Geese in RussiaE-mail - a convenient piece. But only until the message sent to you does not turn on the way to any unprintable abracadabra. To relieve people of such troubles, it is necessary to force to rectify software developers the errors.
last week edition has received the message beginning with words “ zhuj ABOUT thuj “. The unpleasant beginning. But after the message text has been passed through the special program - the decoder, it has appeared that someone offers us a material about Vladimir Gusinsky`s troubles. Such can happen with any message typed by Cyrillics. And with transfer of the messages written by a Latin, problems do not arise. Why? Owing to a number of technical features on which there is no sense to stop, a character set, used by the first computers, has been limited by 128 positions. It just is so much, how many it is necessary for placing of lower case and header Latin letters, and also figures, signs on the punctuation, some mathematical and office symbols. To each letter, figure and a sign the place (position) has been taken away, and all computer companies accurately adhere once to the established rules. For the Russian alphabet in 128 - to a symbolical apportion of a place does not remain. Therefore the most simple way out - to type the letter not Cyrillics, and a Latin. Here a fragment from the offer written by such method recently received by edition: “ Prodautsa: Spisok iz 150 000 russian E - Mail adresov. Stoimost ` vsego 990 rubley. Esli eta informasia okazalas` dla Vas bespolezna, prinosim svoi izvineniz za bespokoistvo. Uspexov Vam! “
And it is not so ridiculous. Recently the authorities of Tatarstan have made the decision on transfer of national writing from Cyrillics on a Latin. It is impossible to assert, of course, that the republic has taken this step from - for e-mail. But necessity of unification of electronic document circulation for certain became one of arguments. After all the problem is not limited to electronic correspondence. There are discrepancies with automatic arrangement of carryings over and spelling. Automatic replacement of capital symbols on lower case and on the contrary is often impossible. Work with electronic archives More and more becomes complicated. To notice enough that without smart manipulations you will not read the text created in text editor Word 6. 0 if on your computer editor Word created by the same company 2000 is established.
Now the administrative office of Council of federation modernises park of computers and passes on Windows NT with software package Office 2000. Three quarters of documents of management have been created with use of one of early versions of text editor Word 6. 0. Now the employees who have received new computers, can work with old texts only after long lecture of the programmer. But the present nightmare still ahead - federation Council should communicate with the State Duma where modernisation of computer park yet has not begun.
There are some ways of a solution of a problem of electronic document circulation. One of them assumes that on all computers used in Russia system Windows 2000 with package Office 2000 including, in particular, the text editor (Word), the editor of spreadsheets (Excel) and e-mail system (Outlook) will be established. Such decision demands also replacement of the majority of computers as the old cannot simply work with the newest version Windows. But even if to be limited to exclusively replacement of the software, expenses all the same will pour out in the decent sum. Retail price of package Windows + Office 2000 makes $550 - 600, piracy copies - $2 - 3. If to take into consideration that today in Russia it is used about 7,5 million computers (data Reuters), and to admit possibility of acquisition of package Windows + Office at the piracy prices $15 as a result will turn out - 20 million
Besides, this utopian way allows to adjust electronic document circulation only in Russian and Tatar languages (the newest version of software products of company Microsoft supports only them). And is still Bashkir, Kalmyk, Yakut and other languages of the people of Russia. Their alphabet is based on Cyrillics, but there are the letters different from standard additional by strokes and portable elements. Often electronic letters written with use of such letters, turn to a rebus at transfer even in one establishment. To conduct the documentation on Kalmyk or Bashkir, it is necessary dokupat programs. For example, ParaWin, helping standard programs (to the same Windows + Office) to work with languages of the people of Russia. Depending on quantity of got complete sets ParaWin costs from $10 to $100.
For a complex solution of a problem within the limits of one establishment it is more expedient to resort to services of programmers. Cost of similar services depends on number of computers in the organisation, but usually also fluctuates within $10 - 100 for one computer. Thus, the sum which should be laid out, for example, to the Ministry of Finance of Bashkiria where it is established 150 - 200 computers, will make not less than $1,5 - 2 thousand Thus in the next ministry can work other programmers who are making a start from essentially other program decisions. New expenses - already for maintenance of compatibility of computers of two ministries as a result be required. On this way now also there are organisations of the majority of autonomous republics of Russia. But there is one more exit.
use in electronic document circulation standard and “ non-standard “ Cyrillics letters essentially differs nothing from use “ non-standard “ Latin letters. French, German, Spanish and other West European languages contain a number of the specific letters different from standard additional by hyphens, points and other elements. Meanwhile in the Western Europe a problem with “ non-standard “ by letters for a long time already it is solved.
computer perfection has allowed to expand number of positions to 256. We will remind that 128 from them have been already occupied. Remained have started to distribute between “ non-standard “ Latin letters, and also the office symbols which have not got in initial 128 - a symbolical apportion. Thus one company put any “ Non-standard “ a letter on 254 - ju a position, and another - on 255 - ju. There and then there were also problems of carrying over of texts from one computer on another.
with insignificant variations the decision looked as follows. At the establishments which are engaged in standardization (analogues of Russian Gosstandart), the commissions where representatives of the largest software developers and the computer technics entered were created. On the basis of commission recommendations the total document which went in International Organization for Standartization (ISO), the international organisation uniting national bodies of standardization of 130 countries of the world was developed. ISO spent some examinations and confirmed the total standard which became the guide to action for software developers.
for today document circulation with use “ non-standard “ letters of a Latin does not represent difficulties for 90 % of computers existing in the world. Differently, it is the way of a solution of a problem tested and proved the efficiency. Appear the similar standard in Russia, already anybody and never will receive the letter beginning with words “ zhuj ABOUT thuj “ or coming to an end with words “ Uspexov Vam! “.
YURY KALASHNOV, Alexey SHEVTSOV