Foreigners in a Gulag
In territory of the former Soviet republics till now there live the foreign citizens who have been violently taken out to the USSR from German concentration camps. And not only Americans (about them wrote much and long searched), but also citizens of the European countries. The Soviet authorities answered inquiries of the governments of the European countries that the foreign citizens who have remained after war in territory of the USSR are not present. However tireless researchers search and till now find in territory of the former USSR of the compatriots. And the French researcher Deni Sellem (Denis Sellem) has transferred to journalists the unique document on the politician of the Soviet military authorities concerning the foreign citizens released from a German captivity, including military men of allied armies. This archival find testifies that some thousand citizens of the USA and the European countries after war have got to the USSR.
the Casual find in the Parisian archive
Deni Sellem lives in Paris. Is engaged in searches of manuscripts of Victor Hugo. Says that manuscripts of the writer yet has not found, however in archive of one of the insurance companies has found out its insurance policy. And the keeper of the Parisian Pantheon even lets it to assign flowers to a tomb of the great writer.
in April, 1992 Sellem worked in one of the Parisian archives. The French journalist preparing the publication about life of Frenchmen in German concentration camps nearby sat. It considered archival photos. One of them has interested Deni. He has asked a card and with amazement has found out that in a photo among group of prisoners of Osventsima its uncle Edward Kalifa is embodied. Its amazement has been caused by that the family considered Edward as the victim in 1943, and the photo has been made by the Soviet officer in 1945 at clearing of prisoners of a concentration camp. Deni has understood that Edward Kalifa has lived till the end of war, and has then disappeared. The find has seemed to Deni so improbable that he has asked to examine detectives from technical department of the Parisian police. Experts have compared a pre-war photo and a card from a concentration camp and have come to a conclusion that in both photos the same person. Deni Selem has begun searches of the uncle and has soon found out that Edward Kalifa has disappeared not one. After clearing of German concentration camps some more thousand French citizens were gone.
the general reported personally on Stalin
During the searches of Deni has found out the unique document. It is the service record of general Andrey Hruleva addressed personally to Joseph Stalin. In it the general reports that “ According to instructions of the Supreme commander in chief “ as of March, 20th, 1945 122 foreigners, among which 45 thousand Frenchmen (from them 34 110 military men), 2953 Englishmen, 2921 Americans (from them 2832 military men), 11 670 Italians (from them 10 560 military men), 16 593 Poles (from them 1311 military men) and 8914 representatives " are released and registered 88 thousand; the other nations “ (from them 3552 military men). Further the general informs that in commandant`s offices of fronts there are 64 thousand more 504 foreigners. Abundantly clear that it not the first and not last document such. Most likely, the general constantly transferred in the Rate of the Supreme commander in chief the data about quantity of the grasped foreigners. It follows from the document. In particular, it was informed that in the order of the time Polish government to Warsaw all 23 618 Poles have been sent, and on the account on March, 20th, 1945 was 16 593 persons are taken. It means that 16 593 persons were is taken “ on the account “ in addition. Besides, in dokladnoj the information on sending " contains; Czechoslovaks “ to Uzhgorod and Yugoslavs to Belgrad. Meanwhile, among the registered persons “ Czechoslovaks “ and Yugoslavs do not appear. Obviously, the data about them has been transferred earlier. At last, the most interesting - data on sending of foreigners in transit camp of Odessa. For March, 20th to Odessa 2891 American, 2823 Englishmen, 4570 Frenchmen, 52 representatives " have been sent; the other nations “. And for March, 23rd sending of 160 Americans and the Englishmen treated in front hospitals there is planned. Most likely, Odessa became one of large “ transfers “.
Adventures of foreigners in Russia
From eyewitnesses of Selem has learnt that the grasped foreigners in Odessa contained in sanatoria and schools. The Soviet administration selected for sending in a Gulag first of all experts. After them the attention of bodies went on foreigners with Russian and Ukrainian surnames. Them violently deprived of foreign citizenship and sent either in a Gulag, or on a new residence.
in January, 1995 Deni has found the former citizen of France George Kovalchuka in Lvov. Before war he lived in small town Krezo and corresponding record is available in the registration book in the small town mayoralty. On the historical native land it still had relatives. To these the former Frenchman speaks with accent, characteristic for the province. Sending in a Gulag of Kovalchuk, truth, has avoided, but the Ukrainian surname has prevented it to return to France. From Odessa it has been sent to Lvov where married the Ukrainian. To France it is not going to come back, but strives on restoration of the French citizenship.
procedure of repatriation from the Odessa camp has been stretched for 6 months. And some foreigners left in a city without documents as them did not give out. In Odessa foreigners were late patrols. Then them accused of espionage and sent in a Gulag.
according to Deni Selema, in a Gulag 2600 Frenchmen, including participants of the Resistance movement, prisoners of war and peace citizens (in particular, Edward Kalifa) have been sent. Besides, 12 000 elzastsev, participating in war on the party of Germany. In 1956 many foreigners have been released from camps. Selem has told that to France after amnesty has returned no more than 10 Frenchmen.
in its opinion, the foreigners who have endured a Gulag, became the Soviet citizens and till now so are frightened that do not admit the foreign extraction. In Ukraine Selem has found the former citizen of Italy. Relatives have learnt it in photos. The Italian too has identified the native. However, as it is strange, the foreign extraction does not admit.
Despite the support declared by the Russian authorities in search of foreigners, really all is differently. By words g - on Selema, Russian - the American commission on search of the missing American citizens under the direction of general Volkogonova has found nothing. At the same time public search groups already have found two Americans. Selem explains it complexity of searches - surnames of many foreigners have been twice deformed. At first them have incorrectly written down in registers in German concentration camps. And then already Soviet officials wrote down surnames of foreigners Russian letters. Besides, after reception of the Soviet passport them automatically removed from the archival account as foreigners. And the Russian archivists, unlike members of search groups, proceed in the work from a formal sign of citizenship therefore it is impossible to find out a true origin of the person.
however Selem is not going to leave the search. He wants to find the uncle. As recently on communication with Selemom there was a woman. She asserts that knew the Frenchman similar to Edward Kalifa. Its description and descriptions of Selema coincide. Besides, she has remembered that its acquaintance too called Edward. Therefore Selem continues to search for the uncle and other foreigners.
BORIS - the WEDGE, MICHAEL - LASHCH