Whether Russian bohemia
Existed in Russia artistic bohemia? In what it has turned today? On what bohemian life on - russki in general is similar? The answer to this question try to find LYUDMILA - TIKHVIN and ALEXANDER - SOKOLJANSKY.
Opinion “ a bald forget-me-not “
About one and a half centuries ago in the French language there was a new word: une boheme. So Parisians 30 - h years of a XIX-th century named community of freedom-loving and useless poets, actors and is simple idlers, more or less close to art, ugnezdivsheesja in Latin quarter (before un bohemien meant “ the gipsy “ or it is simple “ the tramp “) . For the first time in history cultures there was a representation about not which special art environment separated from a respectable society, living on the unwritten laws, semipoor, but elegant on - to the, feericheski immoral, but extremely seriously concerning service to Muses. One this environment drew and fascinated, for others served as a pleasure attraction, to the third inspired feeling of fastidiousness. Frequently sensations were alloyed.
the first letopisets bohemias, Anri Mjurzhe, known to habitues of literary cafes under a nickname “ the Bald Forget-me-not “ in a sensational series of newspaper sketches has witty tried to calm the most respectable public. Anything terrible, he wrote, children rage by youth: the same as also everything, they want glory, money, titles - let poblazhat, it passes in the course of time. About itself(himself) he as in water looked: In thirty six years for literary merits the award of the Honourable legion (well-being has not returned it the health loosened in rough young years, in thirty nine Mjurzhe has died, and society cream has gathered for its funeral) has been handed over it. Whether Mjurzhe was right basically - a question other.
for a long time it is noticed that bohemia life becomes more active and starts to draw general attention or during the periods of deep and melancholy stagnation (becoming effective and not in especially dangerous way to express contempt for a safe society, ordinary morals, official culture and so forth) Or on the eve of public accidents, wars and revolutions. Both in that and in other case the bohemia world is the world living with sensation of deadlock, the end of historical prospect, but more ready about it to sneer and make mischief, rather than to be upset seriously. The history, including own, does not deserve the serious relation: it is the mountain which is giving birth to the mouse (“ the Bat “ we will add, having remembered the well-known cabaret Balieva).
In Russia a Bohemianism, as well as all the rest, is multiplied on feature of national character and gets strange enough shape. We will try to imagine to themselves bohemia hysterical and it is painful reflektirujushchuju, deprived of ease and playfulness, able to be forgotten or feign fun, but only in rare instances - to have fun with all the heart and with taste.
well-known ahmatovskie lines: “ All of us brazhniki here, loose women,// As it is gloomy together to us “ - the melancholy and faultless diagnosis put to Russian bohemia for a long time, if not for ever. “ we motley will embroider the Pattern// Against dim days “ - from a hymn “ the Bat “ is nevertheless only an appeal, a spell, attempt to give out wished for the valid. Levity never sufficed Russian bohemia. It, as any another, is inclined to self-dramatisation and an existential coquetry. “ Brazhniki and loose women “ is after all far not the same that “ drunkards and prostitutes “: it should sound with a shade of bitter pride of, such clever and such unfortunate.
as it to tell on - russki?
And one more circumstance: in Russia as anywhere, the bohemia thought highly unusually about itself and about the creative aspirations. “ Here, out of control of strictly exacting reason... Those art impulses from which the sudden beauty and a diamond sparkling of careless wit " will be born can freely be developed; - wrote Gurevich (the critic, in general - that, the most perspicacious), propagandising activity of nightspots in general and mejerholdovskogo theatre - cabaret in particular. A detail characteristic: Mejerhold at this time works as the director of Imperial theatres, but the prestigious and highly paid service in any way does not prevent to be fond hazardously to it kabareterstvom. Russian, especially Petersburg, the bohemia has been oversaturated by figures “ etablirovannoj “ cultures to which as would like to replace life bases, as well as the artistic poor.
opening cabaret, to aspire at least to revolution in art is very much on - russki. Also gives an occasion not only to irony.
Requirement to correlate business in which you are engaged, with certain main tasks of life to search for the place in the general hierarchy of cultural values it is inescapable on all floors of Russian culture. Far behind examples it is not necessary to go, and the they are closer, the more eloquently. It is possible to concern a modern platform somehow (including - with absolute indifference), but it is difficult not to notice: there is no a little - malski the known executor who would not have ideological “ maximum programmes “ also would not declare aspiration to certain supreme values. If Bogdan Titomir suits a series of dancing parties, it is called not differently, as “ rejvoljutsija “. If in Otara Kushanashvili article you read that singer Irina Allegrova is ineradicably vulgar, similar to the hotel linen keeper, it at all attack, and something like a command “ Prepare! “ before a salute volley: “... How many the person tshchitsja to guess a national image an essence, and one Allegrova has got to ten “. All these “ rejvoljutsii “ “ a national image of an essence “ and “ diamond a sparkling “ are not amusing already because are too typical.
talent degree never played a self-sufficing role where attachment to a specific way of life was more important for bohemia. Kabareterstvo the great director and “ rejvoljutsija “ the priest - the singer is similar on problems: both aspire to create a special environment, the cultural niche delimited (though not isolated tightly) from space serious, respectable, “ day “ cultures. This niche is equally necessary both bohemia of the beginning of the century, and present “ to party-goers “. However to create it, having liberated intermediate space between salonnymi entertainments of aristocrats and uharskimi entertainments ljumpenov, it was never easy. “ There are no at us in Petersburg such places where it would be possible ` to be stuck ` without sense of shame for a downtime. At us or a tavern a tavern, or now the Versailles shine “ - Alexander Benua shortly before opening of the first Russian of cabaret complained. The complaint has not lost the urgency.
to understand, how it was carried out and in what the idea " has then turned; Russian bohemia “ first of all also it is necessary to compare its niches, its arena of self-realisation: to find lines of similarity and distinction between well-known “ the Vagrant dog “ “ the Bat “ “ the Halt of comedians “ and their present analogues - “ Titanic “ “ the Pilot “ and to that similar pleasure institutions, which in Moscow already about hundred.
night dances with Castaneda
Telling “ Russian bohemia “ “ Russian cabaret “ we risk to be fond of generalisations. It is not necessary to attribute to all uncountable theatres of the small forms which have bred in Russia (for 1912 only in Moscow and Petersburg 125 cabarets and theatres of miniatures worked), virtuosity and wit. Their majority as Alexander Kugel admitted, the most influential critic and one of ideologists kabareterstva, “ tritely on the way, rather pity in the art relation. But what from a rhythm of the life also what from platitude? “ a question rhetorical, however the important.
the difference between the best and ordinary cabarets was huge. However the difference - not to be gone. Same Kugel, having headed “ the Curve mirror “ not without quick temper declared that at its theatre and “ poshljatinku “ will put. Pantophagy was included into the program: the culture of cabaret filled lacunas between “ high “ and “ low “ - between theatre and national buffoonery, between the serious and basten literature, between symbolist verses and street songs of type “ Bricks “ and “ marusja has poisoned “. It would Seem, to reconcile poetry of the Block with “ Bricks “ - a problem impracticable, but in it Vertinsky, and with tremendous success as a matter of fact was engaged.
theatres - cabarets at all did not count on artistic bohemia as on the basic public. They did not intend, contrary to assurances narodoljubivyh writers, and for poor ljuda, the interested person as - nibud become cheerful to be acquainted with culture (ordinary cultural entertainments are good already that “ are the strong contender of wine monopoly “ - somebody wrote Actor Antimonov in magazine “ Theatre and art “: what familiar thought!) The certain person at public of cabaret was not at all: there went both students, and cooks, both generals, and workmen, and “ the painted cocottes of three grades “. In cabaret that today we name " was born; mass culture “ and the bohemia should look at the promptly growing, more and more growing coarse child with horror, instead of with indulgent irony.
the main difference between life of cabaret and present club pastime - not as a part of public (in inexpensive places it same, if not even more ill-matched), and that a vital problem of clubs - to present to the consumer a masscult in the form of elite pleasure. The cabaret in every possible way avoids solidity and respectability, the club cultivates it - in the kind forged, certainly. Vkrapljaja in night entertainment displays of a vanguard fashion or the music demanding known intellectual pressure, club shows - makers, of course, least care of reconciliation of the refined art with unconditionally predominating in programs of bottoms - culture. Hardly also they count that the basic circle of visitors on advantage will estimate Bartenev`s mad suits or the Chest, a song “ Polite refusal “ or “ Are glad also the Blackthorn “ (“ on their performance grasp with itself Castaneda`s small volume “ - recommends magazine “ not to sleep! “ entirely devoted to club life). Quite pragmatical aims are pursued: visually to confirm the status “ places not for all “ - well and at the same time, declaring having rummaged in dances, to draw attention of visitors to a bar.
culture of cabaret, extending all is wider, doomed itself (partly meaningly) to creative degradation, turned to a substitute itself. “ Any idea will not be in time... To appear in our society as now it hastens to become like cattle, be vulgarised to last limits “ - was distressed, generalising Russian cultural experience of the beginning of the century, Roots Chukovsky. It would be seductive to tell for the sake of mirror effect that club life makes a start from a masscult and anybody from what does not make a start rises over the natural art level, but. About “ art “ speeches do not go at all: pathos of entertainment removes a problem “ arts “ and “ neiskusstva “ equates them to each other - and for God`s sake, it is not necessary pripletat here a postmodernism aesthetics.
against the businessman
It be necessary for Bogemen an epigraph of this a central board, it would be possible to remember dialogue of the butcher and the writer in a comedy of Erdmana: “ That all of you speak - art, art. Now trade too art. - and that all of you speak - trade, trade. Now art too trade “. And perhaps, the point can be put right after an epigraph.
in Russia the beginnings of the century social prestige “ the actor “ it was exclusively high. The bohemian liberty drew both aristocracy, and a world of commerce not only possibility to be liberated, have fun, worry the sensation of permissiveness flavoured with smack of approaching accident. Manila the artistic environment as that - for nothing that to businessmen it often saw too affected, and to aristocrats - simply trite (all it - both fun, and platitude, both rashristannost, and katastrofichnost - will strictly and accurately be reflected in “ Pure Monday “ Bunin).
Today the social ladder has turned over: upside down, from a head on feet is to whom somehow. Standards of socially prestigious behaviour are set by a world of commerce. The politician, the gangster and the actor almost equally aspire to seem “ businessmen “. How many time already it was noticed that money, the prices and purchases became the main theme of unofficial conversations and artistic small parties, and has put at all that is universal all fierce greed has seized. The mercantile pragmatist - the new pose which has replaced poses unrestrained “ the spontaneous genius “ and liberal ironika, new model of game behaviour which should be accepted will or bondage.
if “ klublenie “ whom pushes away, at all unruliness, and opposite, insufficient solidity. “ the picture looks the same as behind a hillock, but in scale one to hundred and as a result is poor: in one clubs coarse uncles in vile - identical jackets, in others - ostensibly an underground, pimply, stinking, ridiculous “ - otplevyvaetsja Kushanashvili. If not to pay attention to unduly temperamental epithets, as a matter of fact it is right. The former art underground storing in a life of tradition of a bohemian liberty up to the end 80 - h, in a pointed manner tears with the past and for the sake of it renders habitable clubs. Legalisation of night life by paradoxical image has undermined and has depreciated vital stimulus of last domestic bohemia (in this sense transformation legendary Petersburg “ Saigon “ in the shop trading santehnikoj, it is extremely symbolical).
It does not mean that the Bohemianism as that has at all disappeared. On the contrary, it has gained the broadest distribution. Other business that the bohemia has at all ceased to be artistic and ljumpenizirovalas, but the way of life is excellently acquired by weights.
bohemia in the pure state today it is necessary to call not artists and poets, and teenagers - rejverov with their frenzied eskejpizmom, carnival dresses and strange hairdresses, ecstatic dances and drugs, with their delights and trances - and with all their nonsense in addition. The only thing that it is possible to tell in their advantage, is that traditional complexes of Russian bohemia a rave - to generation are not peculiar not in the least.
neither the idea, nor a way of life are not capable to extend, not poglupev thus. The culture bogemenov should pay for the viability: it has paid off with ability to creativity.