Relations of the centre and regions
replaces the Relation to regions of the Russian authorities evolved for five years from well-known Yeltsin “ take the sovereignty, how many swallow “ before restoration by power methods “ a constitutional order “ in the Chechen Republic. However for so long term Moscow could not develop however - nibud the complete concept of a regional policy which would suit all - both the centre, and subjects of federation, and would promote creation of corresponding legislative base. The State Duma which offered own variant of such concept and has organised yesterday hearings on the regional policy in which regional heads have taken part has decided to fill a blank. SERGEY`S comment - TSEHMISTRENKO.
According to the Constitution in Russia 89 subjects of federation who are equal among themselves. In practice, however, all is a little differently: with known oruellovskim a principle one are more equal in full conformity, than others. At top of this pyramid of equality of republic, then there are edges, areas, autonomous regions and at the bottom - autonomous regions. Business sometimes reaches to the point of irrationality: for example, Hunts - the Mansijsky autonomous region is a part of the Tyumen region that is why its management is compelled to co-ordinate the actions with the Tyumen authorities though under the law to them and does not submit. Inequality is caused also by that with one subjects (Bashkiria, Tatariej) the centre has entered into agreements on distribution of powers, and with others is not present; one the much bigger sum from tax revenues, than another comes back from the federal budget. Are not carried out in practice and the constitutional positions about differentiation of the rights of the centre and subjects of federation. The example to that was resulted by the chairman who has acted at hearings of the Sverdlovsk regional thought Edward Rossel: The local thought has not supported the federal budget in a part, concerning its powers, but it at all has not confused the deputies of the State Duma who have confirmed the budget without consultations of the Ural colleagues. And when regions try to realise granted by it the Constitution the right to develop own charter the centre in every possible way interferes with it, or referring to discrepancy of the document of the Constitution (so was with the Orenburg charter), or is simple “ losing “ it in numerous Kremlin corridors (as with Sverdlovsk).
to avoid similar cases in the future, some suggested to accelerate working out of the special federal law on differentiation of powers and the property of the centre and subjects. These laws will allow to exclude also from mutual relations between the centre and regions a problem of the conclusion of bilateral contracts. However, in opinion vitse - prime minister Sergey Shahraja, preparation of the contract with Tatariej has allowed to develop in due time technology of dialogue of Moscow with regions, to prevent negative tendencies which could lead to repetition of the Chechen situation. Therefore experience of the conclusion of bilateral contracts should be applied henceforth only to those regions where there is an intensity in relation to the centre - for example to the Chechen Republic. It is possible to solve arising problems with the others other ways. And that problems was less, it is necessary to think of integration of subjects of federation, and consequently, and about reduction of their number. In it many have agreed with Shahraem acting, appealing to experience of pre-revolutionary Russia when the strong centre operated strong suburbs.
though at hearings also there was no obvious collision of supporters unitarizma and federalism, raznomyslie nevertheless was felt. The mayor of St.-Petersburg Anatoly Sobchak has acted as the ardent federalist, having declared that unique way of carrying out of a regional policy in Russia is as it is possible the big decentralisation of the power and full refusal from unitaristskogo the heritage of last years expressed in strengthening of the federal authorities at the expense of regional. At the same time a policy of many regions sometimes more “ obshchegosudarstvenna “ than federal. As an example of Sobchak has specified in relations of the authorities severo - the western regions of Russia with neighbours from Baltic, developing since 1991 when the federal Baltic policy did not exist yet.
however authors of the concept of a new regional policy offered yesterday (from the deputy group with the same name) were more careful. In the recommendations they started with leadership of the Constitution and federal laws in all territory of Russia and inadmissibility of actions of subjects on change of the status.