The new circular
In the come year the Russian exporters and importers enter, inspired with some tariff liberalisation. Governmental decrees from December, 30th, 1994 establish the rate of the export duty on tin export at level 20 EKJU for ton (#1439) and import of seeds of corn (#1444), and the decision #1446 from December, 31st, 1994 " is released from import duties; About export of oil and oil products for limits of customs territory of Russia since January, 1st, 1995 “ has defined the duty for export of oil in 23 EKJU for ton. On the other hand, the Russian exporters are waited for by a quota on import of some kinds of production to the EU countries. Besides, as well as assumed, spetseksportery without visible difficulties have removed per 1995.
Quotas happen also Bruxelles
the Government has accepted the decision “ About signing of the Temporal agreement on trade and the questions connected with trade and other documents between the Government of the Russian Federation and the European communities “. The document has technical character and gives the commission vitse - to prime minister Oleg Davidov on behalf of the government to sign all necessary documents regulating trade relations of Russia and EU. During discussion of the draught agreement on trade representatives of the Russian departments and experts of the Commission of the European communities have preliminary stipulated quotas for import from Russia of some the goods. It is the thorny question as it directly infringes on interests of the Russian manufacturers which insist on increase in the size of quotas. Definitively size of the European import quotas will be co-ordinated at a stage of signing of the agreement.
Today in connection with overproduction in Europe kvotiruetsja import of some the goods, in particular, sheet and high-quality hire, aluminium, nickel, the textile goods. If to consider EU role in world trade becomes clear why the Russian importers consider the countries of the Union as the basic trading partner. Now EU covers 20 % of world trade (the USA - about 20 %, Japan - 10 %). In goods turnover of Russia (without the CIS) on EU share in 1994, at a rough guess, it was necessary more than 37 %, including 34 % of export and 36 % of import. EU is net - the importer of energy carriers that, taking into account structure of the Russian export, causes high potential of this market for Russia. From EU Russia imports agricultural products and mechanical engineering production. In trade from EU Russia traditionally has positive balance.
almost all Russian manufacturers, whose production falls under the European quotas, consider their unreasonably underestimated. So, exporters of textile products regard the agreement on trade in the textile goods between the Russian Federation and EU, which beginning to operate since 1993, as discrimination. After all on production using in the European market the greatest demand, Russia has received the lowest quotas.
it, in particular, concerns a cotton yarn and cotton fabrics. As a result the Russian manufacturers (for example, “ Rostekstil “) Are compelled to sell the production at the prices considerably below European to developing countries, and those there and then re-export it on the European market. In the same position there are also other Russian exporters. However this practice cannot be regarded as dumping against which the EU countries as even through the third countries the Russian goods arrive on the markets of the European countries at the world prices strenuously struggle. Most likely, the resolution of conflict can be promoted by softening of a position of the European communities in a question of an establishment of import quotas for Russia. Besides, development of trade relations considerably would become more active at the timely notification of exporters concerning quotas as while in practice exporters learn about the quotas allocated with it not earlier than the first quarter end.
while remains not clear, whether the Chechen crisis will affect trade relations of Russia and EU. Quite probably that certain circles in Europe will try to use it in 1995 As an occasion to partial restriction of import of ready Russian production.
the government has decided that spetseksportery to it is more expensive than export quotas
the Basic maintenance of the decision “ About export of oil and oil products for limits of customs territory of Russia since January, 1st, 1995 “ far it is not settled by decrease in the rate of the export duty on oil for I quarter 1995 with 30 to 23 EKJU for ton (there were projects of its decrease to 20 EKJU). The government has chosen models of regulation of export of oil.
this event was preceded by long struggle. In it participated spetseksportery oil and their lobbyists in the person vitse - prime minister Oleg Davidov, Minister of Fuel and Energy Yury Shafranika and general Alexander Korzhakov who has actively adjoined them. They were resisted by a liberal wing of the government - the first vitse - prime minister Anatoly Chubays, Minister of Economics Evgenie Yasin and the first deputy minister of the finance Andrey Vavilov, guided, in particular, on support of the Russian budget of 1995 by the international credit institutes.
the decision, as one would expect, was compromise. Oil export quotas are liquidated, but left in inviolability spetseksportery. In practice this compromise will be most likely conditional. All is simple: instead of quotas and licences will be vozdvignuty barriers on an access way to export pipelines. In the beginning it was supposed to establish rigid connection between export of oil and its deliveries by the extracting enterprises by the processing. In the decision this coordination is in an explicit form removed, but in practice it can be restored. About it speaks, in - the first, actual transfer of control over oil export on the main oil pipelines in hands of Ministry of Fuel and Energy. In - the second, the Basic conditions of use of system of the main oil pipelines confirmed by the governmental order directly provide that volumes of transportation of oil depend on quarter schedules of oil recovery.
the main thing (and it concerns not only model of export of oil): contrary to September promises of the government to World bank the institute spetseksporterov has resisted. Supporters of liberalisation of foreign trade activities need to be consoled in that the project of the governmental decree reducing the inventory which export for limits of Russia is possible only through spetseksporterov is prepared. Predictably, from this list “ will leave “ cellulose and products from nonferrous metals.
VADIM - BARDIN, ALEXANDER - VOLYNETS