Campaign for vaccination
According to the order of Ministry of Health and the Medical Industry of the Russian Federation and State Committee of Epidemiological Control of the Russian Federation from December, 22nd, 1995 is planned carrying out in Russia additional mass immunization of children against a poliomyelitis. Vaccination will pass in two rounds with an interval in a month. The first round will begin on March, 18th, 1996 and 5 days will last, the second round will pass from April, 22nd till April, 26th, 1996. Immunizations are subject all children at the age from three months till three years, irrespective of quantity made before planned calendar inoculations. For realisation of these actions it is required 10 million doses of a vaccine in the total cost of 12 billion roubles.
the Poliomyelitis - zheludochno - the intestinal infectious disease, is transferred fekalno - an oral way. Can proceed as an easy infectious disease, to have not paralytic form (in the form of a meningitis) and paralytic (a paralysis of muscles with atrophies, disappearance of reflexes). Three types of a virus of a poliomyelitis differ. At the most rigid form from 100 infected approximately 1 falls ill with a paralytic poliomyelitis is high enough percent if to consider ease from which the virus is transferred. Such type of a virus is extended in Russia. The lethal outcome at this illness is rare, but the chance to remain the invalid is rather high (in comparison with other infectious diseases). It is known that Franklin Delano Roosevelt holding a post of the US president in days of the Second World War, had no possibility independently to move, as at it the bottom extremities (a poliomyelitis consequence) have been paralysed.
In many countries of the world this serious illness is already liquidated. Since 1991 it is not fixed any case of disease on the American continent and in many countries of Europe. Such achievement - result of mass immunization with the big coverage of the population (not less than 95 %). Recently similar action has been spent in China (it has been imparted about 80 million children). The number of new cases of disease - from several thousand annually to units in the expired year As a result has quickly decreased. Last year mass immunization of children till five years was spent in Kazakhstan, in its this year it is supposed to repeat.
the World Health Organization develops the program of a complete liquidation of a poliomyelitis by 2000. While this illness is extended in Africa, a number of the states of Asia and in some republics CIS. Unfortunately, this sad list includes also Russia, and on the European continent it appears unconditional poliomielitnym the leader - in 1994 - 95 years of 70 % of cases of disease in Europe it was necessary to Russia (according to the European bureau the CART).
the current situation Reason in many respects is extremely low interest of children having a preventive inoculation. Unique effectual measures for the circulation termination “ wild “ shtamma a virus of a poliomyelitis among the population, creation of necessary level of collective immunity and liquidation of cases of a poliomyelitis carrying out of mass immunization is. It is possible to speak about reliable collective immunity, when oral poliovaktsina (OPV) it is entered not less than 95 % of the children`s population (even at 90 % epidemic threat remains). In Russia in 1995 the average percent of imparted children is elderly about one year made about 68 %, and in separate regions reached 40 % (Tuva).
the Chechen republic (where the virus has been delivered from Tajikistan) became Epicentre of distribution of a poliomyelitis in our country. Last three years there at all did not impart children from a poliomyelitis, and consequences were not slow to affect. Last year in the Chechen Republic 143 cases of a paralytic poliomyelitis (six children has died, other steels invalids) have been revealed. In September - October, 1995 in republic local mass vaccination has been spent, is imparted about 140 thousand children under five years. By data on the end of January of this year, new cases of a poliomyelitis in the Chechen republic it is not registered. In days of mass immunization not only there, but also in all North Caucasus poliovaktsina it will be entered to newborn children directly in maternity hospitals (a so-called zero dose). This decision was accepted taking into account the general heavy epidemiological conditions in region, and also that circumstance that the quarter of all diseased last year was made by children aged about three months.
on forthcoming actions has commented for the doctor of medical sciences, the professor of scientific research institute of pediatrics of the Russian Academy of Medical Science Vladimir Tatochenko. He has noted safety of introduction of an additional dose of a vaccine: “ the Organism of the imparted child already has immunity, and to a wild virus of a poliomyelitis, and to the weakened virus entered by us - especially. 4 - 6 years I recommend to impart not vaccinated children too in days of immunization. It is planned to impart all 5 million children (so much children till three years live in our country). It is necessary to notice that the risk of occurrence vaktsinoassotsiirovannogo a paralytic poliomyelitis is equal approximately 1:5 to millions. Usually it occurs to children having infringements of immunity. For last thirty years in Moscow was such eight cases. To vaccination is subject just about 5 million children so the probability of any complications is almost equal to zero, especially if to mean that fact that not less than half of children pass not a primary stage, and the greatest probability of any serious complications exists at primary introduction of a vaccine “.
OKSANA - the SHREW