Strangers here do not passto understand, who can, and who cannot win elections in Dagestan, not well
Strangers here do not pass
to understand who can and who cannot win elections in Dagestan, are not necessary polls, even elections. The nobility local customs and the local law on elections suffices.
In five districts of Dagestan (and all them 121) parliamentary elections and have not taken place. Candidates simply had not time to be registered. And matter is not in their slowness - it is simple the day before election districts have transferred operation on floor change.
In December, 1998 the Dagestan members of parliament have passed the new law on elections according to which six districts have been recognised by female. That is to stand for them the woman had the right only. And to men the input was strictly - is strictly prohibited. Thus members of parliament tried to protect and konstitutsionno to provide the rights of women. By words a press - the secretary of Dagestan Central Electoral Commission Sabida Maleeva, “ only such way the woman - the candidate could get to parliament “.
However the care of women has stumbled about man`s pride. To the operating deputy of Dagestan parliament Kurbanu Kurbanov have refused registration in its native district which under the new law unexpectedly became female. Kurban was offended and has complained in the Constitutional court of Dagestan. In January court, recognising cutting of districts to a sexual sign illegal, has opened in them an input to men. But too late - those had not time to collect the signature.
Female districts - not the unique invention of the Dagestan deputies. Simultaneously with female in December of last year have been defined and 14 professional districts. To be put forward on one of them, it is necessary for candidate to show the diploma about higher education. Professionals as have explained in parliament of Dagestan, especially lawyers and economists, are necessary for a legislature as air. They will work in it on a constant basis. By the way, unlike female professional districts have not cancelled.
it is funny things all, of course. But in them as in a water drop all electoral system of Dagestan is reflected.
in 1994 the parliament of Dagestan has passed rather specific law on elections. Deputies have decided not to push together in one districts of candidates of a various nationality, for example kumykov with avartsami, laktsev with dargintsami and etc. and consequently the district on national, instead of to a territorial sign cut.
By words a press - the secretary of the chairman of the State Council of Dagestan Edward Urazaeva, this system has been successfully tested on parliamentary elections of 1995 - the number of bloody conflicts on national soil has sharply decreased. Besides, in a legislature the national parity was established.
therefore national - the proportional representation has been fixed also by last law on elections. And when in the beginning of January of this year the Russian Central Electoral Committee has sent in republican the letter with the requirement to bring the selective legislation of Dagestan into accord with federal, Makhachkala has refused. The constitutional court of republic has offered only women, and cutting of districts by a national and professional principle recognised corresponding Dagestan constitution.
thus neither deputies, nor judges new have not invented anything. They have only legalised that has been invented much earlier - at the Soviet power.
Dagestan nearly has not stumped in due time the Bolsheviks feeding unhealthy interest to national - to territorial delimitation. podi demarcate, when in small territory live about 75 indigenous peoples and nationalities.
the exit has been found: supervising posts have distributed between the cores 12 radical nationalities. The most numerous managed also the big chunk - a post of the first secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU of Dagestan. It serially occupied avartsy and dargintsy (accordingly nearby 25 and 15 % of the population).
By a national principle distributed both other posts and influence spheres (for example, avartsy traditionally supervised an oil craft, kumyki - fish). The prime minister of republic always was kumyk (10 %), and posts of its assistants divided between among themselves avartsy, dargintsy, kumyki and Lezghins (11 %).
Interests not the most numerous people also did not remain without attention. For example, laktsam (5 %) got an armchair of the chairman of the Executive Committee of the City Soviet of People`s Deputies of Makhachkala, the head of the State Bank and minor ministerial portfolioes (for example, the Minister of Agriculture).
Democratic reorganisation has not broken national parity, only posts have been renamed: the first secretary of the Central Committee became the head of the State Council of Dagestan, the chairman of the Executive Committee of the City Soviet of People`s Deputies - some redistribution of national quotas Has etc. occurred the mayor and also: so, avartsy have received the majority of mandates in parliament (however, the post of the chairman traditionally belonged to them). And laktsy have lost a post of the mayor of Makhachkala. Now it is occupied darginets Said Amirov, with the champion by quantity of the attempts made on it. laktsy say that a post of the mayor to give on elections it was, of course, insulting, but to clean Amirov it is not connected with attempts in any way. At it, they confirm, is and more strong contenders (by the Dagestan tradition the mayor of Makhachkala is simultaneously vitse - the prime minister of republic).
However, there are also serious changes. If earlier the ethnic parity was provided with the CPSU Central Committee now the international consent is supported with impressive guarantees - almost each national movement in Dagestan has the armed groups which in a condition if necessary to restore balance of forces and justice. When peace protest actions (and its favourite forms at Daghestanis are collective marches to Makhachkala and perekryvanie lines of republican value) do not bring results, to a course there is a fire-arms and trotyl. Only for 1995 - 1996 have been killed 20 heads of a various rank.
Daghestanis and " have kept; collective leadership “. The higher executive office of republic is the State Council in which besides its chairman 12 candidates - on one from each of the basic people are selected exactly. It has been thus specially stipulated that the person of one nationality cannot be selected on the higher post more than two times.
Daghestanis do not consider the system of the ideal and undertake attempts to change it. But, certainly, everyone to own advantage. The present head of the State Council darginets Magomedali Magomedov has most succeeded in it. In 1996 when have expired both its terms, it has prolonged the powers for two years. Thus the most influential oppositionists have received decent, and the main thing, profitable posts. And in February, 1998, on the eve of State Council elections, Magomedov has spent through parliament the amendment to the local constitution according to which the person of one nationality acquired the right to be selected on a post of the head of the State Council more than two times. And again remained on the post.
leaders of other national movements are dissatisfied. However on a radical step - introduction of a presidential post, to be exact, direct national elections of the head of republic - they in the majority are not ready. Any of them does not possess in Dagestan sufficient support. That candidate who will offer nadnatsionalnuju, uniting idea can win this situation only. And in modern Dagestan there is only one such idea - Islamic. And it poses direct threat national - to clan interests. The numerous Dagestan people simply are afraid that, having selected the father of the people, will appear at it stepsons.
at the Soviet power all supervising posts in Dagestan have been distributed between 12 basic nationalities of republic
Many national leaders feel deprived. But if in republic will pass direct national presidential elections, they in general will receive nothing