Vanishing species of animals
About what difficulties wait for fans of black caviar in the near future, the international organisation of protection of animals World Wildlife Fund (WWF) has told - it has presented for the first time to attention of the public research about sturgeons to whom from - for pollution of waters extinction threatens.
In the world it is known about 25 kinds of sturgeon fishes, the greatest variety Asia in this respect differs. However some kinds do not meet any more under natural conditions, them only plant, others almost have completely disappeared - so the North American white sturgeon when in 1880 - 1905 its catching has been resolved, for example, has been almost exterminated.
Black caviar receive from three kinds of fishes - belugi, a sturgeon and sevrjugi, living basically in northern waters of Caspian sea and in Black sea and going on spawning to Danube, Volga, Ural Mountains and their inflows. “ productivity “ different - the female belugi, for example, gives fishes from 15 to 20 kg of caviar, and sevrjugi - all from 1 to 5 kg. The size of berries depends on a state of health and the sizes of a female. Now it is possible to speak about strong degradation of these breeds of fishes as concerning the sizes, and life expectancy: sturgeons can live till 150 years, and now average duration of their life was reduced to 40.
Soviet Union and Iran were the Main suppliers of black caviar on the international market long time. Economic confusion in Russia has led to that control over catching and reproduction of fishes considerably oslab. In 1995 in waters of Volga it has been caught only 35 large sturgeons. It it has appeared insufficiently for cultivation of fish by an artificial method. Rybzavodam in Astrakhan there is no money to contain young growth and not to let out it in the river where it is exterminated easily by natural enemies. To all it should add that in Volga there is no any more a natural reproduction belugi.
struggle against poaching is Considerably complicated - in 1994 only in Ob has been illegally caught nearby 300 t the Siberian sturgeon. Increase of level of Caspian sea can lead to catastrophic pollution if oil wells ashore are flooded. Disappearance of sturgeon breeds in Aral sea and sharp reduction of population in Caspian is noted. Some kinds are under the threat of extinction and are brought in the red book of the World union of protection of environment (IUCN).
Set of negative factors almost does not leave hope of a survival of sturgeon fishes. Government programs do not work, and the western organisations not always manage to save situation. It is necessary to wait, what conclusions will make WWF and what measures will offer. While it is a question of including sturgeons in the list falling under the Convention on international trade by vanishing species.
ELENA - KRANKINA