200 years to a vaccine against a smallpox
Illnesses of the British cows receive not for the first time the world resonance. In XVI - XVII centuries when across Europe it is frequent prohodilas a smallpox mowing both people, and cattle, the British physicians have noticed that the milkmaids pottering with sick cows, the human smallpox avoids. 47 - summer Edward Dzhenner, the English doctor, has decided that thus the Lord has specified in a way of the prevention of a dreadful disease and with confidence in success has entered by means of a sharp stick contents ospennogo a vial of a cow under a skin 11 - to the summer boy. It was in 1796.
Simple manipulation of Dzhennera has given rise at once to two directions in a medical science - preventive medicine and immunology. Certainly, doctors and knew before that illness is easier for warning, rather than to cure. However with such evidence the idea of the preventive help to Dzhennera was never shown. And the thought on premeditated infection of people for the sake of preservation of life by it in the future in general to very few people came to mind. Ospoprivivanie has immediately received such popularity, it is possible even to tell, has entered into such fashion that in 1803 in London there was an institute ospoprivivanija - which, probably, it is necessary to consider as the first in the history of mankind profile medical medical - scientific institution. Has headed institute Dzhenner.
Its example has appeared infectious and in direct, and figuratively words. Doctors and microbiologists were captured by passion to creation of vaccines. By the way, the word a vaccine occurs from a word vacca that on - Latin means “ a cow “. Many of researchers were lost, testing for itself action of the self-made preparations made of killing bacteria and viruses.
Frenchman Lui Pasteur who has brought scientific base under experimental data of the British became the Most known follower Dzhennera. He has created vaccines from such dreadful diseases, as the Siberian ulcer (1881) and furiousness (1885). By Pasteur`s name it is named not only one of the greatest immunologicheskih the world centres, but also process of clearing of food liquids from microbes - pasteurisation.
it is interesting, as it seemed to contemporaries of Dzhennera, and Pasteur`s contemporaries, as if the decision literally all problems of medicine - not far off, it is necessary to work simply persistently over reception all new both new vaccines, and the mankind will become the healthy. It is necessary to notice that in those days infectious diseases were a principal cause of death of people. However creation of each following prophylactic was given all more difficultly and more difficultly. Since the invention of a vaccine against a poliomyelitis no new inoculations have appeared. Only last year some American companies have declared creation of a vaccine against separate kinds of a hepatitis, however while it passes a stage of clinical tests.
and ospennaja the vaccine, for example, became the first industrial biotechnological product - along with tetanic anatoksinom and a vaccine against a belly typhus. At the beginning of the century on manufacturing of these preparations the American firm Lederle has made to itself a name existing and now. It, by the way, the first has mastered also industrial release of penicillin - in 1942.
campaign for smallpox eradication as a matter of fact was the first originally world action of World Health Organization, and the first so successful. In 1958 when campaign has begun, disease of a smallpox in the world was still very high (in the USSR illness have exhausted in 1936), instead of has passed also twenty years as it did not become at all - last case of illness has been fixed in Somalia on October, 26th, 1977. Soviet Union promoted a victory over a smallpox much, having transferred the CART gratuitously from above 1,5 mlrd units ospennoj vaccines.
the smallpox virus became the live being first in the history, whose genetic code has been completely described. The head of Institute of genetic researches (Gejtersberg, Maryland, the USA) Krejg Venter and the employee of the Center of control over infectious diseases (Atlanta, Georgia, the USA) Joseph Espozito in 1994 have finished laborious two-year work in which course they managed to decipher completely a gene of a virus of a smallpox. On several diskettes the same information, as on well distinguishable only in an electronic microscope to a molecule of the deoxyribonucleic acid including 186 thousand of signs of a genetic code is written down now. Brave Americans worked with the present virus - the murderer: far ancestors of investigated cages have caused last (it would be desirable to hope) epidemic of a smallpox in the history of mankind to Bangladesh in 1975.
Today in the world remains only two places where work with smallpox activators - the mentioned Center of control over infectious diseases and Moscow Scientifically - research institute of virology. Certainly, it would be better to destroy at all these microorganisms, but they can be useful in one way or another in gene engineering.
and here stocks ospennoj vaccines to destroy early. The virus is very hardy, and when last year there were messages that behind Polar circle, in a mouth of Kolyma, water the old cemetery where the prisoners who have died of a smallpox are buried can be taken down, public health services have strained - the permafrost could keep perfectly a smallpox virus even within those long years, which remains have lain in the earth.
fortunately, the smallpox has not returned to life.
MICHAEL - KIRTSER