Russian and World NewsIdleness on revolution service
Gathering in holiday do not doubt that possibility to be released from official duties is an unconditional blessing. It seems that in connection with technical progress and struggle for human rights duration of rest should grow only. 85 years ago to all inhabitants of Russia holidays therefore for many rest time was essentially reduced have been guaranteed.
the Natural schedule
Up to the XX-th century middle Russia remained the country country, and for peasants the labour schedule is defined by a cycle of agricultural works - during a warm season the working day nenormirovannyj, but is closer by the winter there comes the rest period. Certainly, about holidays the Russian peasant and concepts had no. To rest in bed on the furnace, it was not required to submit statements to a staff department. Neither to Baden - Baden, nor on waters peasants, clear business, did not go. However, absences lasting many days happened - the countryman could go on earnings or on bogomole. Such holiday should be made out: to travel without documents to Russia always was nekomfortno.
as the country community paid taxes for all members, the permission to holiday was given out by it. So, the country descent handed over to the pilgrim the passport certifying that the bearer of this follows on bogomole in such - that a monastery, and the community warrants for it and releases for certain term. The pilgrimage was a unique kind of long absence of peasants with neekonomicheskoj. To rest such holidays had no relation.
pioneers of holiday
the First in Russia began to take vacations (and to use them for the designated purpose) officials. It and it is no wonder: public service has to thoughts on rest. The schedule of work of the official does not depend neither on a season, nor from weather, from magnetic storms. Forget about affairs on quite lawful bases the pre-revolutionary state employee time in two years could, but forget for a long time as duration of paid holiday made the whole two months. In this time it was possible to visit the remote estate or to go to Europe on a resort.
however rest of the official was not limited to two-month holiday: were also Sundays, and various holidays. In the end of a XIX-th century he worked for the blessing of the native land of 267 days in a year, and had a rest, accordingly, 98 - not including holidays. Except 52 Sundays church holidays and imperial days here entered. So with a right to rest at civil servants all was as it should be.
free work during week-end
Where the rest problem stood really sharply, so it at factories and factories. If in medieval workshops the work organisation slightly differed from country with the advent of cars workers have appeared at the conveyor. Thus duration of the working day has not decreased, on what admirers of technical progress hoped, and has sharply increased. The labour schedule of proletarians too did not depend on natural factors, but unlike officials they had no social guarantees. The authorities have got used to that the people itself understand when to work, and when to have a rest, and consequently preferred not to interfere with manufacture process.
attempts to force workers to work on Sundays should stop not trade unions (they have not appeared yet), and police. “ the charter about the prevention and control of offences “ made a duty to guards in Sunday and holidays to watch, that in public places was not made any works. (However, on factories policemen looked infrequently, but prisoners during week-end had invariably a rest.)
The matter is that the state aspired to supervise religious life of the citizens and did not allow them to work when it is necessary to go to church. It has begun in a XVII-th century when tsar Alexey has enjoined that on Saturday before a night service markets and baths have been closed. Since then similar decrees - for example have been published many, in 1741 to cloth manufactories have ordered to stop on Saturdays work already at 12 o`clock in the afternoon. How much strictly these decrees were executed, there is no mention.
in Russia guards never favoured. And in general, the liberal public considered that religion - a private affair of each citizen. Appeals of fighters for national happiness have been heard, and in the XX-th century beginning the State council has cancelled an interdiction for work during week-end: “ Voluntary employment by work in Sunday, celebratory, gala days church and civil is given to the discretion of everyone, and no power should repair the worker of any obstacles in this “. Thus, workers were released from police surveillance, and now the care of their rights was incurred by the progressive public. Anyway, the quantity of the literature has sharply increased by this theme. Articles on a working question read then not less willingly, than on a question sexual.
about harm of leisure
Workers really needed rest. To sustain a rhythm of factory life it was sophisticated - they worked on 10 - 12 hours a day. The worker could be learnt on low growth, round-shouldered shoulders and the person of earthy colour. Doctors who defined the validity of recruits to military service have attended to the first to their health. Among workers percent “ komissovannyh “ it has appeared essentially higher, than among peasants. Physicians have sounded the alarm and introduction on manufacture of additional days of rest began to demand. Manufacturers resisted, and at all because falling of profits as revolutionary publicists liked to write were afraid. The problem was in other.
having a rest workers represented for associates where the big danger, than today football fans or commandoes celebrating the day. Proletarians got drunk at each pertinent case, however, without departing far from a work place (they lived at factories). Traditions of joint rest (except drinking hot) at them was not. Civilised entertainments like fishing were accessible no means always. But the tavern always appeared nearby. The description of a proletarian relaxation has resulted in the report on All-Russia trading - industrial congress the engineer M.Kowalski: “ Everyone who had to happen in holidays in the factory centres, is surprised that revelry which reigns among workers. Taverns and the taverns making an inevitable accessory of such places, happen are ordinary overflowed by the people. Vodka quickly makes the action, quarrels, fights by full lots begin, and in business knifes, and as a result - some persons mutilated or wounded men are quite often started up. For maintenance at least some order among the factory population of administration it is necessary to contain the strengthened structure of watchmen and factory police. The worker who has had thus a holiday, goes the next day for work with a heavy, sick head. Itself certainly that work of such worker in the first days following holidays cannot differ high qualities and due productivity. As a result... The factory " incurs losses and the worker who is spending on drink money earned by an arduous toil, and;.
Before to increase number of the days off, it was required to think up, how these days workers will have a rest. Fresh ideas were. For example, And. M. The bitter remembered, how its artel with its full complement drove in a brothel, and cost of such corporate parties was subtracted from the salary. Among intellectual entertainments it is necessary to mention the mugs which quantity obviously exceeded number of brothels. Mugs organised all - from sotsial - democrats to members of the Union of Russian people. However the positive effect from their work if was shown, is far not at once, and the factory administration tried all possible ways to reduce quantity of days of rest not to allow to the workers to be drunk up to a delirium tremens.
on manufacture was norm to consider Sunday in the day off, and on Saturday to stop work earlier that workers could descend in a bath and be in time to a night service. However in practice the administration tried to cut down rest time. For example, the factory could stop on Sunday in 5 mornings - in this case workers were in time in church. And early in the morning on Monday work renewed.
If days off and holidays threatened with serious disorders what to speak about holidays. However, then anybody seriously also did not speak about them. Workers had no usage to leave far from the house, and proletarian rest lasting many days with the big share of probability would lead to serious consequences.
However position of workers was heavy, them in Russia was a little. Even in 1926 they made only 7 % of the population of the country. And in the end of XIX - the XX-th century beginning - and that it is less. Approximately as much at us now citizens with nonconventional sexual orientation so struggle for the rights of workers was care of destiny of oppressed minority, instead of of the blessing of all people. For this reason the Bolshevist idea of building of the proletarian state, that is transformation into proletarians of the overwhelming majority of not proletarian population of the country, could be carried out only by violent methods.
Speaking on behalf of a proletariat name, have quickly accepted the Decree about the eight-hour working day. By itself, it concerned actually only working, dealers and state employees. To peasants during sowing or harvesting and in a head could not come to exercise the right for the eight-hour working day.
has not kept itself waiting long and the document on holidays. Commission Sovnarkoma writing it was guided by realities, instead of slogans and perfectly understood that crowds of idling workers will represent serious danger to public calmness. Therefore in the bill it was offered to replace holiday by two days off in a week. But national commissioners wanted to make happy immediately social minority expensive to their heart and on June, 14th, 1918 have confirmed time rules about holidays. Now each working acquired the right to fortnight paid holiday. It intended only for rest, to work for money these two weeks was forbidden.
During wars rest time usually reduce, however just entered holiday has seemed to Bolsheviks too short. In the end of 1918 its duration have increased about one month. It is possible for itself to present, what affairs the large quantity of holiday-makers to which has no place to go could do and there is nothing to occupy. However, as it often happens in Russia, the misfortune has helped. The begun hunger has provided holiday-makers with worthy employment.
rest Lasting many days assumes a pleasure bag more or less distant trip, therefore proletarian holiday-makers have received the inquiries granting the right to get on a train and slide wherever one wishes. With the parties were defined quickly enough: the workers armed with inquiries have gone on villages behind products. Crowds of townspeople with bags behind the back threatened to paralyse all railway communication, and in July, 1919 Sovnarkom has tried to limit a freedom of movement of holiday-makers. In the corresponding document it was told: “ Granting to the workers who have obtained the permit to holidays, possibilities to leave home for participation in field works at the present condition of transport, and in particular in the absence of a sufficient stock of fuel, demands for carrying out in life possible sorganizovannosti transportations in full conformity with in advance made plan “. The Soviet officials even have painted, how many in a month this or that railway can pass holiday-makers. Bread was wanted by everything, and it was possible to receive the necessary inquiry far not to everyone.
the mentioned restrictions did holiday presence absolutely senseless: workers took it not that at last - that to visit conservatory (otherwise the conservatory would be waited by destiny of the railways). The released proletariat had to have a rest in hungry cities. Besides from - for the dry law of alcohol there was not to get. Such holiday by worker was not necessary, and the authorities had to consider remarks of workers.
with a right to rest have as a result decided to wait a little, but have given particular attention to the right to work. Have begun with working defensive factories for which holidays have cancelled already on July, 23rd, 1919. In exchange in it began to pay indemnification at a rate of a fortnight salary, delicately without remembering the promised month of rest. However, to members of families of workers allowed - taki to go to village behind products though did not recommend it to do. To homebodies have promised on one and a half pood of a flour on a family.
in August, 1919 of holiday have been completely cancelled. But in April 1920 - go them have entered again - Sovnarkom has published the next time rules. About a month of holiday in this document any more it was not told. In the best way for a long time to have a rest on - former agricultural works were considered. However, unlike students and research assistants of the Brezhnev`s times, trying to shirk an agricultural duty, working were torn in village as it gave the chance to extract provisions - there for works paid in kind. At some enterprises to go to help village resolved only to leaders of manufacture.
holidays and everyday life
actually city worker for rest remained the days off and holidays. The code about work guaranteed weekly rest within 42 hours on end that gave the chance not only to sleep in target, but also to be overslept on the eve of the working day. However the quantity of the days off has sharply decreased.
According to the Code accepted in 1918 about work, those were considered on January, 1st (New year), on January, 22nd (day of Bloody Sunday), on March, 12th (autocracy overthrow), on March, 18th (day of the Commune of Paris), on May, 1st (day as Internatsionala) and on November, 7th (day of Proletarian revolution). Thus local councils could establish additional no-charge days of rest by number no more than ten. Additional rest, as a rule, had for church holidays, however workers had to pay for it from the pocket. Thus, except the weekly day off it was paid even six days of nation-wide holidays while before revolution total duration of church holidays and imperial days made almost one and a half month. People got used to reduction of number of holidays hardly. In the spring of 1918 Sovnarkomu was necessary to publish the special decree, forbidding to celebrate Easter more than five days on end.
However, revolution has really done much good for not numerous proletarians (for example, duration of the working day was considerably reduced) that it is impossible to tell about peasants. The labour schedule gradually extended all over the country, including on them. The state dictated not only a work mode (for example, when it is necessary to plough and when to sow), but also a rest mode. With hibernation on the furnace have consulted quickly enough, having sent peasants on preparation of fire wood, that is on a tree felling. In the Arkhangelsk region, for example, to wood barracks took out practically all who could have control over an axe. The most numerous group of the population of the country began to have a rest essentially less.
Neither a dream, nor rest
Paid holiday and the eight-hour working day the Soviet propagation submitted almost as the main gains of a socialism. And have soon started talking and about the seven-hour working day. In the end of 20 - h years from words have started to pass gradually to business, however the decree of Presidium of the Supreme body of the USSR from June, 26th, 1940 not only has increased duration of the working day, but also has forbidden to change autocratically a work place, and for delay and proguly has entered a criminal liability.
Holiday on - former made two weeks, 12 days plus days off, p are more exactrihodjashchiesja for this period. To teachers and scientists have allocated 36 working days. At twelve-day holidays to speak about more or less serious trips it was not necessary, but for 36 days it is possible to leave far enough and even to return back. Therefore in 30 - e years of the beginning actively to develop the Soviet show business. So, the manors nationalised in due time in a mass order were reconstructed in rest houses and sanatoria.
in 1941, after the beginning of war, holiday have cancelled, and possibility to go to travel was not. And only during Khruschev`s times when before communism construction remains very little, people began to learn to have a rest cultural. The member of the Komsomol with a backpack behind shoulders became an epoch symbol. It is necessary to tell, propagation has taken effect. People gradually got used to that holiday is time of rest, and not just works on an economy. Then weights of workers have tempted with idea of tourism that has allowed to deduce at the minimum financial expenses for the nature the maximum quantity of builders of communism. Also the quantity of the days off gradually increased. In 60 - e years the country has passed on two days off, and in 1968 of the days off became 133 (against 73 in 1964).
Duration of holidays and number of the days off grows - such is a tendency. However it is necessary to pay for all. Yes, people have a rest more and more, but thus there are all more strong adhered to a work place. Having a rest on the bank of the warm sea can result easily in working feeling a call from service. So it is necessary to envy only to the peasant who worked as damned, but in the winter with a clear conscience easy otlezhivalsja on the furnace in the summer.