Social policy in Germany
passes Association of two German economy even better, than it was possible to assume (wrote about a course of integration into Saturday). However even on a way covered with roses, there are thorns. And one of complications “ postoperative “ the period there was an aggravation of social problems against which at east Germans immunity has appeared is rather weak, first of all unemployments. This problem has collected recently for “ a round table “ heads of the key ministries of a Bonn office, heads of the largest associations of businessmen and trade unions. In general, active social policy is spent at two levels (it was always characteristic for Germany) - national and local.
the sad belief that one decade before the true unity will be found is required not has had time to replace Euphoria of the first months of a unification. Then again - as the economy of east earths grew - optimism began to grow. Though and today in Germany such joke is popular: “ We - one people “ - the inhabitant eks - GDR speaks, on what the German western replies: “ We too “. Socialist east “ inplantant “ gets accustomed nevertheless with obvious work. Levels of development of economy of the east and the West are still non-comparable, and structural reorganisation of the industry eks - GDR will demand considerable time and expenses. Chancellor Kohl already had to enter the extremely unpopular 7,5 - percentage additional surtax on payment “ expenses on association “ for what ruling coalition HDS/ HSS - SvDP has paid on elections: Its overweight in the lower chamber was reduced to 10 voices, and SDPG has received the majority in the upper chamber. But are dissatisfied not only 64 million western Germans to which should pay on $100 mlrd in a year - on a training for a new profession of east compatriots, increase of a wage level by it and grants, reorganisation of state enterprises in eks - GDR, but also east colleagues complaining of a difference in a standard of living and on the relation haughtily.
the Main problem - unemployment. In the western earths last year it made 8,2 %, in eks - GDR - 13,5 % (averages of 9,6 % - the highest level for Germany for last 45 years).
In a course “ a round table “ devoted problems of struggle against unemployment (chancellor Kohl presided) managed to agree about the scale program of the employment which start will be given in March. In particular, the government promised to prolong program terms on employment “ long-term “ The unemployed (last year thanks to it it was possible to provide with workplaces of 130 thousand people). If the initiative gets support in the Bundestag, the program will be prolonged till 1999 and then 180 thousand more the Government will be employed plans to allocate for it for 4 years DM3 mlrd which will go on the grant to fund of the salary to the firms creating new workplaces.
Minister of Economics Gjunter Reksrodt is occupied also by passionate arrangements of professional leaders and businessmen again to come to the agreement under the salary industrial worker. (Last year trade unions have agreed with backlog of the salary of workers from inflation, however this year such agreement while is not present.) In its opinion, it will help to create additional workplaces. According to Reksrodta, renewal last year`s “ the social contract “ will provide a gain in 1995 on 3 % (in the west - 2 %, in the east - to 10 %), and in the east it will be possible to speak about creation of 300 thousand additional workplaces.
by the way, position of the unemployed in Germany hardly will cause tear, anyway in the Russian. Experience of Hamburg where the correspondent has got thanks to assistance of association of ASMO - PRES is curious, for example. Just not those who in Bonn, and sotsial - democrats, and is permanent since 1957 There correct. As the adviser of the burgomaster of Hamburg for press Norbert Klein has told in a personal meeting to the correspondent, the Hamburg unemployed in the first year receives the help at a rate of 70 % of the salary. Further the help depends on its experience, structure of a family and its incomes. Anywhere to not working father of family in a month pay DM500, his wife - DM350, on each child - DM250. Besides, the city pays habitation and health service. However, it is necessary to make a reservation that Hamburg not the most characteristic example. In this second-large German city, the largest seaport as has noted g - n Klein, social policy is developed more strongly, than as a whole on the country. Though the adviser has not failed and to complain: say, every year at a city increases problems. With disintegration sotssistemy, speak in the Hamburg city council, the criminality has sharply increased, has appeared 40 thousand homeless among which besides the narcotism prospers. And this conclusion is true for the country as a whole. Thus the seaport authorities especially press the thesis about “ Russian mafia “. However, it, thank God, not the main problem by which the German authorities of all levels are puzzled.
VALERY - SYCHEV, VICTOR - ZAMYATIN