Vladimir Putin has abolished three power departments, has formed two new State Committees and has renominated to various posts of five officials. Many named it the largest reform of enforcement authorities for last three years. Actually any reform was not - there were three almost in any way connected with each other personnel and organizational decisions. These three decisions are united only by one: unwillingness of the president to deprive the citizens of that sensation that in the country political stability was established.
on March, 11th Vladimir Putin declared abolition of Federal Agency of tax police (FSNP) and transfer of function on revealing, the prevention and suppression of tax crimes in the Ministry of Internal Affairs (Ministry of Internal Affairs). Besides, are abolished the Federal frontier service (FPS) and the Federal agency of the governmental communication and the information at the president (Federal agency for government communication and information) - they are transferred in conducting Federal Agency safety (FSB). The State committee on control over a turn of narcotic and psychotropic substances (to it are transferred financially - technical base and regular number FSNP) is created. At the Ministry of Defence the State committee on the state defensive order, for it is formed functions of the uniform customer on conventional armaments are assigned. The former director FSNP Michael Fradkov is appointed by the representative of the Russian Federation in EU. The former director FPS Konstantin Totsky is appointed by the representative of the Russian Federation in the NATO. The former director of Federal agency for government communication and information Vladimir Matjuhin is appointed by the chairman of the State Committee on gosoboronzakazu in the rank of the first deputy of the Minister of Defence. By the chairman of the State committee on control over a turn of narcotic and psychotropic substances the former plenipotentiary of the president in Severo - the Western federal district Victor Cherkesov is appointed. By the plenipotentiary of the president in Severo - the Western district it is appointed were vitse - Valentine Matvienko`s prime minister.
Despite such abundance of liquidations, formations and appointments, actually system decisions was only three.
the First. Within the limits of preparation for governor`s elections in St.-Petersburg the plenipotentiary of the president in Severo - the Western district Kremlin has decided to appoint Valentina Matvienko - it should replace on a post of town governor Vladimir Jakovleva (p. 22 more in detail see). Victor Cherkesovu who has not bad worked as the plenipotentiary needed to find a worthy place of work. He could head and committee existing in the Ministry of Internal Affairs on struggle against drugs in the rank of the deputy minister, but it would be obvious fall. Therefore for giving to Cherkesovu of the status of the minister the State Committee on control over a turn of narcotic and psychotropic substances also has been created.
the second. The Ministry of Internal Affairs already achieved for a long time special powers on struggle against tax crimes and convinced a management that overall performance on this direction at militiamen much above, than and demand from tax policemen who supposedly speak much much, and actually to court lead up schitanoe number of affairs. Besides all Russian business now complains to the president of huge number of the checking organisations. Vladimir Putin has listened to requests of militiamen and oligarchs: FSNP it is liquidated, and its functions have passed to the Ministry of Internal Affairs. At the same time premises and computers for Victor Cherkesova`s State Committee were liberated. Already the former director FSNP Michael Fradkov was given honourable assignment as the ambassador in EU where it gathered in 1997 when was the first deputy of the minister of external economic relations.
the third. FSB achieved for a long time returning of Federal agency for government communication and information and Federal frontier service. Both those and other many years fiercely resisted. For opponents of association from FSB the president has picked up good posts. Director FPS Konstantin Totsky on the eve of Day of the defender of Fatherland has received a rank of the general and with honour has been sent to represent the country to the NATO - who will argue what in view of international tension escalation this post became one of the most responsible? But if the former chief of Academy of frontier troops Totsky never was an influential political figure the Federal agency for government communication and information, on the contrary, always was the organisation influential, and Vladimir Matjuhin has proved personal fidelity to the president during parliamentary elections of 1999 and presidential 2000 - go. It to send the ambassador absolutely it was indecent. Therefore for Matjuhina one more State Committee to which functions of the uniform customer of arms for all power departments are transferred has been created. However, this State Committee has not received the independent status: it is formed at the Minister of Defence as Vladimir Putin has already made for a long time the decision that functions of the uniform customer should belong to this department. However it is remarkable that Matjuhin became the first deputy of the Minister of Defence while Michael Dmitrys, the head of other committee at MO - on military - to technical cooperation with foreign countries - is “ simple “ the deputy minister.
all these events with each other does not unite practically anything, besides, that has been declared them simultaneously. But it is made not casually.
Two years ago, on March, 28th, 2001, Vladimir Putin in the same way, in one step declared appointment of new Ministers of Defence, internal affairs and atomic engineering. These appointments too had to each other no any relation. Removed from a post of the head of the Ministry of Internal Affairs Vladimir Rushajlo has been appointed to a post of the secretary of the Security council, become vacant with Sergey Ivanov`s appointment as the Minister of Defence. Ivanov have appointed in the Minister of Defence to realise developed by it in the device of Security council the concept of reforming of armed forces. Boris Gryzlov went to the Ministry of Internal Affairs, on the contrary, without any concept - he still should develop it. In general anybody was not going to reform Ministry of Atomic Energy: Evgenie Adamov has simply been dismissed after studying by the president of materials about commercial activity of the minister and its relatives.
it is Already clear that Vladimir Putin tries to resolve immediately with one blow at once some personnel and organizational problems first of all very much values that political stability which to him hardly managed to be established in the country after several years of chaotic Yeltsin transformations. If the president by turns changed ministers and once a quarter abolished one and created other departments, in the opinion of voters it would begin to remind too strongly the predecessor - and Putin would not like it at all.
In such technique there is rather serious lack: from the political point of view it is dangerous enough to start simultaneously changes at once in several power departments - it would be better, if they endured the problems separately. However during presidency Putin, probably, was so assured of the ability reliably to supervise a situation in the military environment that does not give it great value.
And can be, he simply well knows psychology of the Russian military officials: when it suddenly learns that the decision is already accepted, the will of generals to any resistance will be paralysed also they prefer to direct the remained energy on a gain of worthy positions in new structure that automatically transforms them into the most active supporters of carried out reform.
the Most interesting in this history - that and FPS Vladimir Putin and has not given distinct explanations of abolition of Federal agency for government communication and information. Why sharp strengthening of FSB has occurred right now? After all hearings that Vladimir Putin intends to return in Federal Agency of safety the most part of the structures allocated in 1991 - 1993 from KGB/ to Minbezopasnosti, have appeared in 1999 - right after how it became clear that the former officer of KGB becomes the second president of Russia. Michael Gorbachev and especially Boris Yeltsin after August putsch in panic were afraid of security officers and pathologically to them did not trust. Therefore they have decided to dismember the monolithic monster on some independent federal services looking after one after another and competing among themselves. Colonel Putin, unlike the predecessors, not only itself worked as the director of FSB, but also has put at the head of other power departments of people, whose personal fidelity and fidelity never doubted.
nevertheless for three years of presidency Vladimir Putin declared time and again that any revolutionary changes in the developed system of power bodies will not be spent, as he does not see in it any practical sense.
the answer to a question why it nevertheless has occurred and why it has occurred right now, can be only one: State Duma and president elections come nearer. It is obvious that on the eve of election campaigns Vladimir Putin has decided to collect the basic internal power resources in two powerful fists.
from the Ministry of Internal Affairs all was already clear for a long time: the former leader of the Duma fraction “ Unity “ Boris Gryzlov even after appointment as the minister especially did not hide the party sympathies and after it became also the chairman of a high council “ an United Russia “ as though by the way has reminded that before revolution the State Duma in general - that was on balance of the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
unlike FSB Ministry of Internal Affairs personnel strengthening did not need, and here additional organizational resources obviously will not prevent it. If earlier security officers independently struggled with political extremism and provided the constitutional safety of the country, and the Federal agency for government communication and information independently carried out monitoring of a pre-election situation in the country in whole and in separate regions in particular, but also, ensured functioning GAS “ Elections “ That is material now - technical and organizational resources of two special services will be united. And though to Federal agency for government communication and information at the Kremlin never was serious claims as regards elections, the president has decided that from the technological point of view concentration of resources in FSB will raise controllability of pre-election process. Actually, the Kremlin has visually shown adherence of such model of management, when has insisted on association of movements “ Unity “ and “ Fatherland “ in “ an United Russia “. After all sociologists testified that separately two powerful centrist blocks will collect on elections of more votes, than one party in power. Despite of it, their association has occurred - just because so to the Kremlin to operate the political resource more conveniently.
Inclusion in structure of FSB of frontier troops will allow security officers to rearrange forces and at the expense of reduction of frontier guards not only it is essential to increase number of operative structure (number of frontier service more than three times more number of FSB), but also to correct financial position of the employees, for a long time already complaining that in FSB the lowest salaries in comparison with other power departments.