Sergey Dovlatov in editorial article nju - jorkskoj newspapers “ the New American “ wrote: “ Not to money, and the clever businessman aspires to full and harmonious identity of efforts and result “. It is possible to tell that such “ full and harmonious identity “ quite it was possible to reach to ALEXANDER HLOPONINU. In 31 year (at this age Ilya Muromets still sat on the furnace) Hloponin has occupied an armchair of the general director of the metallurgical association of the Russian Open Society largest in Europe “ Norilsk nickel “ also became the youngest “ the boss “ for all history of existence both the Russian Open Society, and the enterprises entering into association. Sensations of the person who in a flash has received the power over a half-million connected with “ Norilsk nickel “ People, CYRIL - VISHNEPOLSKY has tried to find out spetskorrespondent.
Alexander Gennadevich Hloponin was born on March, 6th, 1965 in a city of Colombo (Ceylon) in a family of the translator of the Soviet trade mission. After service in armies and the terminations in 1989 of faculty of the international economy of the Moscow financial institution (nowadays the State financial academy) worked in Foreign trade and investment bank of the USSR. Since 1992 - the assistant, then the first deputy of the chairman of the board of bank “ the International financial company “ (MFK). Since 1994 - chairman of the board MFK. Since 1996 - president MFK. Since May, 1996 - and. An island of the chairman of the board of the Russian Open Society “ Norilsk nickel “. In the end of June board of directors “ Norilsk nickel “ it is appointed to a post of the general director of association.
however to meet with newly made “ the metallurgical king “ it has appeared not so - that simply. Two weeks I ran with lists of possible questions between ONEXIMBANK and the Moscow office “ Norilsk nickel “ invariably receiving the standard answer: “ It is occupied, at negotiations, has departed, has left... “. At last, on Monday morning I was woken by a call: “ Come to two, Hloponin will wait. Look, be not late, it has not enough time... “.
having defended in a reception the turn consisting of trade-union leaders, partners, traders and not identified persons with cellular telephones, I come into an office. The owner removes a jacket and lights, obviously rejoicing possibilities for some time to distract from urgent affairs and simply to talk “ for life “.
- So, your career in any measure is made. It is possible to stop on half an hour and to talk how it is all was. Where are covered, being expressed grandiloquently, roots of your success? In the childhood?
- In the first, career - it only - only begins. And as to the childhood, then anything especial. I was born in a usual average-income family. The salary at parents was up to standard of the average engineer, goodness knows what. Then all received approximately equally. However, with study I always was “ on you “ though preferred all - taki humanitarian subjects.
- and became the financier. That is, roughly speaking, work with figures, instead of with letters.
- understand, there is all - taki the applied mathematics, higher mathematics, physics, it is deep enough, heavy and boring. And, say, the economy is more connected with analytics, I always was involved with analytical work more.
- speak, the type of behaviour of the person is formed in the childhood. What to you put for behaviour at school?
- always “ well “. I was not considered and never aspired to be the absolute disciplined schoolboy. Could sometimes and shirk - to send on errands in football and to hang out. I liked to play football, and sometimes replaced with it lessons. With sports in general always was friends. Did not reach anywhere any considerable heights, but the range of hobbies was very wide, beginning from tennis - both big, and desktop - finishing football, hockey, chess.
- whether it is possible to tell, what at school Hloponin showed propensity to leadership, aspired to supervising posts at school level?
- is not present, to tell the truth, did not happen such. Round me, certainly, friends, companions united, I always preferred to be in the centre of any command, in a kernel. But never was the strongly pronounced leader, I was more often the second. Seldom the first and never the third. There is no saying, why it occurred. Perhaps, such warehouse of character.
- so, career roots not here. We will try on the other hand: Many representatives of present financial and political elite began career from Komsomol district committees...
- is not present, in a district committee never in life worked. I was not the active member of the Komsomol, is faster the passive. Though could participate - as it was called at school, committee earlier? - And so, could answer in committee for any direction, for DND, for example, but if will charge. And with a district committee did not communicate.
- here again miss. We will come on the other hand: you finished the Moscow financial institution. As far as I know, many there studied present “ financial bigwigs “ the countries. Whether institute communications help with business?
- It has turned out so that the period of our blossoming when we have started to take in the lead positions in business, has had at all practically on at one time and proceeded quickly enough. As a rule, my fellow students always were approximately at one level, and other communications helped really to us.
- where your fellow students, by the way, have dispersed? Do not lose with them touches?
- is not present, at us close enough circle, very often we communicate among themselves. And if to take pure our company of institute friends so has developed that they practically all accumulated in one centre, in one structure, in one command. Also occupy now in group ONEXIMBANK - MFK serious enough posts.
- how it has occurred?
- all has begun on the second year. I had a wife, the child, it was necessary as - that to contain a family. Parents were, I will repeat, an average prosperity. They, of course, helped, than could, but our interests were much wider than their possibilities. It would be desirable both take a walk, and to hang out, and where - that, can, the videorecorder to itself the first to buy. Here also earned: after institute we went home, ate, prepared for employment, and in the evenings were put forward in a night shift. The whole command, the person in ten. Unloaded cars, sorted logs as now I remember, cement loaded, a brick. In strojotrjadah worked, earned money for life. Sometimes showed even sharpness, closing in strojotrjadah the estimate “ to own advantage “...
- That is, better to say, spent optimisation of financial streams?
- is faster re-structuring, from the enterprise budget in the budget strojotrjada. Such here capitalism school. Thus we always were active and even aggressive, passive never were. If you take skeleton of a command of our banks it practically will coincide with the list of people which dragged ten years ago with me bricks on bases. All together now also we continue.
- you who included into this company if they are known enough also their names about something could not name will tell to our readers?
- just because they are known enough, I would like to name nobody.
- continuing conversation about “ business “ to friendship. How there are your relations with Vladimir Potanin - your recent immediate superior, and nowadays the first vitse - the prime minister?
- I do not know, how now, in the light of last appointments, these relations will develop. But till now we always accurately divided work and friendship. That is, we can swear on work: Potanin - the person very rigid. Can drive very seriously. But it is work, and behind its limits we are on friendly terms families, and our children communicate, and together we like to have a rest.
- English philosopher Frensis Bacon spoke about freedom in due time: “ the Strange aspiration - to achieve the power and to lose freedom “. You have reached the authorities. Whether it is possible to tell, what you have lost freedom? If to compare your working day of five years` prescription and present, whether the difference is great?
- at me about it the vital philosophy. I always considered: Does not happen in this life such that where - that has increased and where - that thus was not lowered. Yes, now I with the great pleasure remember the period when I studied, for example, on the institute second year. It was the peak defined freedom. And further - bank, now the Russian Open Society. The above level, the is less than freedom. I, as any normal person, like to open a car cowl, to rummage, sit down for a wheel, to press on gas. Not always it turns out: at your position necessarily someone should carry you, the secretary should answer calls and so on. You cannot appear, as earlier, in the untied kind to sit with boys, to drink beer. That is always you lose any part of freedom. But you get other freedom - financial. I presume to go to myself where - that to have a rest in a good place abroad, to buy the good car. I do not puzzle over problems from Barbie for the child and other similar things. But, on the other hand, some nostalgia for those times when it was free in acts remains, of course. Drank beer in a hostel, in a disco could come off. What my years! It would be desirable to descend simply in club, tusanutsja there...
- But many also go!
- yes there are no problems, I too not closed person, am simple recently hands as - that do not reach.
- there are at you free Saturdays - Sundays?
- Saturdays practically are not present. And Sunday is, as a rule, such day when I as the zombie, I wander on the house and see nothing. I, of course, simulate dialogue with a family, the wife. But actually even the TV I look and I do not hear, about what there speak. Villages, gauging if only did not touch. However, the last some months, especially in the summer, we prefer again - taki that narrow circle to go out of town. We go for a drive on scooters, on boats. Very strongly weakens, we have fun, as small children. Present, we take five scooters and it is driven competing in speed with each other.
- yes, the scooter - too a fruit of financial freedom about which you spoke. By the way, what do you think of money?
- the main principle which I put in earning money process, consists in the following. On each work there is a certain performance standard which on this post any normal, trained person can make. And, accordingly, will receive for it normal, average money. And here if I have earned something much, that, conditionally speaking, it only my merit, a pure exclusive, I could make it only. Here from it I have the right to take bonuses, incomes, to use on merits. But if I earn on myself to the detriment of business is not business, it larceny is called. Here I put this principle in formation of my monetary interest.
About career, the prices and fusion
- it is good, time sends serious answers, it is time to ask serious questions. You have told that career only begins. To pension to you it is still far, so further - in vitse - prime ministers, how Vladimir Olegovich?
- I want to tell fairly that for me metallurgy is a completely not not certain step for an exit on political arena. Career, in my opinion, is an increase of internal self-esteem, a circle of knowledge, addition of quantity of zero on yours “ the price list “. Each person has the price, and it grows depending on experience of this person. Here, say, you work in bank, hold a certain post, have experience - at you one price. You can estimate as the expert well owning a bank infrastructure, mechanisms and tools. And when you also master production management, your price increases. I think, limits here do not exist, there are many interesting affairs. I simply know that I do not aspire to the political power. I aspire business which we undertook, razrulit up to the end. There will be a positive effect - means, I can make something, something have reached, something I stand. If I have got down to business and have filled up it is well, means, the penny to me the price, and my cost as expert falls. Roughly speaking, we undertook Norilsk - a piece the most complicated, analogues do not exist. Here if we fill up tomorrow this business - that such tomorrow there will be Hloponin if we speak about an individual? Also can extrapolate on ONEXIMBANK - that such it will be tomorrow? Will stand, of course, but its image will go racing. The price, prestige - all falls... To us also will concern, as bank which undertook, has shouted “ I from the Dignity - Frantsisko “ has inflated cheeks and has lost. Another matter if tomorrow we pull out this piece - everything, we in the international market “ in a top “. Here in it, actually, also there is a career essence. In it sense of everything, instead of in that it there was an intermediate stage for a jump upward.
- you were the bank worker and have suddenly come on the huge enterprise, and the head. After all it is heavy even purely psychologically?
- is not present, when business interesting, it cannot be heavy. It does not mean that, having come here, I should study, as there is a fusion or flotation process or that else is at them there. I, of course, have now typed a heap of books, I read. Should have any minimum representation. But it is impossible to operate all. It is necessary to build management positions so that you under had the production workers knowing technology, economists who can count overall performance of your manufacture, and financiers who build current financial activity. And you operate them... Here when you build a correct position then it is not heavy.
- but the working collective on Norilsk manufactures developed not one year. At it the mythology, the systems of values. And suddenly appears neproshenno ONEXIMBANK, starts to order, direct the usages. To a management at each normal worker and so instinctive disgust, and at such - that conditions and for a long time. How here to build personnel selection? And whether strashnovato - on one party of a table of five hundred thousand persons, and on another - you one...
- in - the first, I can tell that in Norilsk people in itself are unique. There even among workers on manufacture people with higher education. Norilsk - that, on idea, - industrial elite. People if to glance in history, Norilsk left very highly, including in the government. Therefore to say that I have got to any dark not clear where people talk in other language, incorrectly. There people competent enough and understanding, all of them can explain. It is clear that we not will with them never absolutely on one party of barricades. We will sit down, agree, find out. We will understand each other that we need to do certain things in common. And here is how we need to do it - conversations will be long. Well and in - the second, I will not be in Norilsk one. It is necessary to send there the people, the Moscow experts. Perhaps, even we will involve foreigners. However, it is necessary to pay in it more than in Moscow, but not with northern factor.
- people with higher education, industrial elite - and have filled up superprofitable manufacture. As - that does not match...
- all life these people worked within the limits of the planned program, they never rotated in the free market. Were engaged only in manufacture - they understand it perfectly. But do not know that such the finance as money needs to be operated. Do not understand that credits should be paid and returnable - not that, That you take, and the state will give. They were not ready to it. Therefore they also lost a part of money on own nonsense. We will tell, taxes. For them to go on minimisation of taxes - all the same what to climb under a pistol: “ At - at - at, a nightmare to steal at the state! “ thus do not understand what to establish the world prices by deliveries of raw materials in the enterprises of the Russian Open Society and to pay from it the wild VAT, to put it mildly, stupidly.
- Coming back to a question on shots, your authority at the enterprises... Speak, you collected in the office old, still Soviet a top - managers of Norilsk industrial complex and long to them talked. What was it - an exchange of experience or public demonstration of continuity of generations, respect for their merits, attempt to direct on itself a reflexion of their glory?
is was not a deliberate populist course. It is important to understand that it is authorities, authorities for people who in Norilsk now work. They are people who have worried also huge crises, accidents, failures on manufacture, people, who know how to be guided in this or that supernumerary situation. They told to me that passed also process of closing of the Norilsk enterprises, told, how in this situation behaved, as the question as evacuation of people was planned was solved. On old directors I do the certain rate. Idea in that these people helped me the experience.
- the Sanhedrim?
- yes if want. If these people sit near to me and support my ideas is a certain indicator for present directors of the enterprises of the Russian Open Society. Acknowledgement of that we have come here not for destruction, and for creation. We have spent with “ elders “ negotiations, have received their consent to occurrence in the advisory council at board. It will be operative body, it will be present at board meetings at decision-making, will make the recommendations to board.
- And Anatoly Filatov, the recent head of the Russian Open Society, will be included into this council?
- I do not carry Filatova to a category of people about which we now speak. I will explain: those directors have not felt taste of business. When they worked, the purpose was another - manufacture, quality, people who there worked. Filatov - the businessman of the new generation who have felt taste of money. The person who did not reflect that waits this enterprise in a year - two.
- now you should think over it. What time is required for an overcoming the crisis? What there will be through these a year - two?
- if will break nothing, to summer of next year we will try to deduce the enterprises on zero balance. And as early as a year it is necessary for one and a half us, that the enterprises have earned in plus, have started to acquire own fat. It will be possible to plan, if now to us will allow to work. We now understand every day with any debts, any payments. You want to pay to people the salary - and at you tax specialists of the account arrest. You will not pay to people the salary - they will go on strike tomorrow. The nose has got out - a tail uvjaz, the tail has got out - accordingly... Such tekuchka, she starts to devour, simply to devour, have not time to plan anything.
- well, to you a sin to complain. Frensis Bacon said that laws are similar to a web: small insects in them get confused, large - never. Proceeding from it, to you - with debts in trillions roubles - to talk to tax specialists is easier, than a small shop from any Butovo, run into debt tens millions.
- with some reservations I can agree with this thesis. To us in certain degree really it is easier. But I will not tell that we deliberately do not pay taxes. Is, roughly speaking, at me in a pocket of 100 roubles, and as try, more than this sum you will not spend. Including on taxes.
- last question - from lyrics area. Here we now here sit - Moscow, light walls, heat, is green. In Norilsk - black snow from a soot, cold, it is grey. Whether it is possible purely on - chelovecheski to understand problems of Norilsk from Moscow, to solve them from Moscow, to supervise from Moscow?
- an amusing question. Moscow, the Kremlin... And whether it is possible to supervise from Moscow over the country?
- well while supervise...
- well, here to you and the answer to a question.