Service - Customs warehouses
At present level of customs taxes - and they, we will remind, since July, 1st are paid under new, higher rates - storage of the goods in customs warehouses becomes even more favourable to importers. And here warehouses as show calculations of experts, it is obviously not enough - even in spite of the fact that today only in Moscow and their Moscow suburbs it is registered one and a half hundreds and the system of warehouses as a whole endures the rapid growth period.
however business not only in number of the warehouse areas. On responses of the importers, the existing system of customs warehouses does not suit them neither on quality indicators, nor on structure, on level of services. In total some warehouses completely corresponds to the western standards, the others do not hold out even to the level recommended by the State Customs Committee.
the Elephant it is necessary to eat on slices
the Mode of a customs warehouse it is certainly favourable to importers, about it time and again wrote, however it is possible and to repeat. The main advantage of a customs warehouse that the goods there can be without payment of duties and taxes within three years, and is not forbidden and to take away the goods from a warehouse - both entirely (all party), and partially, in process of realisation. In the second case customs taxes are paid too by instalments. That is the importer pays taxes as though by instalments that, it is clear, where it is more favourable, than to take the credit under customs registration of all party and to pay on it percent.
it is important that duties and excises are paid under those rates which operate at the moment of export of the goods from a warehouse. Thus the importer has a possibility, having near at hand the goods, to wait conditions of customs registration more favourable to - Ministry of Foreign Economic Relations and the Ministry of Finance to agree about the decrease in rates of import duties promised by the autumn can!
the goods easy lie in the meantime in a warehouse, and moreover, the mode of a customs warehouse allows to be engaged in goods thorough training to the subsequent sending to the consumer - to sort, break into parties, to pack according to requirements of the client - in general, to make with it any operations, not connected (so it is told in position about customs warehouses) with change of a code of the goods on TN foreign trade activities .
Always something does not suffice
Demand for services of warehouses is high enough, the offer increases also. The first customs warehouse has appeared in 1980 (on the threshold of the Olympic Games) to Butovo and to 1991 remained the only thing.
In their 1991 became already 4 - Molkom Oktopus Vita - Komerts and Sovindep by August of 1993 them was already 90. And now - that day the new warehouse - according to the State Customs Committee, only in Moscow and area is one and a half hundreds warehouses of various specialisation by the area from 400 to 30 thousand μ2, as equipped on last word of technics, and not so not mechanised. And at the Moscow customs has settled still an order of 200 demands for opening of customs warehouses. Under forecasts of customs officers, by the end of the year the number of warehouses in the Moscow region will reach 200, only it is not enough of it: that security warehouses was satisfactory, by State Customs Committee estimations, their quantity should double at least still. It is necessary to notice, however, that despite a fast gain of the warehouse areas recently to satisfy requirements of importers present warehouse system not in a condition.
Calculations show that obviously there are specialised warehouses, in particular no refrigerators. In Moscow there is only one customs warehouse - the refrigerator, joint-stock company the Meridian . Other language will not turn to name a warehouse - the refrigerator (there is one - two units, and those... - owners of a warehouse not in a condition to create necessary storage conditions for the perishable goods), and it is stored there anything you like, only not chicken okorochka - the Italian footwear, the Chinese toys etc. By the way, a meridian it is loaded far not completely. It is created on the basis of fish hladokombinata, and the fish, known business, a product special - unfriendly to other.
affairs and with other specialised warehouses similar are. Not so long ago in Mytischi the warehouse on weapon storage - Dana Intl has opened., but again - taki to Moscow with such specialisation it is not enough one warehouse. And here warehouses on storage of precious metals and stones, warehouses - tanks for storage of oil and gasoline are not present in general, but there is a requirement for them. And here it is possible to consider a problem of storage of computers and cars solved - warehouses with such specialisation more than enough: Steepler Terminal - 7, IBM (computers), LogoVAZ, Siaz Rolf (cars).
Deficiency of the warehouse areas for storage of some the goods speaks not only the natural reasons (backwardness of a network as a whole), but also circumstances which can be carried to the category more likely is artificial the created. First of all thereupon it is possible to mention a situation with storage podaktsiznyh the goods - cigarettes and alcohol. Procedure of their customs registration is more difficult, than other commodity groups (about innovations as registration separate podaktsiznyh the goods Wrote in detail enough), and owners of warehouses prefer not to contact such cargoes simply.
however, the problem of creation of specialised warehouses for storage podaktsiznyh the goods, probably, will be solved in the near future. Such attempts, however, were already undertaken - in 1993 but then the idea has lived exactly two days: for a warehouse have not found better a place, than the Lomonosovsky prospectus, and supersize waggons have completely blocked off traffic. Today to allocate podaktsiznye the goods in separate group of storage the Moscow autocargo customs has offered, preliminary having secured with the consent of ten the Moscow warehouses having contracts with solid transport companies. It is offered to create so-called customs corridors : alcohol and cigarettes will carry concrete transport companies to concrete terminals (under the list confirmed by the State Customs Committee). Terminals as it is supposed, should guarantee to customs payment of all taxes, trucks with the goods will cease to vanish on the way from Brest to Moscow. Well, and owners of warehouses besides additional duties will receive garantirovanno a high turn of the goods and constant clientele.
is and still the reason of artificial deficiency of the warehouse areas in Moscow: under instructions of the Moscow customs office, the goods can be placed only on a district warehouse in which the firm - the addressee is registered. Clearly, what in the Central district, for example, warehouses will obviously not suffice for everything and how to be to the importer if the firm is registered in the Central district, the office is in Western, and a warehouse in East? It is not necessary to forget and about an interdiction of the Moscow authorities for entrance of supersize cars in city centre. Customs officers consider the decision of the Moscow management not absolutely logical, but in Moscow are not going to cancel yet - if the importer can give to customs weighty proofs of necessity of placing of the goods in a warehouse of other district, she, as a rule, resolves goods readdressing on a warehouse convenient to the importer. Truth demands it an extra time and nerves.
how to choose a warehouse?
Despite notable shortage of the warehouse areas, especially for storage of some the specific goods, now it is possible to find a warehouse meeting almost any requirements of the importer in Moscow. Naturally, storage cost will depend on quality of the services given by a warehouse. However without dependence from that, how many the importer is going to spend for goods storage before to conclude the contract with a warehouse, it should define, how much it basically accepts working conditions of this warehouse.
That is important to a greater or lesser extent for all clients is a presence of a customs post in a warehouse. Two variants practise: a customs post directly in a warehouse (for warehouses with the big turn) or services of customs officers from other posts (at small turns of a warehouse). As the chief of a customs post " has explained; the Terminal - Moscow Nikolay Ramensky to count on constant presence of the customs inspector in a warehouse it is possible, when in day in a warehouse is made out 8 - 10 declarations. Truth today work of inspectors alone it is not welcomed - them should be at least two. Accordingly the warehouse turn should be twice more - an order of 20 declarations in day.
there is no need to say that presence of a customs post in a warehouse facilitates passage by cargo of customs formalities. In - the first, it is not necessary to wait for registration hours, and even in the days (because in some warehouses customs officers appear not every day), and in - the close contacts of the owner of a warehouse second value and customs officers does not raise the doubts. However that is good for one, can be quite bad for others - the affinity of a customs post can turn back special attention to cargoes - certainly if cargo is declared and delivered by a lawful way, there is nothing to be afraid. And if is not present?
one more general principle of a choice - in a warehouse it is necessary to be the person . Customs warehouses can be two types: closed ( specialising stored own goods or the goods of the limited circle of persons ) And opened (accessible to any cargo owner), but owners of warehouses, irrespective of warehouse type, prefer to work with regular customers. For example, the conventional leader in warehouse business - Molkom - works only with narrow circle of clients (Sony, Samsung, Rank Xerox, Hewlett Packard) and as general director Michael Malkov admitted, in the near future the clientele list will not extend. Even if the requirement for services of customs warehouses arises irregularly, it is necessary to place the goods in any one warehouse and to try to become the regular customer. Usually it allows to count on considerable discounts and additional services. For example, tehnotorgservis at the base rate of rent in $1/ μ2 the warehouse area throws off the price at the long-term contract half, and on the same Molkome Representatives Sony do not need to be present at customs registration of each TV - all employees of a warehouse by proxy will make firms.
the further steps for choice a warehouse depend already on concrete requirements of the owner of cargo. Last can be spent, having addressed to the services of large warehouses offering quality service for the corresponding price, and can and save, working with the small warehouses which have been not burdened, as a rule, with cares of level of service.
on what it is possible and not to count
However, the certain minimum of services can be received in any warehouse, irrespective of its size. All warehouses, both small, and large are equipped by access roads, automobile or railway - depending on accepted cargoes. The same concerns and to equipment faxes, phones and computers (it is necessary to remember last year - then faxes and computers in a warehouse were faster an exception, than a rule) are office equipment - everywhere. In the rest at each monastery here - the charter.
any warehouse, with rare exception, does not guarantee terms of customs registration of cargoes understandably: the customs - institute unpredictable also can always be the document which have forgotten to give it. However practice shows that in warehouses situated near Moscow passage of customs formalities occupies all from 40 minutes to 4 - 5 hours whereas in Moscow procedure can be stretched for some days. Though in large warehouses registration procedure occupies as a rule no more than two hours.
the Majority of warehouses in Moscow are located in specially constructed buildings and, accordingly, can provide normal for storage conditions of cargoes, but meet and the adapted premises - the former garages, industrial refrigerators. However the equipment even in specially constructed warehouses leaves much to be desired. As a rule, there are no monitoring systems behind humidity and temperature, and under creation an optimum mode of storage room temperature maintenance is understood more often. For the sake of justice it is necessary to notice that almost all warehouses are heated.
the goods are often stored in bulk: lubricating oil adjoins with sandwich-type, no specially adapted premises for those goods which can harm other goods or demanding special storage conditions are present (that, by the way, is position infringement about customs warehouses). Almost everywhere it is bad with mechanisation pogruzochno - discharging, and replacement of diesel loaders with a brigade not absolutely sober workers can is rather pitiable to affect safety of the goods.
larceny cases are completely not rare also. The protection system is frequently reduced to the night alarm system on a breaking case yes to steam of militiamen at gate. However, there are also pleasant exceptions.
for a corresponding payment
Large importers usually do not stint additional expenses on service of cargoes. Warehouses by which representatives of this group are guided, should offer the full spectrum of services declared in position of the State Customs Committee: from pogruzochno - discharging, sorting and crushing of parties, drying and airing of the goods before its marks. But it is some such warehouses, quotations are approximately identical, therefore with other things being equal, choosing a warehouse, it is necessary to pay attention to quality of protection, speed of registration of the goods and additional services.
as to cargo protection it is better to choose such warehouse on which territory even the owner of the goods can get only under the admission, and there where its goods - accompanied by the customs officer are stored. Otherwise safety of the goods is not guaranteed. Is better, when the warehouse is protected not by militia, and private security agency.
speed of registration of cargo in large warehouses often depends on that, how many cars the warehouse can accept and unload. The normal turn for large warehouses considers reception and release 10 - 15 trucks in day and registration of an order 150 - 200 declarations in a month. However, work all on - to a miscellaneous, for example, on Molkome daily serve an order of 50 cars and make out to 60 declarations, without creating turn.
From additional services the special attention should be turned on one: whether offers a warehouse transportno - forwarding service. Strangely enough, to bring cargo from Sheremetev to a city - a problem: delivery of cargoes between customs should be carried out on procedure of internal customs transit (VTT), and the oral instructions of a management of the Moscow management do not recommend to customs posts to apply manifestos VTT (about infringements VTT wrote in #9).
Many warehouses offer also original services. For example clients Molkoma can, being though in London, from the computer to receive all information on movement of the goods up to its moving from a shelf on a shelf in last hour, and it is free (it is necessary to notice that such service except Molkoma anybody does not offer). The owner of cargo in large warehouses can choose itself boxing where its goods will be stored, and even to demand (instead of to ask) to convert it at own discretion - by the way, such requirement if it does not entail infringements of position of the State Customs Committee, will be without fail satisfied. Owners of warehouses do not love cares of insurance of cargoes, usually it is a headache of the importer, but all - taki such service is given: for example, joint-stock company ETS will insure cargo for 0,8 % from the insurance sum, insure cargoes and on the Transcargo .
it is possible to carry possibility To advantages of warehouses to unload the car at any time or at least to give a supervised parking if the truck has come on a warehouse at night. Strangely enough, such service is given by only a few warehouses ( tehnotorgservis Molkom ) . On the Transcargo similar service should be brought in the contract, otherwise the car should spend the night in the street.
on it the set of additional services is settled.
it is necessary to notice that warehouses which can provide performance of similar requirements, not too it is a lot of, and if is more exact - units. In opinion both customs officers, and importers unconditional leaders in warehouse business are Molkom Moscow Cash and Carry Mozhaisk Steepler Terminal - 7 tehnotorgservis Irbis and Butovo . However, Butovo uses smaller popularity at importers - there the goods quite often vanished, there were also touches.
At the similar price
it is better to the Firms which are carrying out irregular deliveries or embarrassed financially, to offer quality of service and to work with less well-known warehouses. Some small warehouses have even advantages - low quotations and friendly relations with customs.
for this category of importers the small Moscow warehouses which as a rule are not demanding the conclusion of long-term contracts and not having specialisations in storage of a certain kind of the goods quite will approach. According to the director of one of such warehouses, one is required to its clients actually only: if only have not stolen " much;. The reason on which small firms prefer less equipped warehouses, is simple. The probability of that the car will be looked through completely, very small - to unload a waggon for detailed examination simply there is no place, so quite often customs officers are limited to examination of that with edge, and in a waggon do not climb.
However small warehouses unanimously demand an advance payment, unlike large which work with large regular customers and are quite assured of their reliability. Often enough owners of small warehouses practise restrictions on term of rent of the warehouse area. On the Moscow Expo for example, it is impossible to store the goods of less year, on programmprome - there is less than month, and on the Torch - 10 days in any way there are less. For comparison: on Molkome the Transcargo and tehnotorgservise the period of storage is not limited, though day.
all - the
Well and if the price, or service, or both that and another does not arrange? There is a third way - self-service . As a rule, to open own warehouses prefer basically the western firms which are confused from service on the majority of the Moscow warehouses. Owners of the Russian warehouses recognise that service level leaves much to be desired. According to the director of joint-stock company ETS Michael Radchenko, he had to refuse favourable offers of the foreign firms, wished to rent time and again the warehouse area: a warehouse simply not in a condition to fulfil their requirements. Foreigners under the law cannot open a customs warehouse in Russia to create to themselves habitual conditions; and here to create joint venture or completely to rent a warehouse at firm - the owner it anybody cannot forbid. And customs officers do not deny that such practice among foreign firms is rather popular - Le Monti, Mersedes, Olivetti, UPS, Kalinka - Stockmann, Opel, Peja - holding Moscow Cash and Carry Mozhaisk or have got the joint venture, or completely rent warehouses under own needs; at an opening stage there is warehouse Sadko Arcada. Moreover, even it is favourable to foreign firms to open own warehouses because the customs committee supposes at creation of warehouses of the closed type some deviations from rules.
in other cases (if it was not possible to create the joint venture) foreign firms wander from a warehouse on a warehouse in search of suitable conditions: an example to that well-known Masterfoods, not so long ago passed with the Transcargo on tehnotorgservis . And not it one: with the Transcargo also have left Sadko Arcada and Irish House.
Among the Russian importers of an expert self-services while it is a little popular, but recently on this way some large Moscow shops, and also the wholesale trading houses working by a principle " have gone; delivery of the goods from a warehouse during the day . The international association " has in a similar way arrived; the Centaur working by a principle cash and carry - at it two customs warehouses. The warehouse is and at Steepler, and one of the best in Moscow.
that where how much
Concerning a payment for rendered services the situation in customs warehouses a little than differs from any other business - quotations contractual. However base tariffs all - taki are (table 1). According to customs committee, in comparison with last year quotations have fallen almost twice - if last year the rate of rent 1 μ2 fluctuated around $1,5 - 2, this year - $0,8 - 1, and in Moscow suburbs and that more low - $0,6 - 0,4.
Cost of the works which are carried out in customs warehouses
Enough widespread system of discounts. At dolgostrochnoj rent or a premise on a warehouse of the big consignments of goods essential enough discounts - to 50 - 60 % from the base price can be given (it makes sense to repeat: concept of the base price rather conditionally). On some warehouses, for example on Butovo first two days the goods are stored in general free of charge, are paid only pogruzochno - discharging. If the owner of the goods has not had time to spend customs registration of cargo for the next days it is necessary to pay already under base quotations for two days. It became possible of - for enough high rates of rent in a warehouse and high turns - all cargoes delivered Sovtransavto arrive on this warehouse.
as a rule, solid warehouses at definition of cost of the services include all components in the rent rate (it concerns Molkoma tehnotorgservisa Moscow Cash and Carry Mozhaisk and some other). At some other warehouses the approach other. They prefer to raise a payment for each service separately and, moreover, sometimes expand the list of services to the point of irrationality. Services, by itself, not so free. To keep square metre of personal things on the Transcargo there are $0,5, to drive on a warehouse Businovo - $10, in the same place rectify errors in documents on 50 cents for a piece, to call by city phone with the Torch will manage in $2 for 3 minutes... There is no limit to a flight of fancy.
as a rule firm - the owner of a customs warehouse has the certificate of the customs applicant and includes a payment for declaring of the goods and customs registration in the lease agreement. The prices on declaring are resulted in table 2.
Cost of services in declaring
Infringements and contraband
Customs quite often checks work of warehouses, and for this purpose it is enough reasons - according to customs, and under stories of owners of warehouses cases of infringement of customs rules and contraband in warehouses - at all a rarity. Though, as the chief of department of customs inspection of Odintsovo customs, " has told; original infringements in warehouses are not present, all is boring: classification of the goods not the name (for example, instead of bags - refrigerators declared simply bags), use of fictitious addresses (there was a case when to the firm address - the addressee have found the Troekurovsky cemetery). Cases when the goods, under documents registered in a warehouse, have already left in an unknown direction are frequent...
on one original way to save on taxes it is necessary to dwell. Almost all owners of warehouses, and customs officers mark frequent cases when cars come on a warehouse not finished loading . It is made, as well as it is necessary, the commercial certificate about nedogruze, and the owner, having secured with acknowledgement of the consignor that nedogruz has occurred through his fault, imports into the account of already paid taxes ostensibly missing goods.
Not is for nothing of abacus of one only demands for opening of customs warehouses has almost reached two hundreds. According to customs officers, operation of customs warehouses on appeal takes the third place after an advertising and tourism. Really, as practice testifies and show calculations, the time of recovery of outlay of expenses for building of a customs warehouse hardly exceeds half a year. (Expenses for building on a turn-key basis Warehouse the area 5000 μ2, office and auxiliary services will make not less than $3,5 million; at the rent rate of $1 for 1 μ2 the time of recovery of outlay of such warehouse will make 7,2 months. On opening of a warehouse by the area 1000 μ2 it is required to $1 million which will return in 6,7 months). At almost identical times of recovery of outlay crucial importance has the size of initial investments and the subsequent profit. As is shown in drawing 2, the large warehouse will make the big profit at the expense of wider complex of services.
However, record times of recovery of outlay can achieve, if not reinvestirovat profits and to build at own expense. Did not consider the following source of losses: almost all customs warehouses complain that the cargoes arrested by customs (for their storage warehouses allocate the areas gratuitously) are there on neskolku years. By a recognition of the director of one of warehouses, it loses on it monthly about 5 million roubles.
we spoke About specialisation of warehouses above, and as to the warehouse location the most attractive to building of customs terminals can name 20 - a kilometre zone behind the Moscow ring road. There the earth, and besides, such approach is cheaper, undoubtedly, will be supported also by the Moscow government - as it became known, the project of creation of warehouse terminals near to a ring road there is already developed.
TATYANA - MUKHIN