The commodity market - Tariffs for the electric power
last week the branch ministries and regional power supply systems of Russia have received new rates of tariffs for the electric power on the first quarter of current year. The tariff is raised on the average on 56 %. Thus the exclusive manufacturer of the electric power - the Russian Open Society “ UES of Russia “ demanded increase of the tariff for 90 %, but the Ministry of Economics was possible to defend smaller figure.
in last number noticed that permanent increase of tariffs for the electric power is caused not only the external reasons for branch, but also purely internal. Management of a power supply system needs reforming, and a question on how it to do, costs especially sharply that the Russian Open Society “ UES of Russia “ it is exposed on check auction.
Opinion of the Russian Open Society “ UES of Russia “
the Tariff grows because it is necessary to provide the Russian Open Society not only means for maintenance of existing power stations, lines and so forth, but also on their reconstruction and on building of new objects. Experts of the Russian Open Society consider that at present duration of terms of building it is necessary to begin now already works on preparation of input of new capacities of power. As the basic building of objects of branch was conducted in the end of 40 - h - the beginning 50 - h years, by this time ageing of capacities has reached that level behind which their mass leaving can begin. It means that soon Russia in addition to existing problems can face the most severe energy crisis.
Aktsionirovanie of power begun still in 1992 (under the decree of the president “ About the management organisation an electropower complex of the Russian Federation in the conditions of privatisation “) Has deprived of its state support. Since 1992 the power complex has started to form own investment funds, and now they make a financial basis of development of a power supply system (schedule 1 see). At the Russian Open Society only one source of formation of these funds - the tariff, accordingly, it should include not only expenses on operation, but also an investment component.
relative density of this component in the tariff of dews within all last year - from 12,8 % in the first quarter to 18 % in the fourth. The Russian Open Society requirement to raise in I quarter tariffs for the electric power in 1,9 times, thus, should not speak only aspiration to raise the profit at the expense of consumers. It was supposed that in the first quarter of this year the investment component in tariff structure will be increased to 36 %. Thus the Russian Open Society asserts that the percent of deductions in the investment funds, put in the tariff, is calculated on the basis of real requirement for capital investments and settlement dynamics of the prices for building.
opinion of Ministry of Economics
the Chief of department of power and power supply of Ministry of Economics of the Russian Federation George Kutovoj considers that updating of tariffs without attempt to reform the electric power industry market - business no more effective, than struggle against windmills.
as he said, the Russian Open Society approach to formation of tariffs is as a matter of fact “ statistical “ that in the absence of the competitive market conducts only to transferring of increasing expenses for the consumer account. Moreover, today manufacturers of the cheapest electric power are forced out from the atomic power station market. The last are included into system of Ministry of Atomic Energy, instead of Ministry of Fuel and Energy, and unlike thermal power station, the HYDROELECTRIC POWER STATION or a state district power station (the State regional power stations) are not directly or oposredovanno affiliated structures of the Russian Open Society.
creation of conditions when the atomic power station a lot of nuclear fuel and concerning the low cost price of manufacture of the electric power unloads, and the thermal power station and the state district power stations burning gas growing in the price, black oil and coal, take their place, testifies to presence subjective and thus the negative factor for consumers in pricing system on power resources. Russian Open Society creation in that kind as it now functions, practically represents replacement of the state monopoly by monopoly of the joint-stock company remaining a monopolist and reproducing in structure of former Ministry for the Power Generating Industry of the USSR. The difference consists only that the state monopoly naturally could not ignore interests of other branches, and also the territories which were under adequate guardianship of the same state. The Russian Open Society - the exclusive joint-stock company - has absolutely other motivation financial and is industrial - the economic activities which basic element is reception of the guaranteed profit level. Thus, reform of a power complex has ripened, and its essence consists in creation of the wholesale market of the electric power.
one more party of the conflict
the Conflict of the Russian Open Society with atomshchikami is a quite good illustration of internal discrepancy of the developed organisation of the power market. As have informed in concern “ Rosenergoatom “ atomic power stations are capable to develop this year approximately 124 mlrd kvtch, from which Russian Open Societies is going to buy only about 103 billion Stations in three areas - Kursk, Smolensk and Leningrad - are loaded only on 75 %. The debt of the Russian Open Society to atomic power stations makes 350 mlrd rbl., the last, in turn, - debtors of manufacturers of fuel for the atomic power station. As a result on the atomic power station there is no fuel stock.
the atomic power stations, on an existing order, deliver energy directly Russian Open Society, and their attempts to conclude direct contracts with regional power supply systems passing the Russian Open Society are blocked by the exclusive buyer. As consequence, the enterprises, for example, Leningrad region are compelled to pay for the electric power four times more than if they bought it directly at “ the “ the atomic power station.
representatives of the Russian Open Society assert that electric power curtailment of production basically at the expense of cheap energy of the atomic power station is caused by purely technological reasons. Manufacturers of energy can be divided into four types - thermal power station, HYDROELECTRIC POWER STATION, a state district power station, the atomic power station. The first (their share in manufacture in 1993 was 14 %) develop teploenergiju and is collateral - the electric power. As requirements for heat are not reduced, in full or in part thermal power stations are stopped cannot be. Refusal of use of the electric power made by them in passing would mean its direct losses. HYDROELECTRIC POWER STATIONS (a share - 18 %) are connected only during the periods of peak loadings - in the morning and in the evening. State district power stations (a share - 54 %) work in almost stable mode, increasing loading in the morning a little and reducing it upon termination of evening peak a little. Thus, the stop of the block of a state district power station, according to the Russian Open Society, would lead to a lack of energy during peak. As a result, complain in the Russian Open Society, it is necessary to limit electric power manufacture on the atomic power station (a share - 12 %), being not only the most economic, but also the most inertial power making systems - they can work only in a stable mode. The stop of the block of the atomic power station will reduce the general exit of the electric power, and its manufacture as a whole in 1994 is supposed to be reduced to 14 %.
Such explanation in Ministry of Economics qualify as “ the half-truth “ considering that the Russian Open Society solves a problem unequivocally in favour of a state district power station (i.e. “ the “) at the expense of the atomic power station (“ strangers “) . According to experts of Ministry of Economics, anybody seriously did not prove, why the stop of the block of any state district power station will create more challenges, than a stop of the block of the atomic power station - is simple in compromise search on purpose to develop on the average cheaper energy of the Russian Open Society is not interested. And this disinterest is generated by structure of the power supply system.
and so you what, a power supply system... (The scheme 1)
the Central link of a power supply system in its present kind - the holding company of the Russian Open Society “ UES of Russia “. The Russian Open Society structure includes the Central dispatching management (TSDU), technically carrying out an electric power overflow between separate power supply systems, intersystem transmission lines, 21 large power station (HYDROELECTRIC POWER STATION and a state district power station), and also the enterprises of a building complex. The Russian Open Society - “ and the reaper, and shvets, and on dude igrets “ - Prosecutes technical subjects (manufacture, transportation), kommerchesko - contractual relations (with sellers and buyers), investments (building, reconstruction and reequipment of the operating enterprises). Service of consumers in territory of Russia is direct carry out 72 regional power supply systems organised as joint-stock company.
all largest HYDROELECTRIC POWER STATIONS and a state district power station (them 21) and all atomic power stations (them 8) sell the electric power only the Russian Open Society. Regional power supply systems can have and own power stations (thermal power station and HYDROELECTRIC POWER STATION) and to receive the electric power from them, buying lacking in the Russian Open Society at the average price of the Russian Open Society. The paradox consists that even if in region territory, for example, there is the most powerful atomic power station, the region will appear “ scarce “ also should buy energy from the Russian Open Society. The Ministry of Economics accuses the Russian Open Society that, having selected at regions the largest stations, the Russian Open Society has made them “ scarce “ it is artificial. Only 10 from 72 regional power supply systems are, on Russian Open Society terminology, “ superfluous “ i.e. completely cover the requirements at the expense of made on “ the “ the thermal power station and HYDROELECTRIC POWER STATION of the electric power and even sell its surpluses. But sell surpluses they can again - taki not to the next power supply system, but only the Russian Open Society.
on it paradoxes do not come to an end. Tariffs on which regional systems buy energy from the Russian Open Society, and also a licence fee for using the main transmission lines are established by the Federal power commission (FEK). Tariffs for the end user establish the regional commissions on the formula “ the sum of expenses for electric power manufacture of region and its purchase in the Russian Open Society delennaja on the general requirement of area for the electric power (in kvtch) “. Energy of the Russian Open Society is cheaper, as last buys it from large manufacturers of cheap energy. And “ local “ Energy - that is received from those stations which have the right to sell energy passing the Russian Open Society - usually more expensively as such right, as a rule, have making expensive energy TES. But then it turns out that at equal requirement of two regions for the electric power the tariff more low there where it is made is less. Thus, to regions is unprofitable to increase at itself electric power manufacture that, according to Ministry of Economics, puts preconditions of crisis of a power supply system as a whole.
according to Ministry of Economics if the atomic power station and the large power stations withdrawn from local power supply systems in the Russian Open Society, could serve the enterprises of the region directly, without Russian Open Society intermediary, the electric power would manage to many enterprises much more cheaply. The present system at all does not allow to use advantage of areas rich with the electric power at placing of power-consuming industries (and in general new consumers). Besides, it puts those power-intensive enterprises which were under construction in such areas taking into account presence there the cheap electric power in a difficult situation.
and the situation with licence fee collection for using intersystem lines of power transfer is, according to George Kutovogo, simply absurd. Buying the electric power from the seller, the Russian Open Society then also raises a payment for transportation of this energy from it to the consumer. It was meaningful, if two power supply systems (the seller and the buyer) concluded the contract on electric power purchase and sale directly among themselves. Then the organisation which structure includes highways, could receive from them a payment for using a network as it becomes, for example, in system of Ministry of Communications.
and the Russian Open Society and Ministry of Economics mark one more lack of the market of the electric power of its present kind: one consumers of energy (enterprise) are compelled to pay the most part of expenses of other consumers (the population and agriculture). And manufacture of the electric power for the second group of consumers most zatratno: cost grows from - for necessities to lower pressure at transitions from one category of electrolines to another. Besides, the price for the electric power for consumers of the second group is regulated now and, on - visible, will be rigid to be regulated by the state to what Boris Yeltsin`s performance in Federal meeting testifies also further. But growth of the cost price of manufacture of the electric power, having for the period between two next decisions of the government on increase of tariffs for the population, repays, naturally, not the state. The costs carry regional power supply systems exclusively into the account of users - the enterprises.
This time the Ministry of Economics has managed to draw a reform essence on the: the tariff rate is raised on 56 %. But the investment component (15 % of the tariff) is all the same included in the tariff. Besides for the first time the electric power consumer will pay the dividend to owners of actions of the Russian Open Society “ UES of Russia “ and its affiliated companies, truth, in smaller volume, than that has demanded the Russian Open Society. (Originally the Russian Open Society, demanding tariff increase in 1,9 times, put in the tariff dividends at a rate of 100 % of an authorised capital stock of the Russian Open Society and affiliated companies - for the sum 110 - 120 mlrd rbl.) .
However at present system, when, according to experts of Ministry of Economics, instead of the market “ one all-Russian shop with one owner - the Russian Open Society " is created; and neither the manufacturer, nor the consumer have no choice possibility, tariffs will grow, and impasses - to be reproduced. And as “ regional power supply systems are transformed into buyers deprived of civil rights - resellers of the electric power (their controlling interests are transferred in a Russian Open Society authorised capital stock) “ the Russian power supply system crisis expects.
the reform of a power supply system offered by Ministry of Economics, is reduced to the following. In - the first, it is necessary to transform the Russian Open Society “ UES of Russia “ in financial holding, having limited its functions only to investment activity. Thus investment funds of the Russian Open Society should be formed at the expense of profit, and also attraction of capitals of interested consumers, but not at the expense of indirect tax raised through the tariff from all consumers in a crowd.
In - the second, TSDU “ UES of Russia “ should be reorganised in the independent joint-stock company with transfer to its authorised capital stock of intersystem transmission lines (pressure 330 kv and above). It will work on a profitless basis, cost of its services should include charges of an electronetwork economy taking into account its development, an expense on conducting technological modes and the maintenance of the operational personnel. TSDU - a monopolist, therefore cost of its services should be regulated by executive power.
in - the third, the state share holding of all joint-stock companies of power and the electrification, being today in the Russian Open Society property, should be transferred territories. And those regions which have weaker systems of a power supply system, should receive rather the most part of those actions of the enterprises making the electric power which are in other regions. Such approach will allow to create at the initial stage equal conditions for all regions and to avoid a situation when happy owners of powerful power stations will charge exorbitant prices, selling the electric power to consumers of the deprived regions.
NIKOLAY - ARUTYUNOV