Russian and World NewsGusevsky swans
the Majority of inhabitants the Goose - Crystal, located at three o`clock fast driving from Moscow, till now, as well as two centuries ago, live basically thanks to crystal and different glass hand-made articles. To buy in a city it is possible as factory, and kustarno the made goods. And even brought from - for limits of Russia. With steklovarami, vyduvalshchikami, almazchikami and speculators in the Goose - Crystal the correspondent " has communicated; Money “ Alexander Vostrjakov.
the Affinity of the Goose (so local name a city the Goose - Crystal) is felt right after entrance to Vladimir region: in villages on roadsides on roughly brought down racks the sparkling goods replacing toys and towels even more often are exposed. However, on closer examination it appears that gusevskih products there there is more third - an assortment great bulk imported (and not only Russian, but also the Belarus manufacture). Dark blue labels with the stylised swan of Gusevsky crystal factory are pasted on many glasses and salad dishes crookedly, edges are lifted up. If to the seller to declare directly, without hesitating that “ same not gusevskaja “ he will not be confused at all.
- but after all mark! - the bearded muzhik obviously understands in marketing technologies. - Gusevsky the expensive, and their (the seller has given up as lost the West - towards the prospective manufacturer) much more cheaply.
On entrance to the Goose directly along road the chain of the improvised counters was extended. It is the very first local crystal market. A picture already familiar - most of all products of the Belarus masters. Local too is, but they are more expensive approximately on third that as though underlines: the Goose - Crystal is a special brand. But develop on - to another of circumstance, and this city could not be, and crystal till now would do near Moscow.
in 1756 in Mozhaisk a merchant Maltsev has based glass business. Gas and the more so the electricity then, clearly, yet was not, and cooking has flown down demanded huge temperatures. As fuel used fire wood so from woods in immediate proximity from Moscow through pair tens years could remain only hemp. Therefore the authorities have enjoined to clean harmful manufacture where - nibud far away. Maltsev has chosen the Vladimir province in which woods, peatbogs, water and sand, and also villages - labour sources was much.
now from 75 thousand townsmen in Open Society “ Crystal factory “ (the former Maltsevsky factory) 4 thousand work But well-being of the others in many respects depends on its work also, whose existence too is anyhow connected with glass. By the way, in Guus Lenin`s sculpture specifies a hand in crystal factory and at the same time on belonging Open Society of cafe “ Crystal “ instead of on a building of local administration as it usually happens in provincial small towns.
On Crystal (so name factory in a city) six producing departments and set auxiliary, but main - #6 where more than thousand persons carry out a full cycle of manufacture: cook special crystal steklomassu, granjat products.
the main site of the sixth shop - experimental. Here let out highly artistic glass, the best masters work. If at the private soldier vyduvalshchika the talent has suddenly started to be shown, it translate on this site.
the shop ceiling is bound by pipes of metre diameter. It is ventilation which, however, does not rescue from a heat. To the unprepared person long to be at the furnace it is impossible - even the film in diktofonnoj to the cartridge does not maintain, zalipaet (that its further decoding has shown). In the furnace the temperature 1450 ° C is constantly supported. Only then shihta, the raw materials for the glass cooking, consisting of 16 components and on 56 % from sand, plavitsja also turn in steklomassu. The shop fulfils it from 8 mornings and till a dinner then in the furnace the new portion shihty which cooks 15 - 16 hours is fallen asleep. To the middle of next day all weight choose, and the new cycle begins.
- shihty, it is necessary to carry quartz sand, the basic component from Ukraine, to pay in currency - local for a long time has run low! - tries to outvoice a rumble of a flame escaping from the furnace Konstantin Korjagin, the director for strategic development of the factory, accompanying us with the photographer.
- really is not present more close?! - - I shout.
- is, but not that quality! Usual sheet glass, of course, suits, but not for the crystal. For example, gland in sand should not be more than 0,01 %, and that glass will be with a grey shade. But the main thing that, actually, also defines quality of crystal, its game and a ring, is a lead of which should be in any way less than 24 %, simple glass differently will turn out. At the old director - about six years ago - we had to reduce percent of lead to 16 for the sake of economy. Clearly, on quality have lost, but have survived. And, for example, in Ireland there are factories where in shihtu add 35 % of lead, but for us it while too expensive!
in the round furnace - 16 baths with fused steklomassoj various colours (dark blue it turns out at cobalt addition, green - chrome, yellow - minium). At each bath the window. Around on raised “ a workbench “ five brigades on five persons work, but vanity is not present: everyone accurately knows the duties, at everyone the route. Each brigade in one stage carries out one product. Artists there and then work. Professionals understand each other from a half-word.
- the good master - itself always the artist. Others in such conditions long do not maintain, go marketing to trade! - shouts, blocking noise, artist Roman Aksenov. - Glass blowers, probably, all hardly - hardly patients, cannot without glass. There is no such work that they could not execute it!
- so - taki also is not present!?
- Almost! If so difficult that it it is impossible to blow a product, on it there is a Japanese superglue, - Aksenov will confess. - I in Moscow buy it - 10 gramme for $108. Even a seam does not remain, sticks together at molecular level!
If steklovar and vyduvalshchik - purely man`s trades, almazchik - exclusively female. In female hands the glass or a salad dish turn from “ gladja “ (so the product) in the ready goods is called raw, without sides.
In diamond shop the basic background - squeal of diamond circles (from here and the trade name), similar to a sound of a drill of the dentist, and from it with neprivychki distorts a little. Machine tools stand numbers - as school desks in a class, the conveyor with " by flows; gladem “. Everyone almazchitsa puts the, strictly certain side depth to steam of millimetres.
- as you so almazite - by eye, but it is exact? - I ask almazchitsu Lena, young, but already the master of the fifth category. - a glass round, and you precisely define, where what side to place, drawing symmetric turns out.
- and here so, we are able! - Lena laughs. - want, and you we will teach?
on each diamond machine tool, directly on the case, the small pocket mirror is attached. I have assumed that for any technological function. Was mistaken.
- sometimes into shop of the man come, and occasionally even presidents, - Lena tells. - Couple of years back Putin came (to it then have presented three crystal horses - transparent, red and dark blue, under colour of the Russian flag. - “ money “ ). So it is necessary to be as it should be.
It has appeared, shortage of men - one of the main city problems.
- it is much less than them, than us, on the whole 9 thousand to Find - that of muzhiks is possible, yes one die early - manufacture harmful (at women pension in 45, at men - in 50), others become an inveterate drunkard, and many, good, leave on earnings to your Moscow! Here and you - have arrived, and every other day are not present.
Last production phase - giving to products of the present crystal shine (in a course granenija they are scratched and have, frankly speaking, netovarnyj). For this purpose them place in a bath with fluoric acid. Two years ago the factory has bought in Germany special “ acid “ the equipment. All looks on - European, the worker operates process from - for glasses, sitting in front of the computer monitor. Any harmful evaporations.
- on one product it is necessary 15 - 20 minutes. If hardly to overdo - for example, zazevaetsja the worker, - that can burn to holes, - the director explains. - on “ German “ a site such does not happen - have knowingly spent an euro half-million for it.
- And if to holes from the salary subtract?
- from what to subtract - that?! But we punish. We can deprive of the award, say.
about six Years ago when the factory was all in debts and under external management (that time for Crystal do not like to remember), from factory was born by everything that it was possible to sell, crystal by cars took out. Protection did not rescue, too dragged. To me have told about one good way of plunder checked up by time. It is necessary to throw through a fence the rope end, to another, remained on factory territory, to adhere a soft box with the subjects intended for carrying out. Then you leave through a checkpoint, you find the end and accurately you extend. As have not taken out all factory, it is possible to guess only. Anyhow, debts at external management have grown from 40 million to 137 million roubles, it is the fact.
factory aktsionirovalsja in 1992, and all actions have been divided between all workers fifty-fifty.
is was an error - did not consider neither merits, nor the experience, - Korjagin remembers. - And the old director has not been accustomed to the market. We could not then to be entered, have as a result got under external management.
anyway, till 1997 all workers of factory and accessory manufacturers received one glass instead of money. Thus, the market was undermined. Now, of course, all has changed. Salaries, let and small, pay regularly and “ live “ money. Enterprise turns too have essentially grown - from 330 million roubles in 2000 to 750 million roubles in the past.
the director of factory shop in the city crystal market Olga Musalieva now remembers times of five years` prescription with laughter but then to it had no time for it:
- When I the first time have gone to trade on Vehovku (station in 30 km from the Goose. - “ money “ ), to me at once have approached local aunts, speak: you do not know our usages; here we will sell the goods, and then already you. So we with the husband have decided to go on the enterprises situated near Moscow. Typed glass, loaded in “ a Zhiguli “ also carried. So 43 cities for couple of years have gone round.
on Vehovke and now each stopping train the crowd korobejnikov, but, as well as in the market surrounds, original gusevskuju production to passengers to buy difficult. And usual glass vtjuhivajut is frequent under the pretext of crystal. The goods are sold, claims are not accepted - the train has left.
First of all the new management has enclosed 17 hectares of territory of factory with a barbed wire and has employed protection in Vladimir. Larceny has commercially stopped, now if as will take out, so, melochovku.
- Five years ago to 98 % of our production took local, gusevskie. Then on resale of our crystal many “ have risen “. But now there is less than half local we sell, - with pride Korjagin speaks. - there came to us Muscovites Earlier, went on factory, and all limits are already spent, production is not present. And they addressed on the market to secondhand dealers who directly at our gate fussed, “ pushed “ the goods. But now gusevskim we sell crystal in last turn.
- so after all it, it is possible to tell, discrimination in a residence! - I am surprised. - and how you can define, gusevsky to you has come or not - on it it is not written?
- is not present, all on justice - local in last turn. Besides gusevskih all of us in the person know: small town - that small.
but most of all Korjagina are exasperated with Turks and Chineses. The last even have been suspected of industrial espionage.
- come to us regularly, go on shops, look, remove on chambers and photograph, but buy nothing. So now we do not start up them, especially with equipment. And so have glutted the market with the cheap stuff! - Korjagin approaches to a rack where products of competitors are collected, a beret in hands a glass, looks at a gleam. - well unless this quality?! By, however, press strongly. But also we not a bast shity. In the China already 16 shops trade in our crystal, and not punching, and the highly artistic products, which are not able to do. While...
In an underground
almost daily at some o`clock per all the Goose - Crystal disconnect an electricity. The reason - city debts for the electric power which grow thanks to local businessmen, it is illegal almazjashchim crystal everywhere, where only it is possible (in apartments, private houses, garages), thus for an electricity not paying, and more often its simply stealing. However, differently it not to earn. How many it is exact people almazjat in a city (by different estimations, from 1,5 thousand to 5 thousand persons), do not know neither in administration, nor in militia, in a power network which representatives together with OBPPR (department on struggle against offences in the consumer market) arrange special actions and detours of houses for the purpose of revealing of malicious infringers “ an electric order “.
Thanks to checks to Crystal - at least, in the Central market - it was possible to solve a problem of fakes. For example, as a result of one of last joint operations with militia seven persons using false labels have been made answerable. But in general, it is a drop in the sea. Besides, as field investigators, " speak; the people became competent and is simple so to itself on a threshold do not start up “.
the Majority local if you ask them about private crystal business, become reticent. For all the case of year prescription, when the lady occupied house " is known; diamond “ business, has given interview to one all-Russian TV channel. It was developed by a back to the chamber, but it is it has not rescued - a week later its workshop has burnt down.
some illegal immigrants “ have risen “ also were already legalised - have opened shops. But such on all city - an order of ten. The others almazjat kustarno, in the old manner, fairly believing that taxes essentially reduce profitability. “ Glade “ which almazitsja also undersigns paints in-home, is bought not only at local factory, but also in Belarus.
Olga works as the waitress in cafe once in three days, in the rest of the time almazit in-home with mother. The machine tool costs in a bath that the glass crumb and a dust did not fly on all house, on a diamond circle water constantly moves.
- the majority local works, as well as we, on hiring, - Olga speaks. - to us every evening owners bring up “ glade “ we its days almazim, the next evening take away it, deliver new. Certainly, to trade more favourably, but on it there is no time. When almazim, we include more loudly music that neighbours have thought nothing, and that easily can stukanut: to whom hunting to live when behind a wall of half-night the circle works for you.
It seems that to Olga has carried with neighbours - they so strongly love music that its days without a break are ready to listen...
customers on the average pay For processing of six simple, not crystal glasses of 9 roubles. If drawing is more difficult, a bit more. Those who processes crystal, earn more time in ones and a half, but it almazit more hard and longer. With simple glass take quantity. For example, on one glass if to do a type pattern “ romashka “ the pair of minutes leaves. For a working day Olga with mum can make to hundred pieces. Almazjat by turns: a bath small, the machine tool one. Thus it is possible to earn time in two - three more than at factory.
if in the evening to walk along private houses, here and there it is possible to hear a characteristic ringing gnash - almazjat. And the person on duty on a floor in hotel, when I have asked where to get qualitative inexpensive crystal, at once has invited to myself home. It has appeared, her husband almazit directly in a high-rise building cellar, as well as the majority of neighbours: but noise it is not audible.
however, the main trouble nadomnogo “ diamond “ business consists at all in non-payment of taxes or electric power larceny, and it is connected with the polishing mentioned above by fluoric acid. For this operation almazchiki leave on the nature. Especially popular places in this plan - Barinov Roshcha (park area on city suburb) and coast of small river the Goose. Thus very few people thinks of the nature. The used acid merge directly on the earth more often, that turns to gel. A strashnovataja picture: a pattern from black ominous stains. That also look, ecological accident in the Goose - Crystal will burst.