Computers - Otvertochnaja assemblage of computers
“ All unnecessary - on demolition: we will collect... “
E.Uspensky. “ the Crocodile of the Gene “
“ Otvertochnaja “ the assemblage of personal computers named so by name of the basic means of production, used in this kind of activity, last years invariably used steady attention of the Russian businessmen. Now this attention can become even more steadfast: last week in Moscow there has passed conference “ otvertochnikov “ on IBM - compatible “ personalkam “ Where its organizer - corporation Intel, the world`s largest manufacturer of semi-conductor products, - has made rather serious statement. The company declared the intention to lower in the beginning of II quarter of current year cost prices of accessories for personal computers almost twice.
Such decision, turned out to be a consequence incessant fight of titans of the world computer market, is capable to deduce in the near future in Russia “ otvertochnuju “ assemblage in numbers of the most attractive kinds of commercial activity. Besides steady growth of demand on “ personalki “ observed in Russia the last some years, are ready to outgrow in boom (see #3) that forces to pay attention to assemblage even of those Russian businessmen who never were engaged earlier in computers.
From good it is kind it is possible and not to wait
the Resolute act of firm Intel which holds approximately 80 % of the world market of microprocessors, certainly, will compel also less large manufacturers of similar components for “ personalok “ proportionally to reduce the prices. In turn, reduction in price of accessories will be reflected in cost of ready personal computers. However, as shows experiment of last years, the prices for computers in Russia very slowly react to a world conjuncture: in “ to war of the prices “ storming nowadays in the world computer market, Russia while participates only in a role of the sister of mercy. We will tell, computers of class AT - 286 which in the West for a long time already nobody makes and does not buy, in Russia till now are on sale at the dollar prices hardly probable not the same scale, as couple of years back. So, despite depreciation of components of the computer, the finished article price in our country for the next months hardly will seriously decrease. This circumstance does rather tempting intrusion prospect in “ otvertochnyj “ business both beginning, and already succeeded in other kinds of activity of the Russian businessmen.
however, assemblage of personal computers, despite involuntary successes of separate firms in business of discredit of products with a brand “ It is collected in Russia “ remains favourable and at the current prices for accessories: the market of computer technics at us where as is far from saturation. The quantity of personal computers sold in Russia within last three years grew on 20 - 30 % annually, and this year demand, according to forecasts, will increase even more (more in detail about it see #3).
the Labour is not counted
Widespread opinion that “ otvertochnyj “ business is based on cheapness of labour. It not absolutely so. Time of assemblage of one computer from ready knots at the slowest work does not exceed one hour, and the working hour even in highly paid Switzerland costs in any way more than one percent of retail cost “ personalki “. However the cheap labour, for example, in Jugo - East Asia allows to lower there costs of computer manufacture mainly at the very beginning of a cycle - at conveyor manufacturing of printed-circuit boards and other components of the computer, in particular, power units. Otvertochnye works are favourable today for absolutely other reasons. We name three of them, the most actual for Russia.
in - the first, the considerable contribution to cost “ decent “ The computer give a trade mark and/ or image of firm - the supplier (including guarantee certificates and service). This contribution, that is cumulative expenses for the previous period on formation of image of firm, in case of independent otvertochnoj assemblages, obviously, is equal to zero. The price in Russia - “ a miracle field “ - counting on not translated “ suckers “ it is possible to lift up nevertheless. In - the second, it is possible to save on the customs duties, importing a number of the basic accessories “ shuttle “ in the way. In - the third, notable costs by civilised manufacture of computers have on testing of finished articles. This stage of a production cycle at handicraft assemblage too can be excluded, about what of the buyer, naturally, in popularity to put not necessarily.
the specified reasons at all do not mean that manufacture “ personalok “ In Russia vysokorentabelno only in case of full refusal of claims for worthy quality of production. Many Russian assembly firms have gradually refused hack-work, having come and to own “ untwisted “ to a trade mark, and to obligations on service of production, and to an annual guarantee. It manages to achieve first of all at the expense of careful selection of inexpensive suppliers and rejection of sub-standard accessories before they will get to Russia. However practically all domestic collectors began nevertheless with it, from hack-work. And it at all the privilege only Russian mentality - a pier, “ you will not deceive - you will not sell “. So began authoritative firms much nowadays, in particular, from Jugo - East Asia. Therefore we will try to pass mentally a way “ otvertochnika “ - the potboiler, the way which and does not demand today considerable starting investments, but promises fast profit and tempting prospects.
Red, dark blue, blue... Black!
computer use included tradition to designate a place of assemblage of the computer a colour code: “ white “ assemblage (the USA and Europe), “ yellow “ assemblage (Jugo - East Asia), “ red “ assemblage (clearly). Let`s add in this number one more version - “ black “ assemblage. This colour we will designate not the computers collected bushmenami, and fast, “ on a knee “ a version “ red “ assemblages.
so, we will be engaged to begin with “ black “ assemblage - the forerunner future quite solid “ red “ otvertochnoj technologies. Generally speaking, “ otvertochnaja “ the part of manufacture of the computer is quite accessible to the worker without special skills. However in due course all of us equally should employ at least one young engineer as there is it now rather cheaply - $200 - 300 in a month. It is possible to promise this sum to it in case of success of the enterprise, and the first computer let will collect “ on public principles “. Let`s buy at once and necessary accessories for assemblage of our first computer. It is for this purpose reversible to specialised editions where co-ordinates of suppliers of all necessary and their prices are collected. Such editions in Moscow now two - weekly Mega Pro et Contra and Mobile. We will notice that both these of magazine publish the information of suppliers without checking it. Therefore it is rather probable that we will find not at once in warehouses all required at the declared prices, - it is necessary to spend some time.
let the model of the configuration most popular now in the Russian market will be our first computer: 386DX with the coprocessor, a cache - memory of 128 Kb, clock frequency of 40 MHz, 4 Mb of operative memory, a hard disk of 120 Mb, video adapter SVGA, the colour monitor, the disk drive for diskettes of 3,5 inches. Here - on the basis of the given mentioned editions for last week - the minimum dollar prices for all components of our computer.
After our engineer in an hour will collect all it in a single whole and will be convinced that it works, average market price of the turned out computer (anonymous, without a guarantee) will make - according to the same magazines - $1160. On one cheap, but quite solid computer it is simple to find the buyer on a chain of the general acquaintances. As a result our net profit will make approximately 25 %. To begin with not bad, especially if to consider that the done work - the same type, as preparation “ jotas - a mastiff “ from bought separately rolls and sausages. Such method allows to bring industrial costs almost to naught - in effect, we save on quality of production, but it not especially disturbs us until we act in a role “ black “ collectors.
Further we will try to put small party - we will tell, 10 - 20 same computers. Buying accessories as small wholesale, we can lower the cost price of our products on 5 - 10 %. At this stage still it is possible to do without advertising, finding buyers by means of a personal contact and newspapers of free announcements. As assemblage of the separate computer practically does not occupy time, it is reasonable to start it only after the buyer will pay the exposed account or will leave to us with “ a cash “. The Commonplace, “ jotas - mastiffs “ too prepare in the presence of the buyer. With that difference that in our case process of preparation of a product is better for hiding from eyes of the client.
we will notice now that the motherboard and microcircuits of operative memory, absorbing almost third of cost price of our computer, occupy absolutely insignificant share of its physical volume. In a suitcase of the average sizes tens motherboards, and memory microcircuits - many hundreds find room. Therefore the further way of development of our new business lies through Singapore, Taiwan, Malaysia. There it is possible to buy zadeshevo the specified components and to import them home under the pretext of road luggage. It is not necessary to forget and about services professional “ shuttles “ (most skilled of them manage regularly and completely to provide with motherboards and memory microcircuits at once some the Russian assembly firms). This step will allow us to lower the cost price of one computer made by us not less than on 10 %.
Facilitate the prompt arrival of our products to the consumer the metal label pasted on the ready computer with any foreign name can to help. Some otvertochniki add to the name also an inscription of type Made in Japan. To buy such labels it is possible in the same Singapore, and it is possible and to order in Moscow. Delivery together with the computer of the gratuitous software too helps to involve the illegible buyer.
from black to red
However the market of computers “ black “ assemblages it is limited by number of the buyers, ready to prefer cheapness of reliability, not to mention moral aspect of business. Therefore in some months after the beginning of our enterprise, having gained organizational and technical experience, we will inevitably arrive at idea about diligent “ red “ to assemblage - with testing on vibrostende and in a heat chamber, with a guarantee and service, and it is possible, even with own trade mark and the licence software.
transition from “ black “ assemblages to “ red “ will demand care of floor spaces - in a role of those the standing idle shop of the nearest factory, institute laboratory or school UPK can act. Now more difficult be required to us, than a screw-driver, means of production, first of all - the equipment for testing. It is necessary to be spent and for official purchase of the software the licence on which makes rather impressive impression upon the buyer. Taxes and custom charges it is necessary to pay nevertheless: solid business is less profitable, than “ on a knee “ it is necessary to work on weight of profit and to expand turns, therefore accessories “ vpriparku “ any more you will not drive. It also will raise the cost price of our products. According to the data Moscow “ red “ collectors IVK, ASI, Mediann, the profit got by them from each sold computer (see the diagramme) does not exceed 10 % of cost price of a product, and the most part of this profit is spent for advertising, support of a dealer network, research works. But turns of these companies do not concede to indicators of large Moscow trading houses.
Besides if we appear quick, by the time of our transition to “ red “ to assemblage sharp depreciation of accessories at constant expansion of demand for computers will just appear in time. So there is a sense not to wait the decrease in the cost price of assemblage promised by firm Intel, and to undertake screw-drivers immediately.
the meeting of collectors became the beginning of dismantlings
the Last conference “ red “ collectors directs and on some other - we will directly tell, intriguing - conclusions. Why otvertochnikov have in good time warned about their future reduction in price “ raw materials “? After all usually announcements of reduction of prices prepare firms - manufacturers in the conditions of a strict trade secret that is clear: to what to allow to the consumer an occasion to hesitate with purchases. However Intel has broken this rule, declaring in passing and the forecasts concerning growth of popularity of last child of firm - the continuer of a line 286 - 386 - 486 - microprocessor Pentium. Intel believes that Pentium it will be established on 15 % of the personal computers made in 1994.
it is possible, a key to a solution of the reasons of unusual behaviour Intel - in date of the planned reduction of prices: II quarter. At this particular time in the market there will be first computers on the basis of the new microprocessor by name of PowerPC, showing a joint child of firms IBM, Apple and Motorola. PowerPC has good chances to make a competition to processor Pentium in sphere where Intel many years keeps almost undivided monopoly. Under the preliminary information, computers on PowerPC will be not only cheap, but also, similarly IBM - to compatible cars, “ opened “ that is to suppose manufacture by any independent firm of clones - “ PowerPC - compatible “ Computers. It means that at “ otvertochnikov “ soon there will be a choice, and they can collect computers not only on the basis of processors Intel. Thus, promising to reduce by half the prices on Pentium, Intel enters struggle for computer collectors hardly before the new mighty competitors.
fortunately, the firms specialising on pure otvertochnoj to assemblage, can not worry about a future choice: to be reoriented from assemblage IBM - compatible on manufacturing PowerPC - cars “ otvertochnikam “ it will be simple and nenakladno.
DMITRY - LJUDMIRSKY, NIKOLAY - MADEIN