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General But and its army

At stations and at the airports it is quite often possible to meet people in dark - the dark blue form with a red emblem and epaulets on which letter S is written. Often them accept for employees of hotel Sheraton and ask to inform luggage. They inform. But then explain to the confused travellers that actually no any relation to hotel have. The dark blue form with letter S on epaulets is carried by fighters of Salvation army.


Blood and fire
- Fight which we conduct, is a fight against a sin and human sufferings, against forces of poverty and darkness, against all harm which exists. It is most cruel of fights, and it is necessary to its message resolutely, bravely and energetically.
so all who serves in Salvation army - the special Protestant organisation uniting militant Christians think. On its banner it is written Blood and fire . To become the soldier, it is enough to finish 12 - a week course of the young fighter and to take the oath. It is necessary to study as the officer two years in one of army colleges. After assignment of a rank officers serve in the case. They spend exercises in a lap take captured, give volleys, arrange sieges and read the newspaper the War-call .
Behind a military slang and the form quite respectable religious organisation disappears. In transfer into usual language officers are pastors, colleges - seminaries, exercises in a lap and sieges - prayers and vigils, captured - new turned, and cases - arrivals. Life of such military men comes to an end not with death, and last increase in a rank - eternal glory. The only thing that remains without transfer, - rigid discipline and unconditional submission to orders.

Business is business
By a recognition of the founder of movement of William Buta, the charter of the British army has appeared much more usefully at creation of capable groups of militant Christians, than all Christian faiths together taken. To enter Salvation army - an act demanding from believing big courage. After all its each soldier dooms itself to the life combining severity of sect and barracks. As well as in many other closed communities, the trade is descended.
there are dynasties which five serve in Army already - six generations. As the charter allows officers to marry and marry only comrades in arms, children in these families do not see anything, except Army, and hardly imagine other life. In seven years the child can already become the younger soldier . For this purpose it should swear to conduct pure life - not to drink alcohol, not to smoke and not to play gamblings. In 14 years Younger soldiers become seniors . Soldiers are considered as laymen and work in army as volunteers, free of charge.
for receipt in college where learn on the officer, it is necessary to refuse wordly earnings, to distribute all debts and to pay for a course. A course to master very difficultly - cadets compare daily employment lasting many hours to necessity to drink the water whipping from a fire hose . The soldiers who have made serious faults, the tribunal judges. An official greeting in Army - the lifted forefinger. It should remind escaping about the sky.
to officers after the college termination appropriate a rank of the lieutenant. Young officers receive from Army the weekly maintenance - approximately $200. If the officer is married, the salary is received only by it, and the wife is considered the volunteer though it always has the same rank, as the husband, and divides with it all its duties. On each child $25 - 35 are added.
Officers spend Sunday divine services, have the right to serve on weddings and funeral, and also will organise different charitable services for the parishioners and all living in misery. The working day lasts usually 12 hours, and per Christmas and it is more than that. If the officer also shows special talents in painting or any other craft all incomes of creativity go for needs of Army.
unique privileges of soldiers - habitation which it is removed by Army, and the state car. But each three years without fail it is necessary to change a service place so the house at officers is not present at all. It is interesting that to make large purchase, military men save money for the special reserve account as debts and credits the Army does not recognise - all expenditure and payments are carried out only by cash.
advancement on an office ladder in Salvation army occurs extremely slowly. Lieutenants in five years of faultless service and constant self-education become captains. Still approximately 15 years are required to serve to the major.
a supreme commander in chief of Salvation army - the general. Already mentioned British preacher William But was the first general who has declared sacred war to a sin and harm.

From the usurer to the general
William But and Ketrin Mamford have got acquainted in the spring of 1852 on a visit at one millionaire, the passionate adherent metodizma. William Buta, the assistant to the usurer in the afternoon and metodistskogo the preacher in the evenings, have asked to sing. It with feeling has executed a long ballad beseeming a case about sobriety under the name Dream of the seller of a grog .
However, after that But was embarrassed a little. Young Ketrin - only to keep up the conversation - has asked, whether But abstains from alcohol intake. And - about horror! - It was found out that the promising preacher affords a port glass, when he feels unwell. Ketrin has been amazed. But in three years all - taki has married William.
the high, thin figure, a fluttering beard and a thunderous voice did William Buta similar to the bible prophet. It possessed ability to operate on crowd hypnotically: listeners sobbed, writhed in hysterics, sang, fell into a trance, repented of all sins and in tens addressed in Christianity. It is known that at one time But intended to politicise. For certain its ability manipulate crowd could to change political history of England strongly. But it became the preacher. However, career in metodistskoj churches has ended disgracefully - Buta have separated for obstinacy and reasonings on its special mission and voices which he ostensibly heard.
exile from metodistskoj to church could put an end to ambitions of Buta, if not Ketrin. It was rejected too by methodologists, and they together began to search for the higher mission. Buty steels of one of the most picturesque married couples of the Victorian England. From - for illnesses of a backbone and strict education Ketrin has spent all adolescence of the house on a sofa, reading the Bible. In a family Butov it became intelligence and inspiration, and William - a magnetic natural power which she has managed to tame. But still the teenager (after death of the father) has thrown school to work in a bench. But even when possibility to learn was presented to it, it has not used it. Its printing works had no success until it has not employed to itself(himself) several literary slaves . To horror of its educated wife, one of the most known preachers of a XIX-th century extremely seldom complicated itself Scriptus reading.
at all thus William, apparently, did not show interest to what except religious questions. He hated not only game on money, but even cricket and football. The vegetarianism and asceticism compelled it to refuse any dessert, except the most simple rice pudding. It could seize unexpectedly a teapot and start to splash on all surrounding with water with words: I will sprinkle you with water, and you will be cleared of sins . Cleanliness in general was its point: it took to itself(himself) for a rule every morning to take a cold bath, and on Sundays - hot that was the present feat of cleanliness to measures of the Victorian epoch.
the family of founders of Salvation army was not similar to a usual English family. Though Ketrin has fulfilled the duty and has given birth to eight of children, in a family of ardent evangelists to them was hardly. School education seemed to parents excessive, but children from early age encouraged to preach among contemporaries and even animals. But demanded from children of implicit submission; It in general was at heart the family tyrant, besides absolutely deprived of sense of humour - as well as many other human feelings. Speak, once he has ordered to shoot down the puppy who has bitten the servant. To surprise of the well-known evangelist, its children have terribly grieved and mourned over a favourite dog. That them to console, But has skinned the doggie and has ordered from it a rug. Instead of gratitude children have answered with a new hysterics which has fairly puzzled the father.
in 1865 Buty have lodged in London Ist - Ende and have opened there Christian mission. Mission worked with the poorest and hungry. Them fed, gave a roof, and then tried to turn on a way true. I rescue a body first of all and mainly for the sake of soul rescue, - told But. - That to sense to preach the Gospel to people at whom all attention is concentrated to mad, desperate struggle for a survival? Propovednichesky talents of a couple Butov together with their tactics At first feed, and then speak about belief have yielded good fruits: drunkards, thieves, prostitutes, tramps and an other scum of society which other missionaries have given for a long time up as a bad job, not only have been turned by Butom into Christianity, but also remained to work in mission.
early in the morning 1878 William But has called the son Bremvella and the friend George Rejltona to read it a proof-reading of the annual report of mission. In the report prologue it was told: Christian mission is an army of volunteers . Bremvell strongly objected against this formulation: it any not the volunteer, and the person whom the Lord obliges to do that it does. But has listened to words of the son. In an impulse of inspiration it has crossed out a word volunteer and has written from above salvation. The Salvation army has turned out.

army, church, sect
the Doctrine of Salvation army a little than differs from obshchehristianskoj. Ideas of Army are simple, as a glass of hot coffee, and have an obvious socialist bias. However the Army does not recognise sacrament of a christening and a participle as they are unessential to rescue. Other idea consists that just life and humility to the Divine will can consecrate the person and release it from the sin power. From soldiers it is required to refuse such idols as tobacco, alcohol and gamblings, and completely to subordinate the life to the Army purposes also.
still the Army has become famous for that in it always there was a place to women. An example Ketrin But and its oratorical abilities have involved many - both from a working environment, and from middle class. The army gave to them not only possibility of the vigorous activity, travel and dialogue, but also chance to marry, the blessing to officers - to men should be chosen from colleagues - women. Young girls became the best propagandists and propagandists; Going out of doors to play wind bands, to sing hymns and to preach rescue, they had the big success. (However, on one of versions, prichashchat parishioners have ceased too from - for women: some men refused flatly to accept a participle from their hands.)
At new church were, certainly, and enemies. Owners of pubs, gambling houses and souteneurs whom ideas of Salvation army bore straight losses were at war with Army. In the first years after Salvation army occurrence even a certain Army of skeletons - the bribed hooligans in whom paid for attacks on " operated; rescuers . Fights often came to an end with mutilations. Even general But, on memoirs Ketrin, sometimes came home in grazes and bruises.
ideological opponents considered new church too noisy and vulgar. They were offended by loud public processions, public stories about the wonderful reference, shouts, banners, music in streets. For the decent girl the introduction into Army was equivalent to reputation loss.
the first devastating publications about new church have appeared after journalists have visited several meetings and joint prayers under the general name the Council of war passed in Gateshead and vicinities in May, 1879. Journalists compared these actions to something an average between bedlam, a session of mass hypnosis and circus representation as such characters participated in them, as the One-eyed Captain, Alleluia - the giant, the New turned Chimney sweep and Alleluia - a violin (son Buta Ballington). The correspondent who was present on final vigil, described it as something more similar to a hell which these people in every way aspire to avoid, than on paradise where they desperately want to get .
But terrible responses did not confuse Buta. He considered that bad advertising - too advertising. The more articles about Army it will be written, the more people learn about it and will want to come. It has appeared the rights: after the Council of war the number addressed and wishing to join Army began to grow promptly.
however the most serious claims to Army were at those who saw in it, speaking to the modern language, totalitarian sect. Since December, 1890 in newspaper The Times vast letters of the known scientist - Darvinist Thomas Henry Haksli were printed. Haksli warned about dangers which are concealed in itself by the militarised religious organisation: it is difficult to imagine bolshee public harm, than uneducated and impetuous religionism; nothing conducts to so full degradation of mind and soul, as blind and unconditional obedience of an absolute power . Besides abusing moral authority, But, according to Haksli, it was guilty and in financial abusings. In particular, he actually disposed of all means of Army, was accountable to nobody and at the same time demanded from the officers to live almost in poverty from which they urged to rescue others.
Buta accused and of other sins - propensities to a cult of personality and ingratiation before the mighty of this world. To the future generals of army But gave such manuals: In every possible way underline the kind that in the religious relation you the person especial and that forces which you represent, will reverse the world when their hour " will come;.

Children of Buta
to Elder son Buta, Bremvellu, the Army is obliged by the name. After death of the father in 1912 it has replaced it on a post of the general, having assigned to Salvation army reputation of family business. Other son, Ballington, has had time to order about army divisions in Australia and America before in 1896 has quarrelled with the father and has based own religious organisation - Volunteers of America . Daughter Kate has become famous for missionary activity in France where has deserved a nickname of Marshalsha; then it together with the husband has gone over to Quakers, for what was zaklejmena as the deserter.
the biggest success has fallen to a lot of Evangeliny But. On a boundary of centuries it supervised ten years over Salvation army in Canada, then as early as thirty years - in the USA and, at last, in 30 - e years became the first woman - the general of the international forces of Army. At Evangeline the Salvation army became not simply respected, and directly - taki the popular organisation. High, beautiful, with magnificent chestnut hair and talent of the drama actress, Evangelina in 15 years has entered Army, and in 18 already sold flowers in circus Pikadilli - only for that on the experience to learn how is to poor men. Sincere fidelity to business did not prevent to wear to it the officer uniform from silk, made-to-order the French seamstress.
Evangelina, among other things, was the talented financier - at it the property belonging to Army, has increased in cost more than three times, and the sum on the account has grown on $35 million All life it tirelessly struggled with two sworn enemies - alcohol and white slavery. But its main achievement, undoubtedly, lies in area public relations: to it has come to mind during the First World War to send on front to France girls from Army. girls of rescue (them still named Doughnuts) distributed to soldiers on a front line house doughnuts, coffee and sweets, repaired it clothes, prayed together with them and reminded them those who remained at home.
Americans have been touched. Mobile kitchens in which any interested person during Great depression could receive a soup plate, have created Armies of the organisation attractive an image always ready in a trouble to come to the rescue each.
Now the Salvation army operates more than in hundred countries, and as its members of consider about three millions persons. Last 8 years the Army wins first place in the USA on volume of private donations, annually collecting more billion dollars. Its nearest competitor, the Red Cross, receives twice less.
And it it is no wonder, after all the brightest image connected with Salvation army, - Christmas kettles in streets about which usually plays a wind band. It is Salvation army collects donations for a Christmas supper for the deprived.
and about that it, in essence, religious sect as - that was forgot partially.

SERGEY TATEVOSOV

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