Whence ratingsthe Every possible ratings of the countries made by the various organisations, are published very often. And having learnt, for example, that in a corruption rating Russia occupies 83 place very few people reflects, as it, actually, there it has appeared. We have decided to understand how similar ratings are made and that they mean.
people face a problem of drawing up of ratings much more often, than think. For example, answering a question who from our friends is pleasant to us more, we compare them on set of indicators, considering mind, appearance, character and etc. Different people add in this list different criteria, for example, love to dogs or similarity of political convictions.
allocation of parametres for comparison is a first stage of drawing up of a rating. Then it is necessary each of them to measure. If it is possible to measure growth in metres, and intelligence - in points IQ the beauty and kindness should be estimated subjectively. If you do not trust the impression, it is possible to invite experts, and then to average the estimations given by them. In life we so often also do, when we size up character of the person not only on own impression, but also on the basis of judgements of other people.
the third stage is a comparison of different indicators. How to compare mind to beauty and to consider thus love to dogs? Each of indicators has for us different value. For one mind, for others - beauty, for the third - goodwill is more important. Composers of ratings solve this problem, attributing estimations on different scales different weight. For example, a mind estimation multiply by factor 0,8, and a point received for beauty, on 0,3 (it is possible and on the contrary depending on that you appreciate more). If to combine estimations on all parametres, increased by the chosen factors, the integrated indicator will turn out. Its value also will define a place of the person in a rating of appeal of your friends.
that it is possible to count
Similarly business is and with an index of human development which is counted up by the Program on United Nations development (UNDP) and it urged to define the countries in which the best conditions for life are created. The first places in this rating occupy the countries which are not suffering not so from flow of interested persons there to lodge (except for the USA). Both Canada, and Australia, and even carry out the United States active to the policy of attraction of immigrants. And Germany and France which has not entered into ten, on the contrary, actively beat off from the arriving.
as this rating is counted up?
the index of human development (HDI) develops of three parametres: Life expectancies, an educational level (percent of the people having initial, average and higher education) and srednedushevogo of the income. This rating has been thought up 10 years ago to estimate social policy of the different countries. Before was considered that the standard of living in the country can be described in only one parametre: gross national product per capita. However the countries with identical srednedushevym the income can this income on - to a miscellaneous to use. One put means in medicine and formation and by that raise quality of life of the citizens, and others wage wars or simply plunder money. For example, Vietnam and Guinea have about identical level of the income per capita, but thus life expectancy and literacy at Vietnameses considerably above, therefore above and the general rating. And on the contrary, El Salvador and Southern Africa occupy the next lines in a rating, but thus the income per capita in El Salvador twice more low.
the United Nations have developed also two indexes of poverty - HPI - 1 for developing countries and HPI - 2 for economically developed countries. HPI - 1 pays off on three key parametres: life expectancies (percent of the people who are not living till 40 years), to an educational level (percent illiterate among adult population) and to a standard of living. Last is defined by three indicators: percent of the people who do not have access to pure water, percent of the people deprived of health services, and percent of the children under five years having abnormally small weight.
at calculation HPI - 2 the same parametres are used, but they have other maintenance. Average life expectancy is defined proceeding from percent of the people who are not living to 60, educational level - on number functionally illiterate, and an indicator of a standard of living is the percent of the people who are living below the poverty line which is defined as half srednedushevogo the income. Level of social isolation (percent of the people who do not have works more of 12 months) is in addition defined. According to this index leaves that the USA having highest in the world srednedushevoj the income, have also the highest level of poverty.
if to summarise the points received by the countries on all ratings, in it “ a rating of ratings “ the first place (with the least sum of 11 points) occupies Sweden, on the second place appears Norway (12), and on the third (19) - the Netherlands. It is possible to consider these countries pleasant in every respect: there it is good both to men, and women, both poor, and rich. Badly there only to officials, because in these countries low level of corruption.
that it is possible to estimate
United Nations Ratings have basically public value. On a plan of their authors, country leaders, looking at a place of the country in a rating, should reflect: Whether and they have made all for prosperity of the citizens? But basically to pay attention to this rating it is obliged nobody. Another matter - economic ratings. Investors and creditors are guided by them, economic development of this or that territory in many respects depends on them.
for example, for Russia the great value has the credit rating made by authoritative international rating agencies. This rating shows, whether it is necessary to give to the country (to a city, area, the enterprise) credits. If it is a question of the country as a whole at drawing up of its credit rating following parametres are considered: size and dynamics of gross national product, size of an external debt (in absolute figures or in percentage of gross national product), a condition of the finance (size of budgetary deficiency or proficiency), stability economy (rate of inflation). According to a deputy head of economic expert group Evseja of Gurvich, all these parametres are estimated not quantitatively, and is qualitative. As the part of parametres cannot be formalized (for example, a policy of the state) to work out the equations and to calculate a country rating under formulas senselessly. The decision on assignment to the country of a certain credit rating usually is accepted by advisory council.
also on the basis of expert estimations ratings of investment appeal of region are under construction. In them such parametres, as features of the legislation of region (for example, private property presence on the earth), features of the taxation (whether there are tax privileges), presence natural and power resources, presence of the qualified labour, level of a salary and level of internal demand are considered. The most part of these parametres cannot be expressed quantitatively (for example, the relation of local authorities to foreign investors), therefore the decision on rating assignment also is accepted by experts.
If it is some experts, there is a problem of the coordination of expert estimations. For example, at drawing up of a rating of the countries on level of corruption Transparency International uses the data of ten authoritative organisations, among which Gallup`s institute, the World bank, the World economic forum, Wall Street Journal and others. Each of these organisations interrogates businessmen, managers of transnational corporations, journalists and the diplomats familiar with this or that country, about prevalence in this country of corruption. Thus each organisation measures corruption level on - to the. One understand under “ corruption level “ frequency of bribes, others - their sum, the third - profit which the businessman by means of a bribe can receive, the fourth - losses which are born as a result of bribes by the state. For example, Gallup`s institute asks, as often take a bribe representatives of those or other state structures of the country (a policy, police, officials, judges), and the World bank asks respondents to estimate on a six-point scale how much corruption complicates business in the given country.
how to be, if opinions of experts concerning those or other countries considerably disperse? It is possible to consider all experts equally authoritative and then simply to average their estimations, and it is possible, as in a case with separate indicators, to attribute to their opinions various weight. Any of these decisions is accepted besides by experts and often do it any way.
that should not be trusted
Ratings in general give very big open space for subjectivity as arise only when it is required to measure something not quite clear. There can not be a rating of the countries on level of suicides - there is simply statistics of suicides, more or less exact. Ratings appear there where there are no exact estimations. “ human development “ “ corruption “ “ freedom “ “ investment appeal “ - all is foggy enough concepts for which there are no standard indicators. Parametres which should “ to reflect “ these concepts, at first are thought out by experts. Then it is thought out, as it is possible to measure them. Already at this stage there is an array of problems. Even such, apparently, an objective indicator as per capita, it is almost impossible to estimate gross national product precisely in the country where the shadow economy is widely developed.
other example - “ life cost “ in this or that city. In magazine Business Traveller rating Moscow takes the fifth place among the most expensive cities of the world, and in rating Runzheimer International - the third, conceding only to London and New York. Rating Business Traveller made, considering cost of two-day residing in the best hotel, two dinners and two suppers at the good restaurant, two international newspapers, one local newspaper and one weekly journal, and also eight trips to a taxi and journey completely the airport. Company Runzheimer International counted residing cost in a single room of three-star hotel, three meals a day on the average restaurant, and also all tip put in such cases and taxes. So when we hear that Moscow - one of the most expensive cities of the world, it is necessary to mean that this dearness concerns everybody, except Muscovites.
acquaintance to ratings - employment instructive. It is found out, for example, that on a standard of living Russia was overtaken by Belarus and Turkey, and on corruption - Ukraine and Uzbekistan. However too to trust ratings it is not necessary, especially at acceptance of important decisions. If at rating drawing up the official statistics it can be forged is used. And if ratings use expert estimations opinions of experts can appear prejudiced.