Resumes for the cosmonautRequirements to which there should correspond potential cosmonauts, look quite terrestrial. But wishing to go into an orbit all the same it is not enough.
selection of the Russian cosmonauts is spent first of all on occupation characteristics. Now there are groups of cosmonauts military - air forces, is rocket - space corporation “ Energy “ Institute mediko - biological problems and Academy of Sciences of the Russian Federation, and each group consists exclusively of employees of the corresponding organisation. In this rule there were only individual exceptions. So, in 1997 the assistant to the president of the Russian Federation Boris Yeltsin Yury Baturin, not were the pilot of the Air Forces, has been attached to group of cosmonauts of the Center of preparation of cosmonauts of the Air Forces of the Russian Federation. However, preliminary it has got Boris Yeltsin`s support. In a similar way with support of commanders by space armies the general - colonels Vladimir Ivanov and Vladimir Popovkina in 2004 has had training preparation and has made flight in space the first and unique cosmonaut of space armies of the Russian Federation Yury Shargin.
In the USSR it was required, that the cosmonaut was a member of the CPSU. Konstantin Feoktistov flying in space in 1964 as the flight engineer of the ship " became the unique non-party cosmonaut; Rising “. Its nominee was personally defended by the chief designer of spaceships Sergey Korolev.
now the basic criteria at selection in cosmonauts is health, the anthopometrical data (growth and weight) and higher education. Selection of the first cosmonauts in 1960 could be passed in the USSR, if your age did not exceed 30 years, the weight - 72 kg, and growth - 170 see Only at such characteristics the cosmonaut could be located in the first spaceship “ the East “. Now for the ships “ the Union - TMA “ requirements not so rigid: growth standing - 150 - 190 sm, growth sitting - 80 - 99 sm, weight - 50 - 95 kg. Requirements to knowledge of foreign languages at reception in cosmonauts are not present, but, having been given assignment to flight on MKS, the cosmonaut should learn English.
however recently selection of cosmonauts passes in Russia with great difficulties. So, in 2006 corporation “ Energy “ has selected in the group only two new candidates instead of planned three, and that only after the rule about obligatory work of the candidate at the enterprise within three years has been cancelled. The same year for cosmonauts - physicians the Institute mediko - biological problems could not select any candidate. Young employees of these organisations do not want to go in cosmonauts from - for low salaries and long expectation of flight to space. According to the cosmonaut - veteran Pavel Vinogradova making flights in space in 1997 and 2006, the average salary of the cosmonaut “ Energy “ in 2006 differed nothing from the salary of the usual engineer and made 20 - the Considerable sum cosmonauts receive 30 thousand rbl. only for performance of the most space flight - $50 - 80 thousand for semi-annual flight depending on its complexity (for comparison: in Soviet period cosmonauts received for flight from 5 thousand to 10 thousand rbl. and the car “ Volga “ the salary at flying was 400 - 500 rbl., at not flying - it is twice less). Having spent ten years in group, the cosmonaut acquires the retirement right even if it has not made any space flight.
earlier in the Russian groups selected exclusively men. Women to space preparation were supposed only in exceptional cases under concrete programs. So in space flied Valentina Tereshkova and Svetlana Savitsky. Now restrictions on a floor are not present, however one woman prepares for flights - the engineer of corporation " only; Energy “ Elena Serova. In total in Russia at the moment 34 operating cosmonauts (24 from them prepare for flights) and 7 candidates, having training biennial preparation.