Parlourmaids to present to awardsthe Potsdam conference 55 years ago has opened, for the sake of participation in which Stalin has undertaken the second and last visit abroad. To an observer “ the Authorities “ to Evgenie Zhirnovu some details of how prepared became known and there passed this trip.
Hardly somebody will argue that the Potsdam conference which was passing from July, 17th till August, 2nd, 1945, became Stalin`s the greatest foreign policy success. With the consent of allies of the USSR has received in eternal using East Prussia. Stalin has achieved also expansion of territory of Poland at the expense of the German earths, thus having compensated Molotova selected according to the pact - Ribbentropa in 1939 the Western Ukraine and Belarus. In exchange for the consent of the USSR to participate in war against Japan allies had to shut eyes to that the red flag has risen over Southern Sakhalin and Southern Kuriles. In addition to it almost all requirements of the USSR, concerning indemnifications of the damage put by Germans have been satisfied.
preparation for this approach on diplomatic front has begun, when ruins of Berlin still smoked. For Stalin was very important to spend conference in just taken by Red Army “ a den of the enemy “. It provided to it the considerable moral superiority over partners in negotiations.
was, however, two circumstances, disturbing to realisation of this plan of lightning diplomatic war. In - the first, in the destroyed Berlin to spend conference simply there was no place. And in - the second, as early as 1942 the decision of the Political bureau forbidding to its members to fly by planes was accepted. Meanwhile a railroad line on which Stalin could arrive to capital poverzhennogo the enemy, did not exist any more.
in other country and during other time for the decision of these problems some months would be required. But Stalin was not going to wait so much. The conference organisation has been charged Lavrentiju Berii.
Hotel of People`s Commissariat of Internal Affairs
on May, 28th, 1945 in Stalin`s office where there was Berija, have been caused the assistant to the people`s commissar of internal affairs the commissioner of a state security 2 - go a rank Sergey Kruglov and the deputy chief 6 - go managements NKGB (the governmental protection) and the chief of bodyguard of Stalin the commissioner of a state security 3 - go a rank Nikolay Vlasik. Instructing, judging by log entries of visitors of Stalin, lasted exactly five minutes. In the afternoon next day both main things responsible for operation carrying out “ the Palm tree “ As preparation for conference has been named, were in Berlin. This very day they have informed to Moscow that railway communication with Berlin will be restored not later than June, 4th. To find suitable premises for conference it has appeared much more difficult.
the palace German kronprintsa in Potsdam has appeared the unique remained building corresponding to solemnity of a case. However to place in suffered from bombardments of allied aircraft Potsdam all numerous delegations it was impossible. For them the area which has done not suffered from war of luxurious country houses - Babelsberg has been selected.
on June, 6th, 1945 Berija has signed the order “ About maintenance of special actions for objects ` the Palm tree ` “. On clearing of roads and restoration of bridges around conference carrying out road parts of Red Army and the local population mobilised for this purpose have been thrown. And by July, 2nd, 1945 forces of engineers from People`s Commissariat of Internal Affairs had been repaired and started up power stations in Babelsberge and Potsdam, garages and two airdromes - Treasures and Dalgov are restored.
the daily bread has Not been forgotten also: have been nearby created, as informed Kruglov and Vlasik from Berlin, “ necessary stocks of living creatures, game, gastronomic, grocery, fruit, confectionery and drinks “. Besides, three farms - cattle-breeding, poultry-farming and vegetable have been opened, and deliveries of fresh fish have begun.
for operation carrying out “ the Palm tree “ to Potsdam and Babelsbergu by June, 15th, 1945 it has been thrown seven regiments of People`s Commissariat of Internal Affairs and one and a half thousand the most skilled field investigators. Area where there passed conference, protected more than two thousand soldiers and officers of armies of People`s Commissariat of Internal Affairs. And in the palace kronprintsa except 1000 soldiers were and 150 field investigators from People`s Commissariat of Internal Affairs and NKGB. Over all these actions the assistant to the people`s commissar of internal affairs Ivan Serov supervised. It is interesting that, though all fighters of armies of the People`s Commissariat of Internal Affairs, participating in operation “ the Palm tree “ have been once again checked up by counterspionage, already before their conferences just in case perevooruzhili and have replaced 85 % of automatic machines with rifles.
in addition to the Soviet protection Americans and Englishmen in the end of June have directed the army divisions in Babelsberg. Englishmen, for example, insisted on that their delegation protected and served not less 4 thousand soldiers.
all premises in which delegations of allies should take place, have been repaired and provided by furniture and all necessary. Including, as son Berii Sergo, even told the latent microphones. And that any word has not passed by the Soviet ears, all attendants - waiters, stokers, door-keepers, parlourmaids and etc. - have been brought from Moscow. By order of Lavrentija Berii all of them specially selected among employees “ Intourist “ The chief 2 - go central administrative board NKGB of the USSR (counterspionage) Peter Fedotov.
Already on July, 2nd in Potsdam all was ready for conference carrying out. However Stalin and US president Trumen have unexpectedly started to delay its beginning.
an armored train “ Moscow - Potsdam “
All spoke simply. The British prime minister Churchill on a nose had parliamentary elections. Therefore it needed large foreign policy success and, undoubtedly, would try to transform Potsdam into a platform for pre-election campaign that did its by the extremely inconvenient for Stalin and Trumena the partner. Besides Churchill`s chances of re-election were completely not absolute. With Klementom Ettli who could replace, agree it it would be much easier. After much debate with British the Soviet and American diplomats managed to find the compromise: Conference began to the British elections - on July, 17th, and came to an end after them. Now Berii needed to carry out the most important part of operation “ the Palm tree “: to deliver to Potsdam Stalin.
that is written in the documents concerning operation “ the Palm tree “ at times it is difficult to believe. As it is known, the track on the European railways already, than was in the USSR. It was possible, as it became before war, in Brest to rearrange cars on eurowheels. But to incur responsibility for possible consequences (God forbid, it will not be pleasant to the leader!) Nobody has dared. Therefore all track from border of the USSR to Potsdam - 828 kilometres - was “ it is altered “ till the Soviet width.
amaze imagination and actions for protection spetspoezda Stalin. Instead of one structure it has been generated at once three. The basic train in which Stalin went, protected 90 officers. And assistants to the commandant of a train the major of a state security Komov and the senior lieutenant Petuhov have been obliged to be permanently on a steam locomotive, carrying out control over work of locomotive brigades (machinists in which too were officers of a state security). Stalin`s train prepared, as the submarine to long swimming: have provided with its huge stock of fuel and water. All has been provided: the products which have been checked up in special laboratory, shifrovalshchiki, a radio communication, up to “ a whipping boy “ - in Stalin`s train the people`s commissar of means of communication the general - lieutenant Kovalev went.
Ahead of a Stalin train there was a control structure with 40 field investigators of management of protection, and behind a train with 70 more fighters of armies of People`s Commissariat of Internal Affairs. On each station additional police squads have been along the line thrown (at the disposal of Berii it was underlined: to take only strong men) and high ranks GB are appointed responsible.
For protection of ways 17 140 fighters of People`s Commissariat of Internal Affairs so on kilometre of road from Moscow to Brest it was necessary 4 - 6 soldiers have been allocated. And in territory of Poland and Germany - on one on everyone 100 - 125 metres. On everyone 3 - 5 kilometres of a way, besides, were necessary on the field investigator who was responsible agenturno - operative actions in a five-kilometre zone of road. In addition to it on most “ littered with a hostile element “ sites armored trains plied.
management of the commissioner of a state security 3 - go Pavel Sudoplatova`s rank, more known as “ death department “ was responsible “ Clearing of a hostile element “ a forty-kilometre zone along the railway and area of carrying out of conference. According to one of the former workers of a state security, Sudoplatov and its people with this problem have successfully consulted.
the trial trip spetspoezda to Potsdam became last stage of preparation, dress rehearsal as machinists Victor Lion and Nikolay Kudrjavkin remembered. There all was already ready to a meeting.
“ for successful performance of the special task “
Without problems, naturally, has not managed. For six days prior to the beginning of conference it has suddenly appeared that the governmental communication Berlin - Moscow works with faults. And all management of department and armies of the governmental communication has been thrown on break liquidation. The damaged lines in an emergency order have been replaced, and reports on preparation of reserve lines have been directed the country leaders.
After Stalin`s arrival to Potsdam it has appeared that provided all to trifles employees of People`s Commissariat of Internal Affairs - they have brought from Moscow even fire-engines with carefully selected crews - have not taken care of that in a palace kronprintsa Stalin had a separate toilet. And the leader has been compelled to go on need together with partners in negotiations which have concerned it with a known share of humour. As Stalin Valentine Berezhkov`s translator remembered, at the next campaign in a toilet where it accompanied Stalin, they have found at pissuara become by the British prime minister Ettli. And that has told that in the capitalist world a toilet - a unique place where workers hold means of production in the hands. Stalin has laughed the matter off: “ And at us too “.
has not done without adventures and a way back. In front of hastily restored bridge through Oder the assistant to the machinist has dropped out of a train and it was necessary to brake urgently. And at returning to Moscow on a signal of the switchman machinists have stopped a train so that Stalin has been compelled to knead a dirt, going to the car.
but all it was real trifles in comparison with the received result. On September, 15th, 1945 Berija has presented the caused most a stir participants of operation “ the Palm tree “ to awards “ for successful performance of the special task of the government “. In total has been awarded 2851 persons. A part of participants “ Palm trees “ has received Suvorov and Kutuzov`s fighting awards that, probably, was a sign on that for Stalin the success at the Potsdam conference was equivalent to a brilliant military victory. Lenin`s awards were received Kruglov, by Vlasik and the Soviet commandants of residences of heads of allied delegations. Allies too were not in debt. Zamnarkoma People`s Commissariat of Internal Affairs Kruglov who, by the way, provided also safety of Yalta conference, became the knight of an award of British Empire and the gentleman of the American award “ Advantage legion “.