Hemp among tulipsIn Kirghizia has begun not declared campaign for parliamentary elections. Very few people believes that it will pass without excesses in the country which for 19 years of independence has dethroned two presidents and eight times has edited the Constitution
Travel to Bishkek it is similar to excursion in 1990 - e - such “ Recently “ where the effect of nostalgia is reached without special effects, the fact of presence.
at first amazes, at the airport, diameter of peak-caps of commanding structure. Then - survivability of typical building of Soviet period (including the local White house which that as - that to allocate, call Grey). Afterwards - zareshechennost shops (remember: my stall - my fortress?) Which to the first gets in revolutionary everyday life. Well, and stories how in 2005 - m smashed one quarters, and now, in April 2010 - go, undertook others... The people, in general, are guided for a long time: on revolutionary weights go down from what mountains and under what slogans, capital inhabitants for a pair of clocks do a conclusion where it is dangerous and where it is safe to go to shop.
pair of conversations - also you start to try on all it on yourself. Not that that we have endured passions of such heat, but that vague, from 1990 - h, memoirs that to the power happens no distance, rolls. Not to get off on special effects, this stage of formation of the Kirghiz democracy which in Russia for a long time name anarchy, we have decided to describe, comparing two sights - from the outside and from within.
vitse and a general line
officially parliamentary campaign in Kirghizia should start Three in a week, but life in legal vacuum has accustomed not to pay attention to legal nuances. Leaders of parties correcting nowadays - Almaz Atambaev (sotsial - democrats), Omurbek Tekebaev (“ Ata - Meken “) and Temir Sariev (“ Ak - Shumkar “) - Have handed over posts vitse - prime ministers in Provisional government and have entered struggle for electorate. Colleagues - the revolutionaries dethroning president Kurmanbeka Bakieva of all - that three months ago, today for the power fight already among themselves.
the revolutionary triumvirate has not left backs bared. The technical government which has replaced Time, is generated at their active participation. Vacancies were filled with pupils of presidents of Akaeva (will dethrone in 2005-) and Bakieva (will dethrone in 2010-) - strong business executives and professionals as has characterised old - new managers operating the head of Kirghizia Roza Otunbaeva. Shots stole up taking into account the important factor for the time of troubles - all of them, basically, are deprived political ambitions. But just in case them also have limited in powers, having allowed to solve only current economic questions. Game rules the next 3 months (elections wait in October) will establish members of the former Provisional government - they intend to help to write to president Otunbaevoj decrees. Thus - without parliament, the Constitutional court, but with two governments - Kirghizia will move to the purpose fixed by a recent referendum: to parliamentary republic, which in the Central Asia still never vidyvali.
the Kirghiz electorate Tempered in revolutions has christened this new deal “ dvuhgolovym the government “. Scepticism of bottoms is not casual: revolutionary euphoria has come to naught, credit of trust of those who has rushed into the power in April, thaws. Adequately estimate a situation and leaders of parties in power: were vitse - prime minister Tekebaev says that their rating does not exceed 20 percent. On elections he, however, intends to take 50.
However, it is impossible to exclude and a total failure. On “ a democracy islet in the Central Asia “ Which political luggage for two ten years of independence after disintegration of the USSR makes 8 constitutions, 2 revolutions and 140 parties, the controlling stock of deputy mandates can departure easily on the party. One of rather probable variants that it will appear in hands of group of the generals making opposition to the supervising triumvirate. Really, popularity of generals Miroslava Niyazov (KGB), Omurbeka Suvanalieva (Ministry of Internal Affairs) began to grow sharply after they managed to show that they know, how to put things in order in the south of the country, having stopped cruel slaughter between Kirghiz and Uzbeks. Against the Provisional government policy other known general - Felix Kulov (Ministry of Internal Affairs) acts also. In the country where the majority of mass political actions, from revolts before their suppression, are planned as operation on a transfer of people, blocking and deblocking of mountain roads, quarters and settlements a similar sheaf has weight.
On a game not only an ambition, but also a strategic question for the country - the form of government. Agents of national security categorically not priemljut the parliamentary form of government, considering that it washes away responsibility, strengthens anarchy and stand up for the strong presidential power and responsibility of the leader. In case of a victory they intend to copy the Organic law text again.
- the state in Kirghizia exists today only under the form and attributes, but not under the maintenance, - general Niyazov, in the Soviet years the chief of UKGB Dzhalal - Abadsky area explains this position. - we have appeared are not ready to democracy, but problems have begun not today. And March 2005 - go, and April 2010 - go have happened because the power could not divide freedom and permissiveness. It is possible to accuse, of course, the people, but it - mirror reflexion. The power itself has set an example: both it plundered, and it plunder, dethroning. The society turns to a cattle-breeding farm. Such volnitsa with the inhuman person.
generals go on elections, on - to the military man accurately formulating the purpose - to rescue bases of a civil society. From whom? Yes from the same power passing from hand to hand which not in a condition to provide safety (people for a long time requirements of the population (in the poorest country in the Central Asia below the poverty line - third of population, to 40 percent of its incomes provide migrants in Russia) are engaged in it). As before has reached - a question not less difficult, than the question on in what measure such opposition can be resolved on elections.
freedom, a pancake!
the driver carrying one of us across the flaring Bishkek in days of April events, was praised by that has completely updated the wheelbarrow - has removed spare parts and wheels from the car with state numbers and even has pulled out the computer from the government House. To pull out the second was not in time, competitors - serious children with automatic machines behind shoulders have come.
they Were remembered not only to it: inhabitants two-storeyed “ stalinki “ located akkurat opposite to the government House, tell, how during storm one of the such was knocked in someone`s apartment and has politely asked of the permission to do some shooting with balcony on the snipers who have sat down on a roof Is white - the Grey house. Owners have begun to persuade the marksman to choose other point - a pier, the roar of turns will wake godovalovogo the child. Strangely enough, everyday dodge has worked, the insurgent has got over on a balcony to neighbours. All house suffered as a result: inhabitants of apartments with a kind on the power almost spent the day days and spent the night in unique not raked premises - bathrooms. On rooms moved on all fours not to get under a stray bullet.
... Traces of those bullets and until now one of the main sights of capital of Kirghizia. Here, willingly tell the visitor at a colonnade opposite to a power monastery, snipers, there - submachine gunners, and it, respected worked, traces from a grenade cup discharge - marked at a window, yes has got to a wall at an angle, splinters and have scattered. Ashes and splinters have cleaned, but to close up hollows do not hasten are and a monument of 85 victims, and some kind of the card of last revolution which have left marks not only on walls of houses.
for example, dashing days of March 2005 - go when the first revolution of tulips has forced to leave the country of its first president Askara Akaeva, remember almost with nostalgia. Bishkek those days too burnt down and plundered groups from rural remote places, but armed antediluvian - bludgeons and cobble-stones. Five years later the new opposition went to the power on - to the adult - revolution made with application of all kinds of fire-arms.
still comparison. Five years ago marauders, having managed for a while a week in capital, have returned to native villages. Now - is not present: Till now at night it is possible to hear shots, militian sirens howl, city streets with approach of night become dark and deserted. Many leave, considering that the future has ended. Remained, taught by bitter experience, keep in readiness disturbing small suitcases with documents and valuable things. The slightest hint groups of self-defence gather for a situation aggravation - and in city quarters, it is not enough hopes of the demoralised militia.
As to the power, it concern philosophically - if only the next elite allowed to live and stole moderately. A postulate proclaimed at the beginning of building of sovereign republic by one of prime ministers of Kirghizia: fools do not steal from us and lazy only, is as a Gogol axiom about fools and roads to Russia.
a clan a clan knock out
the Modern political slang in Kirghizia has lost grace of a syllable: to do that fools and lazy are not able only, now it is defined by the term “ to degrease republic “ . The rumour considers as masters of this genre sons eks - presidents of Akaeva and Bakieva, defining their enterprise talents one more formula: “ better drunk Aydar, than sober Maxim “. It is deciphered simply: if Aydar Akaevu under a pile - another could palm off the necessary contract with Maxim Bakievym such features did not pass. This demanded to unfasten for transactions on a maximum.
without pressing at all in the analysis of a clan basis of economy “ a democracy islet “ on these remarks it is clear: bottoms have ceased to want to live on - new about 10 years ago, during board Askara Akaeva closing date. What they have refused and why?
the Visible scientist - the physicist, dreaming to construct democratic republic and to transform mountain Kirghizia into the second Switzerland, reforms began safely, in a big way. In its administration graduates of high schools worked, market economy bases were developed by the western scientists, in villages there were first farmers. Yes that there worked: the civil society in the country is built till now by thousand non-governmental organisations. It is visible to the naked eye on flights Moscow - Bishkek in which, even after Osha, the European public, on the move podchityvajushchaja the literature on the unknown country between China and Afghanistan is loaded with trunks raznojazykaja.
however, the same Swisses, are more attentive than others observing of unknown experiment for Asia on building “ mountain democracy “ recognise: there was usual, the extremely widespread in the same Africa, a thing. “ efforts NPO on building of a civil society have changed for foreign money and have weakened efforts on building of own state, - writes an observer of newspaper Le Temps of Zhoel Kjuntts. - Financing went to the heads of projects operating under the programs, with the independent status. As though in Kirghizia they could spend state reform, instead of local authorities “. At the Swisses advising about the state building of many countries and the people, on it the account is a capacious joke. When the next delegation has come to federalism Institute in the city of Fribur to understand, how to learn to live richly and peacefully, it has received extremely exact answer: “ Yes all of you, misters, correctly do! Only to begin necessary in XIII century... “
such time distance at the first president of Kirghizia, certainly, was not. The democratisation intensive course has come to the end in the Asian traditions: at the president children have grown up, and to embody its dreams in practice the family and the officials who have oriented on it undertook in time. The affinity to a body began to be appreciated above professional qualities: for example, the builder and the fan of tennis Nikolay Tanaev who not only imparted to a presidential family love to sports became a long-liver among prime ministers, but also was able to do massage excellent. The pyramid of bribes grew above and faster a civil society. Thus disturbing polls of the same western NPO already in the beginning 2000 - h showed: popularity of the president of Kirghizia in its own administration (!) Below popularity not only presidents of Russia and Kazakhstan, but also the leader of Uzbekistan. By that moment when against Akaeva have lifted revolt, it, as a matter of fact, already have removed aside - dethroned not so much president, how many the family form of government.
the object lesson has not gone for the future to the main subversive and new president Kurmanbeku Bakievu at whom members of a family it has appeared time in two more and all of them - from brother Zhanysha supervising special services, to son Maxim supervising financial streams - have there and then joined in a state administration. The five-years period of Bakievyh was marked by permanent meetings and loud murders of deputies, journalists, officials. Protest slogans became popular even among children of preschool age: from sandboxes of contemporaries expelled shouts “ ketsin! “ - “ in resignation! “. And the grounded senior pupils concluded a bet - bakievskaja the family how many will hold on?
the monopoly for the power crept away on seams. The administrative resource operated only in capital, on instruction places were not executed. For suppression dissatisfied the power has started to involve a crime: leaders of criminal groupings went by cars with state numbers, sat at parliament, worked in executive power structures. Their hands cleaned not consent, investigations lowered on brakes.
in general, not subtly that in April force of revolt read off scale. The opposition which it has led to the power, has christened new revolution “ the second tjulpanovoj “ but many speak about “ konopljanoj “ and even about “ opium “. From offices and corridors of the crushed buildings of the House of the government and parliament of the cleaner put out mountains of empty bottles and used shpritsov. And in the marauders who are rushing about on capital with senseless persons from permissiveness, it was difficult to recognise fighters for common cause. Were at war basically for the: the crowd grasped in suburbs of the earth at farmers and teachers.
Holding a meeting did not leave capital of not less month. In this time the revolutionary slogan - who not with us, that against us - began to operate as an infection. The neighbour started to look slantwise at the neighbour, critics of the new power automatically registered in akaevskih and bakievskih henchmen, nedobitkov a mode. Acting on one of the May meetings, the first zamglavy Almaz Atambaev Provisional government spoke, meaning not consent: if that, we will go to bomb on houses. A pier, they live richly, therefore and not with us.
Osh investigation on which is not finished yet, became if not a result, the orgy culmination. In the first days of the slaughter proceeding from June, 10 till June, 15th, members of Provisional government in general have ceased to happen in public. When it became clear that slaughter passes in war with application of heavy machinery and automatic machines, and neither Moscow, nor the world community do not interfere, it was necessary to address to those disgraced generals - was simply there is nobody more. General Suvanaliev (in the people nicknamed " became the commandant of the Osh area; commissioner Kattani “). Dzhalal Abad have stopped to rescue general Bajbolova. To the same area has gone, having collected volunteers, general Niyazov participating in suppression of disorders 20 - summer prescription - then in the Osh area the first war between Kirghiz and Uzbeks has flashed. The government has got out of a paralysis only after the situation in the south was a little stabilised: first of all it “ has left “ generals.
tired with revolution
the Fourth month the distemper wanders on To all republic, decomposing a social fabric patriarchal - both on Soviet, and by Muslim criteria - societies. In the end of April the Supreme mufti Murataly Zhumanov has been stolen - criminals have demanded the repayment in one million dollars. Instead of having received, have beaten and have thrown in the country: one month ago a mufti has died - of a cancer, under the official version... In Issyk - Kulsky area one of inhabitants has reminded the fellow villager of a small debt, having opened fire from a gun on its house... Another which hitherto were resignedly rendering tribute OPG, has shot down from a pistol of the gangster who has arrived behind requisitions... Well, and the absolute hit is an old woman whom, having learnt that for the handed over trunks give on 100 dollars, has brought in ROVD 32 makarova with full holders. Its explanation - has found supposedly in a well - has caused affection in employees.
the pre-election folklore incorporates, however, and other legends. For example, how to collect the country together. One of the brightest - spot-check of general Niyazov at the height of slaughter in the south of Kirghizia in native Nookensky area Dzhalal - Abadsky area where his father in 1960 - e worked as the principal - a boarding school, and mother - the mathematics teacher. The general who has received the mandate from the Ministry of Internal Affairs when people were afraid to put out a nose on street, has gone to rescue fellow countrymen. The base idea - to collect international group from the people who have smelt gunpowder, - it has appeared the powerful weapon against thugs.
- have come the person 80, - the general " tells; to the Spark “. - It are volunteers: Russian, Ukrainians, Kazakhs, Kirghiz, Koreans, Uigurs, the Azerbaijanian, the Tatar... With experience of operations, but in different age and in different ranks - from private soldiers to generals. The weapon to us have not given out, officers have prevailed, nagradnoe, someone - hunting. Have arrived in Kochkor - Atu in seven mornings. Dzhalal Abad burnt, on all area gangsters shnyrjali, and militiamen were hid - for a long time already in the citizen went.
the General has begun that has demanded to put on the uniform. Has called acquaintances, has asked to deduce people on the area. Has spent in the middle of district joint divorce: one hundred militiamen plus the volunteers. Has told speech about that took native area under the responsibility. Has placed posts on perimetre, having beaten out by then some automatic machines. Has entered night patrols. Has given the order: not to start up in area anybody from men is more senior 14 years, at occurrence of suspicious cars to shoot on cylinders. Basically, all: in two days have earned the markets and the gas station, through three - people left on fields. And still the general has returned in area of 100 percent of the Uzbek refugees which some days tried to pass the Uzbek border - too under the personal guarantees of safety. After that inhabitants of the next areas began to call Niyazov to put things in order and at them too.
- you want to tell, what such is possible and in country scales? - We have asked.
- Yes, easy, - the general answered.
that time did not leave. As soon as there has passed a rumour that Niyazov is invited to the aid in neighbouring areas, the Provisional government has persistently ordered to leave. The general has obeyed. Also has decided to go on elections. That people will vote for safety, he does not doubt.
the Kirghiz permanent wave
the General is it seems right, but after all and competitors do not doze. For example, the head of operating Presidential Administration Emilbek Kaptagaev, the clever and formed person, has informed recently the fast recipe of a conclusion of Kirghizia from an economic crisis - say if officials cease to steal, the country will begin to live happily and richly. Even it is not required to build the second Switzerland.
At known analytical effort in this estimation it is possible to see a signal: Larceny as a resource too has the limits - the prospering enterprises in the country can be counted on fingers, the economy in a collapse to be engaged in agriculture there is nobody - the youth has mostly settled in Russia and Kazakhstan. Even as - that logically turns out that Kirghizia is capable to support only one family - correcting.
but the rested people of hopes to receive the share all does not lose. Therefore again listens to speeches of the politicians who have left the power that it is better to return to it. Kirghizia does not hurry up to get out of the 1990 - h: circulation of political leaders which the people of times in 5 years that brings takes out from the power, is local nou - hau, possible, probably, only in the country where besides 140 parties is also 40 sorts.
in August pre-election race in parliament officially starts. Parties wait otmashki, but to define favourites, proceeding from programs and ideas, - employment initially empty: the situation changes almost daily. Experts consider: Quite good chances at 6 - 7 parties, with the untwisted brand, recognised persons and, the main thing, with solid financial feed. The obvious majority, according to analysts, does not shine to anybody. That it will be for the power, is more exact - with what power this form of anarchy is fraught, to predict while it is impossible.
Clearly another: inhabitants of Kirghizia already have given Provisional government up as a bad job, and it is a new record: revolution has depreciated all for 4 months. Hopes assign to arrival of the new power after elections, and it is news - all - taki the chance is and at parliamentary process. But the tradition is strong also: to wait for patiently best, or at least tolerable, future the next 5 years hardly someone will want. As the practice shows, each new power in republic is taken away on realisation of generous promises ever less time. Because miracle expectation all is fast replaced by fury emission.