the Parity of volumes is export - import operations of the Russian foreign trade 1994 steadily comes nearer to totals. The increase which has begun on the previous week of cost volumes of export has proceeded and on the passed. So, the export share in the foreign trade turnover of Russia has made 78 %, and import, accordingly, 22 %. Indicators of average contract cost remained practically at level of last week: in import $117 thousand, and in export - $170 thousand
For export the past week became the period of escalating of volumes of deliveries of strategic raw materials and, first of all, energy carriers. The strongest deterrent in the beginning of year besides proceeding in January (and partly in February) additional deliveries under transactions of last year, from - for what performance of new contracts has been delayed, has appeared change of a mode of export. But also exporters adapted for new conditions, and raw materials deliveries have gone at full speed. In particular, to Germany forest products (cost of delivery $8,65 thousand) and the refined copper ($105,9 thousand), to Belgium stainless steel ($86,7 thousand), to China a breakage of the alloyed steels ($79,6 thousand) have been sent. The ready domestic production was delivered mainly to the nearest neighbours of Russia. For example, contracts on delivery of generators appear in customs reports of week to Kazakhstan ($35,6 thousand), medical products to Moldova ($29,0 thousand), food gelatin to Lithuania ($33,2 thousand), raw skins to Latvia ($87,8 thousand) .
Import of the last week has not been noted by something outstanding. Importers at preservation of traditional commodity structure come back to volumes of deliveries of the end of last year. Firms of Germany, Finland, France and the USA were the basic suppliers of the goods on the Russian market last week. From these countries foodstuff, furniture, clothes and footwear were delivered. Hardly smaller volumes of similar production have been imported from the countries Asian - Pacific region. The difficult home appliances, basically, were delivered from Germany, the USA and South Korea.
as it is known, large changes in the Russian foreign trade occur only as a result of serious changes of the legislation in this area. While anything essential, capable to affect a course of events, has not occurred, importers can easy be engaged in the affairs in a habitual mode. The unique goods which have undergone “ to standard reprisals “ In the beginning of 1995, once again steels likero - vodka and tobacco products. As already now all know, since January, 1st, 1995 import of these goods without duty marks is forbidden. If in January import of cigarettes and alcohol was in deep stagnation, and importers - in expectation of concessions from the State Customs Committee it became now clear that favour not vosposleduet. The first parties of the marked goods already have started to appear on customs points. It is necessary to notice that the most legislative importers the organisations - exempts have proved to be. It and is clear: what costs to them released from the basic part of customs payments, to pay for marks? That to the others (we name their simple importers), as the revision of existing rates of duties promised by customs on likero - vodka and tobacco products has not occurred yet it it is obvious not under force to pay the sum of the customs payments including the duties, excises, the VAT, spetsnalog (not to mention costs for additional procedures), and now here also cost of marks. By the way, and to paste these marks in “ house “ conditions - a problem unsoluble. At the same time the privileges with which cancellation in 1995 threatened both the president, and the government, on - former stand out.
we will notice that as the basic part of legal import of cigarettes and alcohol was carried out under preferential contracts, the Russian consumer has not felt till now on itself sharp jump of the prices for these goods. To it promoted and the commodity stocks created in the end of the last year. What the fact proves to be true also customs statistics. If to look, for example, at dynamics of import of cigarettes last year substantial growth of volumes of import of cigarettes and alcohol last three months 1994 is available not to be unfounded, we will address to figures. For comparison we have decided to take the goods not less popular, than cigarettes - beer. Though under marks beer has not got, its cost, as well as the sum of customs payments, is comparable with cigarettes. Apparently from the table #1, the purchasing policy of importers of beer in 1994 was defined in a greater degree by the seasonal factor (summer splash). Deliveries of cigarettes throughout all year were stable enough, but last three months volumes of deliveries have sharply risen. Certainly, on the eve of New Year`s festivals some commodity stock is always created. However receipts such begin for a month - ones and a half are it is well visible on dynamics of deliveries of beer. This time suppliers of cigarettes obviously created some kind of safety factor to worry not only the vacation period. We will remember, what exactly in the autumn the president and the government especially actively declared the determination to say goodbye on January, 1st, 1995 to privileges then it became known about introduction of obligatory marks on cigarettes and alcohol (excepting beer).
as the Indirect certificate of Prenew Year`s activity of the Russian importers of cigarettes noted growth of export of this production from the USA serves. According to Department of agriculture of the USA, total amounts of export of cigarettes in comparison with 1993 have increased by 14 % and are estimated in $4,53 billion Russia in a rating “ most - most “ consumers of American production has occupied 5 - e a place though, according to the same Department, the most part of this production from Belgium and Luxembourg, taken an honourable first place, is re-exported then to countries of Eastern Europe.
Owing to active purchases of 1994 to the beginning of the come year in Russia enough large supplies of tobacco production of foreign manufacture have accumulated. Therefore the decision of the State Customs Committee on marks of the non-realised goods bought till January, 1st, looks simply a sneer. On command of the State Customs Committee importers, as it is known, are obliged to mark “ thoughtlessly “ the bought goods independently, and by rules the mark should be glued on a pack of cigarettes under cellophane. Obviously, all is offered in a warehouse - taki to unpack, break from each pack cellophane, to paste marks, and then again to wrap up in cellophane and back all to pack. Having mocked at possible ways of a label of mark and technology of the further sale of goods, customs officers of the could not offer anything. Yes by and large, it also is not necessary for them - control over trade in the marked goods is assigned to internal fiscal services. The habitual situation at us became a sad result - to mark cigarettes dealers simply not can, but the law orders. The banal bribe remains in the unique way for realising not marked cigarettes in the near future, probably. And can to all of them - taki it will be possible to think up something original, hitherto the unknown. Practice has shown: than more strong twist nuts legislators, especially inventive there are importers. By the way, it is not excluded, what exactly on it is counted by authors of idea of marks - perhaps, will get out.
as to procedure of customs registration here, fortunately, serious changes it is not expected yet. It concerns the cargoes delivered both legal, and physical persons. In particular, to the big simplification “ shuttles “ at a meeting with journalists the chairman of Customs committee Anatoly Kruglov has declared that the cost quota of duty-free import this year will not be reconsidered by private persons. By the way, about “ shuttles “. It well-known that the United Arab Emirates became one of the regions chosen by them. (However, small and moderate-sized firms in most cases prefer to issue the cargo under the pretext of private, thereby leaving from customs payments.) Than this love is caused, it is not necessary to guess. The explanation lies on a surface - the low prices for many goods in the United Arab Emirates. The reasons of cheapness of the import goods in the United Arab Emirates the following. In - the first, the majority of the goods is delivered on a barter basis in exchange for energy carriers, thus, naturally, mutual discounts are given. In - the second, trading organisations in the United Arab Emirates are released from payment of internal taxes, - navsego it is necessary for them to pay all once a year for the trading licence. And at last, in the United Arab Emirates the goods it is not assessed neither import, nor export duties.
at all listed advantages, there is one essential “ but “. For private persons, and also small firms the air transportation was unique way of delivery of cargoes as to rent the container expensive enough pleasure, and the big necessity for it is not present - the goods are delivered by small parties. Such service without customs clearing makes an order of $1,1 - 1,2 for 1 kg of cargo, and at times and above. Clear business that it is favourable to carry only easy cargoes. Therefore from the United Arab Emirates are delivered mainly to audio - and video equipment, clothes, toys, perfumery, fabrics and jewels.
now some Russian firms offer a new type of service “ to shuttles “ specialising on deliveries from this region of large-sized and heavy cargoes - sea transportations in 20 - ti and 40 - foot containers which will be loaded in small lots the goods of different senders. A route following. At first cargo sea transport is delivered in the Greek city of Peraeus (on it week leaves approximately). Further it is overloaded on motor transport and follows to Russia. Mainly following groups of the goods - autospare parts and accessories to cars, furniture, refrigerators, washing machines, motorcycles, tyres will be delivered thus. In the organisation of delivery of similar cargoes from the United Arab Emirates the local firms created at airlines earlier were engaged. As the market of such services has been almost monopolised by these firms, also they kept the prices high enough. The big exaggeration will not assume that with the advent of new counterparts the volume of deliveries from the United Arab Emirates will seriously increase. To take at least the Italian furniture, the prices on which in the United Arab Emirates almost in 2 times more low, than in the country - the manufacturer. For comparison: the prices for the Italian furniture in Russia a minimum in 2 times above, than in furniture salons of Italy. Thus, benefit from furniture purchase in the United Arab Emirates is obvious - having arranged, say, a country house, it will be possible to save also on purchase of the car of average cost.
TATYANA - KOROTKOV, nelli - SHMAKOV, SERGEY - ALHIMOV, ALEXANDER - KRUSIJAN, IGOR - PRIESTS