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Aspiration to a positive
the Russian market of a photo develops prompt rates. Now more and more those who wants that their apartment or office was decorated by works of recognised photomasters - whether it be the Soviet avant-gardists, letopistsy stagnation or representatives of modern generation of pictorialists. How not to lose the way in the domestic photomarket, the correspondent " tells; Money Victoria Musvik.

If you will be going to collect photos, to you will by all means tell this story. A certain photographer has sold the picture to several people, asserting thus that the buyer becomes the owner of the photo existing in the single copy. Probably, the deceit so never also would not be found out, if all collectors did not live on one staircase and did not visit to each other. How much this history is truthful, to tell difficultly, but it reflects features of the Russian photomarket not bad.

art in weights
the Photomarket - the phenomenon at first sight absolutely not clear and mysterious. Because the same work here can be found out for different money. Here, for example, catalogues for the last years photoauctions of two largest auction houses Sotheby ` s and Christie ` s. Disorder at the prices (tentative estimation) for the same well-known work of the classic of the Soviet photo report of Dmitry Baltermantsa - a photo the Grief - makes from $3 thousand to $15 thousand In Moscow a modern print of the same work hardly will pull more than on $300.
Or here one more example. The most expensive photo for today when - or from auction, the picture of Gjustava Legre " is sold; the Big wave (1857). The card would be sold at auction Sotheby ` s in 1999 for fabulous $840 thousand Like all clearly: the picture old, is not enough copies, the technician difficult (Legre used two negatives - one for the sky, another for the sea). However about two years ago other print of the same image of Legre at the largest world fair of photo Paris Photo has been exposed on sale at the price by the little more than $100 thousand
Demand on art - the market is usually defined by existence of subjects of the auction in the single copy. But a photo, clearly to reproduce very easily: there is a negative from which it is possible to make though one hundred copies. And print them everybody can - the author, its successor, at last, any owner of a negative. For this reason a photo also consider as most mass of arts, a symbol of culture of consumption. The researcher of a photo of Sjuzen Zontag as - that named the facsimile a lung, cheap, without effort transferred, collected and hranimym object .

the talent Press
However, these strangenesses also cause structure of the photomarket playing, as well as other segments art - the market (antiques, the modern art), by accurate rules. What they?
the price for a photo develops of the most different components: popularity of the author, a rarity of work, its size, a genre and etc. But thus the main thing it is necessary to distinguish ability of the collector the image from a print.
the image and a print is an expression of two absolutely different lines of thought to a photo. The image (image - an image) is the stopped instant, the unique moment embodied by the photographer. The image can be very beautiful, talented, ingenious, but to duplicate it it is possible beyond all bounds, to print in magazines, to extend through the Internet. There is quite enough image and to write works under the photo theory. But in the photomarket it will not cost almost anything.
the Print (print) - business another. It becomes from a negative, it is concrete, material and unique. After all even quality of the picture made you a soap tray during rest on Maldives, depends on in what photographer`s studio it showed and printed: it can be hardly more pink or dark blue, hardly more cut off along the edges, to exist in different formats.
among prints experts distinguish a vintage, author`s prints and modern copies. Collectors collect a vintage. Its classical definition - work has been printed by the author (or under its direct supervision) and approximately during this period when the negative has been made. Such prints made though the classic of the American photo by Alfredom Shtiglitsem, though the Soviet classic Boris Ignatovichem, roads because are unique. However, in a modern photo over a final print can work some persons. However anyway authorised print will be considered too vintazhem. Later prints even if they are done by the author (we will tell, prints from a negative 1940 - h, executed in 1970-) are less appreciated. There are modern prints from old negatives is not so author`s work Even less.
the photomarket is based on this accurate differentiation and for this reason prints of the same work of the same author can differ with the price for some usages, for example, from $500 (for the late not authorised print) to several hundreds thousand (for a vintage). A photomarket Key rule: the master should sign the work and accurately declare circulation. Each signature, besides, should be assured or the press of well-known gallery, or written opinion of the authoritative expert. Dopechatyvanie circulation it is inadmissible, it not in interests of the photographer: It usually strongly reduces the price, destabilises the market and completely undermines reputation of the author.

in the West and in Russia
last 20 years the western photomarket endures the real boom. Its peak has had on 90 - e when the prices for works as classics, and modern photographers have promptly grown. It is necessary to remember at least success Beherov - German photographers - spouses from Dusseldorf so fine removing boring industrial landscapes that on their works the whole generation of pupils (Andreas Gurski, Thomas Shtrut, Thomas Ruff) has grown. 15 years ago works Beherov cost $500 - 600, now - from $5 - 6 thousand to $50 - 60 thousand, separate images - hundred thousand dollars.
in the West experts explain prompt launch of the market of a photo the several reasons. For example, its availability to people with different incomes thanks to huge disorder of the prices. Among other reasons - occurrence in a photo, one of the youngest areas of art, the history (history of names, movements, currents), the reference to a photo of the modern artists searching in the end of the XX-th century for new means of expression. And at last, the photo is rather easily perceived, in it it is easier to be guided, than, for example, in the advanced vanguard painting.
as one would expect, from Russian in the West basically pioneers of avant-guard - Alexander Rodchenko, the Ale Lisitsky, Boris Ignatovich at first were popular. Though recently presence of a great number of fakes, and also an ambiguity in circulations has led to considerable recession of interest to Russian vanguard photo. And here interest to the Soviet photo of later period, on the contrary, gradually increases. On the market there are also modern photographers. For a long time such authors, as Boris Mihajlov, Boris Savelyev, Olga Tchernyshev, group AES and its photoeye Vladimir Fridkes, Igor Mukhin, Frantsisko Infante are renowned. Promptly left on the photomarket - and at once with the high prices for works - Oleg Kulik. Beginners - Sergey Bratkov, Evgenie Mohorev, Sergey Chilikov are popular also. As a whole, however, Russian are on sale incomparably worse, than, for example, Germans or Americans, and at the smaller prices (the price for Mana Reja can reach one million dollars, for the most known Russian - Alexander Rodchenko - hardly will be paid by more $200 thousand) . The to the western buyer is closer, because it the.
and in general the prices for a photo in the West above, than in Russia. The initial prices for works of modern writers of identical quality and degree of popularity at us will begin with $300, in the western galleries - from $700. Be raised the prices can at us where - that to $1,5 thousand, in the West (for example, on the same Oleg Kulika) they can reach and $5 - 7,5 thousand In our market there are essential discords, - Anatoly Zlobovsky from gallery ` Art board ` speaks. - On the one hand, the prices for photos have not settled. For example, the vintage print of an old photo can be bought dollars for 200, that is for the same money, as a new print from the same negative. There is no also a commercial ranging of pictorialists: who what place occupies in a photo who as is estimated. Basically now in Russia a commercial estimation of a photoprint - a thing more than subjective. Our market is guided by the western precedents, auctions, well, for example, photographers - konstruktivistov, Rodchenko. Here on them as - that more or less the market ustakanilsja also has designated the prices. And with modern artists direct analogies do not pass. Here, for example, Andrey Chezhin in New York can cost $1,5 thousand In Russia for it will pay at most $600 - 700 .

Game rules
year - two to Russia interest to a photo has gone To last sharply upwards. The reasons a little - from increase in number of solvent citizens before penetration of the western tendencies, art and design. We already have state museum of a photo (the Moscow house of a photo), some galleries and the biennial - month of the photo, spent time in two years. Trade in a photo and some antique shops (they are focused basically on collectors) and the auctions, however separate auctions on a photo it is not spent yet.
the Indicator of development of the market of a photo - interest to it, shown by the majority stileobrazujushchih galleries of Moscow. Expose and sell modern photographers XL, Ridzhina Ajdan Krokin Fine Art. The galleries specialising on trade actually by a photo, in Moscow only four, but have arisen they literally in last two - three years. It Art board (specialises basically on modern writers, and also conducts research work on photo stories), Gallery of a name of brothers of Ljumer (the Soviet and modern photo), the Eye (all XX-th century) and the Photounion (has rich fund of negatives, is engaged practically only in modern prints from works of the Soviet classics). These galleries work on the average a price range: in Art boards the highest price - $700 for the modern writer (Andrey Chezhin), in Ljumere - to $2,5 thousand (For Borodulin`s Lion), in the Photounion - to $700 (for the Express train Arcady Shajheta).
Owners of photo galleries declare aspiration competently to develop the market of a domestic photo and to educate buyers, but reputation and the purposes at all different. If Art board is guided by more elite judges of art, let and not so familiar with a photo, Brothers of Ljumer work simply with the provided public. I do not work only on collectors, - Natalia Grigoriev, the director of Gallery of a name of brothers of Ljumer speaks. - Collectors are very narrow layer. I would like, that the inhabitant who wants to consume art was fond of a photo and to have it at home, to give pictures to the close, business partners favourite .

Business with a lethal outcome
the Basic scourge of Russian photomarket - absence of a turn of a photo and the secondary market. It and is clear: If a photo began to buy only five years ago, separate photos and collections had not time to replace owners yet. Be compared with ours can unless the Italian market where the first month of a photo has taken place only last year whereas in Germany the market has developed about 15 years ago, and in France - years 20.
But the biggest problem of our market the notorious Russian mentality is. At Russian and Soviet authors of culture of signing and the independent press of the works practically did not exist. Therefore to define quantity of prints, atributirovat them often it is not obviously possible. It proceeds and now: even the declared circulation not always guarantees that it will not be secretly printed out. Very few authors observe game rules - basically it is those who is on sale in the West. However, owners of galleries say what to supervise circulation in modern conditions not quite really: Gallery time cannot provide normal physical existence to the author, they have not the right and to enslave him.
Olga Sviblova, the director of the Moscow house of a photo (nowadays the Multimedia complex of actual arts) defines a situation so: Key rules of the market of a photo is an absolute value and a reality of a vintage and clearness with circulation. It is rather painful question. To us do not trust, Russian photo do not start up on the market. It does not mean that in the West there are no forgeries. However there, if the gallery was once blurted out also in any image has sold a fake, it for ever leaves from the market. At us dangers of game with circulation frequently do not understand neither artists, nor galleries. Many live till now under laws of the beginning of reorganisation years. Then business thought that the most important thing is somewhat quicker something hapnut. In business it came to an end we know than - a lethal outcome. Art business is too business, but while the big serious people while in it there are no big prices, have not come to it forgeries still as - that pass. As soon as the prices will start to rise, I think that self-regulating mechanisms of business will join and in it there are only people who will be ready to bear enormous responsibility. But it is necessary to realise that it will not occur in one day.
in the photomarket it is a lot of Unscrpulous players and in the West. It is widely known, for example, that with Russian photo Americans were engaged in frauds. The basic problem here - absence of enough of Russian experts on Russian photo which could estimate and cut competently it unfair players in the market. In Russia while catastrophically there are not enough experts who can tell that, for example, this circulation never in life existed, and the vintage card of this author existed only in the size 57 sm and has been made in 30 - e years. In other segments art - the market such experts already are.
as a whole experts are inclined to give carefully optimistical forecasts of development of the Russian photomarket. Tendencies are that. Among large Russian buyers - investors the western photo will continue to be a success: it has already passed selection, here it is less than risk. With development of more accurate criteria the prices and for Russian photo, historical and modern, - as at us, and in the West will be raised. On the average a price segment of our market Russian photo will continue to be a success basically. This tendency will remain, but the prices will grow also. So now - it is a high time to buy a photo.