It name “ Mr. Nippon “. He looks young. A grey-haired head of hear and wrinkles on a forehead only shade live sharp eyes, testifying more likely to the big work and life experience, than about age. Advantage, authoritativeness and the sophisticated humour often meeting at seventy-year Japanese, frequently incomprehensible for Europeans, gives out an accessory to that generation by whose tshchaniem and mind the present economic power was created, and under its biography it is possible to study post-war history of the country. In its shape respectful curiosity to life and comprehension of the place in it is felt. He not only was not tired to live, but does not stop and to learn to receive from it pleasure. In 55 years he has learnt to play tennis, in 60 - has risen on mountain skiing, and in 64 years again was engaged there is no time thrown water. Morita a lot of time spends in flights and every year - so, just in case - confirms the rights of the pupil of the pilot, explaining it is simple: “ I do not want to appear helpless if it is necessary to take over control on itself “.
to it 72 years - from them 46 years are given based and fostered corporation Sony. Today it is transnational concern with a turn in $30 mlrd, “ electronic empire “ on which work 120 thousand employees. Sony - firm - the innovator, developed and the first thrown out on the market many samples of the newest technics that allows it to feel confidently enough in an environment of numerous competitors. Among its achievements and the first tiny transistor receiver, and the first house TV, the first walkman and the first “ flat “ the TV watchman in the form of a watch, the first player a compact - disks diskman and the first-ever household cassette videorecorder, the first besplenochnaja the chamber “ mavika “ and the standard “ video - 8 “ suddenly made “ film directors “ millions people in the world. Probably, there are enough transfers. It is necessary to add only that many of these novelties are obliged to occurrence in a life of millions people thanking personally Akio Exhaust.
Akio Morita (Akio Morita) was born the first-born and the successor in the fifteenth generation of one of the most noble families - manufacturers sake. Family Morita in village Kosugaja that near to Nagoya, cooked more than three hundred years (and continues to cook) sake to make soya sauce and paste miso - obligatory seasoning of Japanese cuisine (it is used for preparation of soups). The family was rich, therefore the child has been never deprived neither caress, nor care. Even a name to it gave not aby what, and on a science: when he was born, the father has invited the respectable Japanese scientist - the expert in the Chinese literature to choose a suitable name. On it is that recommendations of the baby named Akio - it is designated by a hieroglyph meaning “ educated “ or “ unusual “ and in a combination to a surname of Morita means “ a rich rice field “. When Akio was executed ten years, the father the first time took it with itself in shop where cooked sake, and then began to put it near to itself at board meetings of the firm. Akio instead of childish sports listened to reports of managing directors, and during vacation it vanished in school in firm. To it has not been permitted to forget that when - nibud it should replace the father. So sake he is down on to all technological process of preparation.
Semja Morita, despite huge respect for ancient traditions, has been rather Europeanized. The father put on the western suits work, went on “ bjuike “ with the driver also spent a great lot of money for travel, including their integral part of formation of children. Mother Akio loved classical European music, and in the house always it was possible to see the freshest patefonnye plates with Caruso and Shalyapin, Mozart and Bach, Beethoven and Brams`s records. Only there were first players, the father has not regretted huge money for firm Victor equipment (JVC). Morita till now remembers this exciting moment of the childhood: “ I listened to our plates again and again in delight and surprise that the simple radio tube can force so wonderfully to begin to sound the oldest hissing plates which we so well knew. “
perhaps, the emotions woken “ the Bolero “ Ravel or “ the Lunar sonata “ Beethoven, also have inspired the young man on employment by radio engineering and electronics - on a hobby which occupied all free time. And it is not ineffectual: Akio itself has collected an electrophonograph and a radio receiver, it managed even to make a sound recording of own voice. Therefore, when has come to choose time high school, Akio long did not argue and has arrived on physical faculty of Nagasaksky university. But war has begun, and Akio has been called in fleet. The military trade too has appeared by the way: after university Morita became military - the sea engineer. In a remote village of Dzusi near to a resort Kamakura the young lieutenant has appeared in a line-up, working over the weapon of thermal prompting. At this time Morita has got acquainted with the engineer - electronics engineer Masaru Ibuki. Acquaintance has outgrown in friendship, and friendship - in business partnership in Sony Corporation.
After capitulation of Japan which declared in performance on radio the emperor on August, 15th, 1945, the country history has begun with a blank leaf.
a way to success
to Family Morita has largely carried - they have lost nobody in the war, company factories in Nagoya and the house were whole, without having suffered almost from bombardments. But to be in a shade of the father in family firm Akio has bothered, and it has moved to Tokyo where Ibuki has suggested it to work in the small company created by it. It was called rather pretentiously - “ Tokyo tsusin kenkjuse “ (“ Tokyo scientifically - research institute of communication “) And consisted all of seven persons at whom was not neither habitation, nor money - anything, except weight of ideas and their unrestrained desire by all means to embody. “ communication institute “ was located in the thrown old building of department store in the middle of ruins there is no time prospering central area Tokyo.
as well as firm everyone young and not deprived ambitious plans, “ Tokyo tsusin kenkjuse “ too has not avoided sharahanija from one extreme measure in another. Better to say, undertook all. To get money, partners put forward the most different ideas - from the organisation of golf courses on ruins of Tokyo to a batch of sweet pies from the soya test. But as in poverzhennoj Japan more nevertheless thought of meal, instead of about a golf have stopped on manufacture risovarok. It is necessary to recognise at once that kitchen this accessory did not become technics miracle, but the idea at the heart of it has been put courageous enough. It was the simple wooden tub at which bottom electrodes are laid. The wet rice possessing electroconductivity, closed an electric chain. And when rice was ready and dried up, electroconductivity fell. The main knowledge consisted in to putting a finger in the undercooked dish. Probably, to the disciplined Japanese it was easy to conform to the rules. Though the substance frequently prepared thus turned out absolutely inedible. Therefore it was necessary to leave idea, and with risovarok to be switched to electrohot-water bottles.
then Ibuki the new remarkable idea has visited. As well as in many other at war countries, in Japan during war short-wave radio receivers have been forbidden. But in each house it is permitted and even “ it is recommended “ was to hold srednevolnovye not to pass alarm signals or other important official information. Ibuki has designed a short-wave prefix to such receiver, and in its manufacture soon was engaged registered new the company “ Tokyo tsusin koge “ c “ Solid “ an authorised capital stock in $500. Morita then remembered: “ to make the way in a premise where the company settled down, it was necessary at first having bent down to pass under a linen rope, with neighbour`s diapers hanging on it. The relatives visiting me, have been so shaken by this surroundings that began to accept me for the anarchist “. It and to a head did not come that in Nagoya Akio could prefer to careless life of the son of the president of the known company the SUCH.
however manufacture absolutely new then for Japan devices - the tape recorder became the main specialisation of firm. In Japan there was no magnetic film, therefore its working out and manufacture became the first step. As a material for a covering used oksalat gland. The technology was simple to genius - oksalat heated on a frying pan, stirring slowly with a wooden spoon, and then manually brushes put on the tapes cut from kraft - papers. With it also have entered the thin post-war Japanese market... And suddenly - disappointment: buyers were yet ready to pay the big money for tape recorder any there, including its toy.
here Morita has understood that new technology - there is more to come. It is necessary to find the buyer and to convince him what to live without this production it it is simple cannot. Then in Japanese courts there were no stenographers. Having shown the tape recorder in the Supreme court of Japan, Morita and its workmate have received at once the order for 20 tape recorders from 50 which they had time to make. Then they have offered the production to schools - for training to English language.
in 1958 the company name have officially replaced on Sony Corporation, and already by the end of the year it has entered into listing of the Tokyo stock exchange. The name was born as a hybrid from Latin “ sonus “ - “ a sound “ English “ sunny “ - “ solar “ and “ sonny “ - “ The clever guy “. Later the name has been protected and registered in 170 countries of the world. In 1960 has been formed “ Sony Corporation of America “ marked firm Morita exit on the world market.
before war and right after it at the Japanese goods was, it is necessary to recognise, reputation cheap and bad, therefore at first words “ Made in Japan “ were printed on production Sony by tiny, almost imperceptible letters while the American customs, struggling for truth, has not forced them to increase. Gradually words were filled with maintenance more habitual to us. In 1969 company has let out the first studio videorecorder. And 70 - e years became time when break in technological area has taken place it really.
at the head of corporation
Though possibilities to be put forward in conditions “ a Japanese economic miracle “ was much, to use them have appeared are capable not all. Speaking about secret Sony, it is necessary to recognise that the company is obliged by the success first of all to talents of the head. Every year Morita addresses to new replenishment of graduates of the colleges which have come on firm: “ If you arrive to us will work 20 - 30 years. It is the best period in your life. It is given to you once. And here that you should solve for yourselves in the nearest some months: and whether you will be happy with us? “ perhaps, Japanese - taki managed to reveal secret of this mysterious combination “ happiness and work “? Morita considers that all employees - a uniform family. He is not tired to underline that the biggest sin of the chief of any rank - suppression of the person of subordinates. Morita uses the best efforts, that the person working on Sony, has been liberated and would feel itself the creator. Well and itself follows this principle.
for example, the idea to create walkman belonged to it. The first reaction of colleagues was sceptical - well who it will buy the tape recorder which does not write down. Morita insisted: time millions people buys video players, will find sale and the new tape recorder - after all he allows everyone to choose the individual sound environment.
when it has come with the first experimental sample walkman home, it was not pleasant to the wife that she cannot hear that the husband listens. Morita has made an additional nest for ear-phones that it was possible to listen together, and then has thought up one more button - for a mode hot line, allowing to conduct conversation, without stopping to listen to music. For advertising of a new product it has employed hundreds young young men and the girls who were walking up and down on brisk streets in ear-phones with walkman. And the idea has gone! The firm has carried out miniaturization, has raised quality of ear-phones, has introduced tens new models, becoming one of the world`s largest the manufacturer walkman and has grasped more than 50 % of the Japanese market.
On the organisation of business Sony it is sharply allocated against other companies. Also succeeds, often breaking habitual “ prosperity recipes “. For example, often the success is accompanied by absorption by concern of other firms supplementing and enriching its production program. Long time Sony did not practise such captures, but, becoming powerful corporation, could afford and scale captures. In 1988 it for pair billions dollars has got CBS Records, in 1989 - for $3,4 mlrd - Colambia Pictures.
Morita - recognised authority among Japanese industrialists. He heads in many respects defining economic policy of Japan “ Kejdanren “ - the Union of businessmen of Japan, is the chairman of Japanese Association of the electrotechnical industry. Akio Morito - the author of the several books, had time to become classical manuals for several generations of businessmen.
Morita travels much. Though he has already ceased to consider for a long time the flights through Pacific ocean, long trips did not become in due course for it as are tiresome for it, as for others. Owner Sony has learnt to sleep and get enough sleep perfectly in planes, at times, by own recognition, even it is better, than in hotels. In the plane it by all means takes with itself(himself) a small box with susi, usual boiled rice, fish, in flight is in the habit to drink a small small bottle sake, to have a snack, and then to be wrapped in a plaid and to fall asleep. From Tokyo he prefers to take off when over a city the first twilight already falls, with calculation to overtake twilight of the same day already in New York. After the arrival to New York for “ relaxations “ he by all means ones and a half - two plays tennis, and then again to go to bed approximately till four mornings that then to rise and read official papers. When the office opens, it is already ready to work.
every day it receives from the secretaries on two cardboard boxes. It it “ homework “ to itself. In black - all materials across Japan, in red - from - for a boundary. On unruly Morita four secretaries and all department of external relations of corporation work at once. With it can communicate at any moment and in any place - on the yacht, during downhill skiing. It have nicknamed “ the telephone fanatic “: at it in the house five phones. Each managing director also has phone hot line for a continuous communication with the chief.
at all love to work of Akio Morita does not miss possibility to have a rest. In the winter on days off skies. For New year usually leaves with a family for a week to Hawaii where plays a golf and tennis. Members of a family of Morita - frequent visitors at easter musical festivals in Salzburg, vagnerovskih festivals in Bajrojte (that in 200 km from Munich).
Loves Akio and strong sensations. Once it could fly together with the champion of Germany on aerobatics: “ Hardly we have flied up, - remembered Morita, - it has transferred me a steering wheel and has asked to lift the plane on four thousand foots that I and have made. When I have levelled the plane, he has taken over control on itself(himself) and without the prevention began to carry out all conceivable and inconceivable aerobatic manoeuvres. Horosho that at me a strong stomach “. The head of corporation Sony admits that it in delight from “ Russian hills “ and to that of similar entertainments but to last they should no more than three minutes. - “ thirty minutes of aerobatics is too long “.
In a family
With the wife Esiko Morita has got acquainted in 1951. There is it from family of the Samurais, which else in the middle of a XIX-th century was engaged in sale of books and publishing, having created a wide network of bookshops. Esiko has been brought up in the same spirit, as Morita. She resembled it the irrepressible activity. In 1962 in connection with opening of a showroom of Morita has solved was to transport to America the family and to try to live how there live Americans. Its wife has quickly enough accustomed to new conditions and even has organised own business. Such high adaptability in general - that is not peculiar to the majority of the Japanese, preferring to cook in purely Japanese environment where they were. But has not passed also weeks after moving, as children of Morito (their three - sons of Masao and Hideo and daughter Naoko) have already been arranged in American summer camp, without knowing thus words on - anglijski.
Children of Morita, having begun formation in America, some time studied in Japan, but then sons have gone to England, and daughter Naoko - to Switzerland. Hideo has received economic education, specialised on agriculture. Masao has got to the Atlantic college, and then in Dzhordzhtaunsky university in Washington. Naoko after Lausanne year has spent in Paris, then studied in America in modelling. Brought up thus, children became the present cosmopolitans. For Morita it was, probably, more than simply aspiration to give to children the best formation. It was a principle of its vital philosophy. He wrote in the memoirs: “ I have come to a conclusion that contacts to other cultures show to the islander - to the Japanese that it, the Japanese, is on the Earth in minority. He learns not only to appreciate the characteristic features of the Japanese, but also to learn to understand, what exactly it should adapt to other world, instead of the world should adapt to it “. At all factories Sony today three flags - Japanese, a flag of corporation and a host country flag by all means hang.
ELENA - KHARLAMOV