I have brought to you the world “. As he was mistaken!
Historians consider, what exactly this meeting in Munich has provoked the Second World War beginning: Hitler has felt impunity and support of Europe, having achieved absorbing of the big territory of the next Czechoslovakia by Germany.
“ In the declassified documents of investigation the political processes occurring before signing of Munich agreement on September, 30th, 1938 are displayed, which else name “ the Munich arrangement “. To Moscow arrived spetssoobshchenija that English and French ambassadors in Prague declined the president of Czechoslovakia to thought on necessity of transfer of Sudetsky area of Germany. Besides, Prague was offered to cancel mutual-assistance pacts with other countries, - the chief has told a press - bureau SVR of Russia Sergey Ivans.
we Will quote for an example declassified the memorandum ¹8604 (it has been received on channels of investigation from Prague some days before signing of the Munich agreement):
“ on September, 19th English ambassador Newton and the French ambassador Delakama on behalf of Chamberlain and Delade have passed Milan Godzhe (the prime minister - the minister of Czechoslovakia in 1935 - 1938 - red .) The following:
1. Being guided by high principles of a preservation of peace in Europe, they consider necessary joining of Sudetsky area to Germany. The system of pacts about mutual aid of Czechoslovakia with other powers is cancelled. Instead of it all next states of Czechoslovakia, plus France and England guarantee inviolability of its borders “ - it is told in the memorandum text.
In 1938 Czechoslovakia has not dared to ask the help for the USSR.
“ As it is known, Soviet Union was ready to give such support of Czechoslovakia, but official Prague under the pressure of London and Paris and has not dared to be converted to Moscow with the similar request “ - Sergey Ivans has reminded.
After signing of the Munich agreement Hitler`s appetites have increased, and the European countries oslabli before its pressure and determination to win new territories for nazi Germany on what the Soviet investigation reported.
“ in November, 1938 diplomatic representatives of some the countries informed in the departments that England and France will not interfere with the German expansion on the East “ - has told Ivans.
“ Special value is represented by the documents received after “ the Munich arrangement “. In them the situation developed in Europe after signing of agreements is analyzed. In them the position of England which tried to involve Germany and the USSR in active military operations " is accurately traced; - the skilled Soviet scout, veteran SVR has told the Russian Federation the general - the major in resignation Lev Filippovich Sotskov, having underlined, what exactly thus the Munich agreement as a result has led to destruction of system of collective security in Europe and to the Second World War beginning.
In the report to Stalin from December, 21st, 1938 Lawrence Berija has retold the maintenance intercepted by agents of the Soviet investigation Reports of foreign ambassadors in London, Paris and Warsaw of the German expansion on the East.
“ I heard here opinion that the German propagation for colonies actually has no place, and is, as Englishmen, a smoke screen behind which realisation of plans concerning the Soviet Ukraine is prepared speak. Hitler has told to the French envoy Francois Ponse that he does not think of colonies “ - has written on November, 5th, 1938 in the report to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Finland Grippenberg, the Finnish ambassador in London.
And on November, 25th he has reported on conversation with a member of the English government:
“ the Position of England is that: we will wait - we will see, there will be no yet a big conflict between Germany and the USSR “.
Great Britain which itself has suffered later from an attack of German Germany, thus involuntarily contributed in Second World War origin. And all because the British prime minister - minister Chamberlain was the ardent anticommunist and the opponent of the USSR who in 1938 tried to create the counteraction scheme to Hitler`s aggressive actions: as a result of efforts of the USSR, London and Paris have been urged to direct the military missions to Moscow on negotiations.
“ Moscow has given the most detailed information on the resources which could expose against Hitlerite Germany. The USSR in case of the Antihitlerite agreement with England and France was ready to give 120 infantry divisions, 16 cavalry divisions, five thousand tanks and as much planes “ - Lev Sotskov has told.
But England and France have disagreed, defending the most important tasks. Negotiations in Moscow have not brought result in spite of the fact that London and Paris then clearly understood that their position nonpluses the USSR and actually forces Moscow to go on the agreement with Hitler - as a result of the USSR and nazi Germany have signed the nonaggression pact.
“ It became obvious that Hitler`s policy of appeasement does not work, and concessions only urge on an aggressor. It also motivated the Soviet management to search for ways of safety of the country to really developing foreign policy conditions. The western Munich model (an aggressor pacification) has not worked, as, war has begun in the West. France capitulated to Hitler, the cabinet in England was replaced. Formation of an Antihitlerite coalition has occurred later, under the scheme, which else since 1935 offered Soviet Union. The USA - England and the USSR, and later France in person De Golja “ - Lev Sotskov has explained.
round the Munich agreement modern Europe needs to make some conclusions Of events, the expert considers. After all between the Munich meeting and modern events on the Balkans and on caucasus (South Ossetia) parallels in history are distinctly looked through.
“ the First, it in nowise it is impossible to encourage an aggressor, big it or small. There is a country - the USA which is anxious by world supremacy, and it is not important, what it uses model for the decision of the problems - Hitlerite or Bush. The blokovaja system now does not work. Nevertheless, now it turns out that the lesson is not acquired. Instead of bridling (aggressor) in the name of Georgia, the USA suggest to surround Russia “ - has concluded the Lion Sotskov.