the Analysis of results of the foreign trade activity of the Russian regions for the last week was the next illustration to thought that positive balance of the foreign trade balance (considerable excess of volumes of export operations over import) does not testify at all to positive state of the economy. As acknowledgement that is served by the comparative analysis of total cost indexes of export and import operations with reference to the separate goods. In spite of the fact that the prices of export contracts on the average in 2 times exceed import (basically at the expense of prevalence of raw contracts), on the most significant both in structure export, and in structure of import operations to the goods the return tendency is found out. In particular, on production of mechanical engineering excess of cost of import contracts on the average makes 2,1 time, light industry - 11 times, and in food - 22,5 times. It speaks first of all that volumes of export of this production much more low their import.
in commodity structure of export operations of the last week on - former various kinds of raw materials (from oil to mineral fertilizers), mechanical engineering and chemistry production prevailed. Average contract price of the export transaction has made $114 thousand As to import here in the lead positions have remained behind articles of food, and average contract price has made $68 thousand Comparison of cost volumes of export and import operations for a week on the separate goods has allowed to estimate excess of cost of import contracts, for example, on the foodstuffs on the average in 10 - 15 times, on the light industry goods - in 15 times, and to office equipment and computers - 11 times.
high enough average cost indexes of export as it was more than once underlined, are closely connected with its commodity structure which on - former is defined by a high share of raw contracts. The analysis of the Russian export testifies to constant increase in volumes of export of raw materials. It directly is connected with sharp, in tens times, decrease in volumes of capital investments in processing branches that leads to manufacture falling in these branches and, as consequence, to liberation of additional resources for foreign trade and to automatic increase in export of raw materials. Indirectly it confirm and the given tables where parities of cost volumes are resulted it is export - import operations on separate to groups of the goods for the last week.
group of the goods Import (in %) Export (in %)
Oil and oil products 1. 5 98. 5
nickel and products from it 1. 9 98. 1
Zinc and products from it 10. 6 89. 4
Lead and products from it 91. 6 8. 4
Production of mechanical engineering 67. 3 32. 6
Electronics 56. 6 43. 4
Vehicles 40. 8 39. 2
Footwear 96. 2 3. 8
apparently from the table, excess of purchases of raw materials over sale is traced only on lead and products from it that is connected with absence of own raw materials at Russia. As it is known, all enterprises of a similar profile remained in Kazakhstan and in Ukraine.
besides other some leading countries of the West it is much more favourable to them to take out rather cheap raw materials help to keep a raw orientation of the Russian export by the economic policy, than to invest capitals in modernisation of the Russian processing factories. The matter is that one of consequences of mass export of raw materials of Russia was sharp falling of the prices for principal views of the raw goods in the European market and, as consequence, increase of competitiveness of finished articles of the western manufacture at the expense of decrease in raw costs. Competitiveness of this production including extends and on the Russian market. In the same uneasy situation there were also former republics of the Union, especially Kazakhstan and Ukraine, aggravating a situation with that as a matter of fact have acted in a role of competitors of Russia in raw materials foreign market. The mite in this process, especially re-export of nonferrous metals from Russia, was brought also by the Baltic states. For the sake of justice it is necessary to notice that at the moment the situation changes, first of all, a recognition of importance for itself the Russian market, revival of the regional economic unions and even participation east - the European states a little. Nevertheless, still long enough time in export of Russia the raw goods will prevail and there will be no means for modernisation of economy and increase in commodity structure of export of a share of finished articles. Now a parity only such basic raw goods as oil products and coal, to mechanical engineering production in export of Russia makes 4,1:1. If to add to the analysis black and nonferrous metals, agricultural raw materials, mineral fertilizers this proportion in general will be incommensurable. The Russian state in these conditions should be especially interested in increase of a share of finished articles in commodity structure of export, including encouraging even re-export through the territory. Nevertheless, formulations of the customs code, concerning re-export, are indistinct enough. This mode is capable to provide improvement of the foreign trade balance without raw materials expenses, allows to expand commercial relations of Russia with foreign countries and to provide the additional income of the state at the expense of the taxation of these operations. Unfortunately, it is not absolutely clear yet, whether it is considered re-export export of the goods, before imported into Russia, but not declared as reeksportnye at the moment of border crossing. Probably, for stimulation of export of finished goods domestic legislators will come to necessity of creation of special privileges for exporters, for example, to decrease for them level of the internal taxation, to introduction of customs privileges at import of the equipment intended for manufacture of export production. However, while on similar it is possible to hope only.
While in commodity structure of import leaders there is foodstuff (almost 1/ 3 total amounts of import) which last week were especially actively delivered from Germany, Belgium, Holland, Poland, Czechia, Hungary and Greece. Principal views of the foodstuff imported on the last week, the countries from which they were delivered, and also approximate level of import contract prices are resulted in the table.
the Kind of the goods the Country of delivery the contract Price in $
Tomato sauce of the USA 34 000
Mushroom sauces of the USA 37 000
Liquid soup concentrates Germany 24 000
Canned meat Germany 27 500
the Ham tinned Denmark 47 000
Servilat Belgium 18 500
Chocolate Belgium 26 000
Caramel Poland 16 000
Ready breakfasts Czechia 22 000
Tomatoes preserved Hungary 25 500
Fruit compotes Greece 19 300
Chicken okorochka the USA 21 100
Biscuit Czechia 12 000
Raisin Afghanistan 27 000
Besides the foodstuffs an important place occupied deliveries of machine-building production and finished articles from Baltic. This results from the fact that a considerable part of the factories making, for example, electric motors for refrigerators and the welding equipment, remained behind borders of Russia. Surprising that despite the double rate of the import duty the goods necessary for the Russian factories, continue to arrive from the Baltic states in cooperation here is. As to machine-building production from the developed countries of Europe and Japan the nomenclature it, unfortunately, does not undergo changes. It basically office equipment, computers and accessories to them. The complete equipment to Russia from these countries is delivered seldom. Principal causes - political instability, and the main thing - disinterest of the western suppliers in adjustment in Russia own manufacture. The matter is that high qualification of the personnel at more than low level of a salary allows, using the western technology, to let out production quite competitive in the markets of Europe and Asia. As already there are examples of economic blossoming of underdeveloped countries by means of foreign investments, first of all South Korea and Singapore.
TATYANA - KOROTKOV,
SERGEY - ALHIMOV,
ALEXANDER - KRUSIJAN