Russian and World NewsAbout a role “ Rolls - the Royce “ in the Russian history
this year will celebrate centenary from the date of the basis firm “ Rolls - the Royce “ reputed the manufacturer of faultless elite cars. To earn it governors of red Russia have helped. Englishmen were not in debt. So, it in many respects obliges by the victories in Korea the Soviet experts. History long, though also not too equal mutual relations “ Rolls - the Royce “ and the USSR has restored an observer “ Money “ Evgenie Zhirnov.
Playing a supporting role
about 15 Years ago there was the computer economic game which participants were offered to choose investment strategy in own manufacture. It was possible to direct means on manufacture expansion, advertising and etc. But the prize was provided in the unique way - an investment bolshej parts of means in improvement of quality of production. Most likely, founders of game have simply reproduced experience of the largest jeweller houses, the Swiss watch-makers and, of course, “ Rolls - the Royce “.
the British firm has come to this business - strategy as other way at it it was not simple. Engineer Henry Rojs was the fanatic of perfect mechanisms. And aristocrat Charles Rolls, undertaken to sell its production to English high society, could not dishonour the name delivery of the second-grade goods.
the high-ranking buyers, truth, have estimated their impulse far not at once. In the first years of existence of a car market all cars offered on it were exclusively manual assemblage, and a body and were at all produced under individual orders of clients. It was necessary to possess a remarkable ingenuity to deserve a recognition of arising community of motorists. And to the Royce with Rollsom it was possible. A year later after the manufacture beginning, in 1907, they have let out the open silvery car with the silvered door handles and other details. “ a silver phantom “ made enormous success. And participation in race on 2 thousand miles has shown that the car is capable quickly enough and without breakages to cover the big distances. As a result the firm has started the production exclusively this model which have won hearts of a part of English elite. And not the most well-founded. The richest people of British Empire of that time - Indian radzhi considered on - to the present magnificent cars “ Nepir “ also made in mother country.
in Russia where isstari in all equaled on the first person in the state, the automobile fashion was absolutely other. For imperial garage “ Rolls - Royces “ certainly, bought, but, judging by the remained photos, there went in them basically daughters of the emperor and his wife. The autocrat obviously preferred French “ Delon - Belvil “ which lost “ Rolls - to Royces “ in design, but won in capacity: from 45 to 80 l. With. Against 40 l. With. At English competitors. Besides, Adolf Kegress, the technical head of garage and Nikolay II personal driver, was the citizen of France and the former employee of firm “ Delon - Belvil “ and, accordingly, influenced imperial automobile preferences, for certain receiving from the fellow countrymen commission fee.
as a result “ Rolls - Royces “ in imperial garage was three times less, than “ Delon - Belvilej “. About the same parity it was observed and as a whole on the country. The society top, and " used the French cars of the higher class; Silver phantoms “ the aristocrats far from a court yard, and representatives of business elite preferred. For example, it is known that “ Rolls - the Royce “ Alexander Solzhenitsyna Roman Scherbak`s native uncle, the son of the large Kuban land owner has got.
during the First World War firm on the chassis “ the Silver phantom “ let out armoured troop-carriers, in Russia have appeared sanitary “ Rolls - Royces “. But opinion of the Russian motorists about “ Rolls - Royces “ as about good, but not the best cars has proved to be true. As the staff car “ the Silver phantom “ has proved not in the best way. The Russian military agent in France count Alexey Ignatyev remembered the trips to a staff - apartment of the French army: “ It was required to cover daily at breakneck speed 45 km - distance between Paris and Shantili where I usually spent the end of the working day. Each trip, considering both delays at entrance and departure from capital, occupied to no more hour of time, but not always did without incidents.
I Sit near to driver Latizo and I glance at an arrow specifying speed: it has passed through hundred and jumps round hundred twenty five. The car rushes under a bias on a slippery stone blocks, devouring last kilometres remaining to Paris. And here to me seems that any black subject like a wheel jumps through the sloping ditch separating narrow road from airdrome Burzhe. The wheel slides on green smooth as billiards, to a field, overtaking our car, but there and then I see, how Latizo, having risen on a seat, has convulsively stuck into a wheel, turning it very much in left-hand side. However the heavy car continues to slide, gradually reducing speed, slightly heels to the right and, at last, stops. Latizo, having reddened from pressure, is silent, and I hardly manage to achieve from it that we already, perhaps, would not be on light if it only has touched a brake. He has run to search in the field for a tyre cover of the right forward wheel “.
Such stories did not add popularity “ Rolls - to Royces “. But all has changed, when to the power Bolsheviks have come to Russia.
the reputation cleared under Lenin
the Legend says that living in emigration in Switzerland Lenin hardly has not knocked down on the “ Rolls - the Royce “ any Swiss bourgeois. Having missed the chance to turn the course of history, it has been compelled to beat off from Vladimir Ulyanov`s claims in court. Lenin - the lawyer has appeared more successfully Lenin - the bicyclist. And, inspired, he as if has promised to itself(himself) too to start to go on “ Rolls - the Royce “.
Anyway, after revolution three cars have been fixed to Lenin from the imperial garage which has become avtokonjushennoj by base of Sovnarkoma. It were two “ Delon - Belvilja “ (a limousine and with an open body), and also “ Rolls - the Royce “. But Lenin in due course began to prefer “ Rolls - Royces “. Anyway, they have made a basis of the Special garage created in 1920 for service of Ilyich and its relatives.
unique more or less reasonable explanation of refusal of Lenin from “ Delon - Belvilej “ there can be a history with a robbery of the leader of the world revolution, happened on March, 30th, 1918. Lenin, going after meeting for a city where a vein Krupsky, has decided that to the car run wishing to communicate to it workers, and has ordered to stop. But workers have appeared gangsters, and the revolver of the security guard lay under a can with milk for Krupsky. “ Delon - Belvil “ have stolen. Then the car have found, but the district committee in which territory she has been found out, did not want it to give. And Lenin has changed on “ Rolls - the Royce “.
Subsequently one of “ Rolls - Royces “ has been put on a caterpillar drive for Lenin`s winter trips to Hills and on hunting. “ I ask quickly, - chairman Sovnarkoma wrote to the chief of the governmental motor depot Ushakov, - to attend to assemblage of autosledge of system ` Kegress ` not less than three pieces for service me and Council of national commissioners “.
the Rubber caterpillars which have been thought up by inventive Kegressom still for cars from imperial garage, at first have established on “ Pakkard “ but the engine of an old car has died. And then umeltsy from garage Sovnarkoma for five days have restored the motor, without having almost any spare parts (all lacking the smith of garage has shaped). Deeply moved Ilyich on V.D.Bonch`s operating affairs SNK official report - Bruevich about successful end of repair has written: “ V.D.Proshu to convey to companions thanks for vigorous work and to allocate 1 pood of a flour as the award. Avenue SNK Vl. Ulyanov - Lenin “.
In the list of virtues of Ilyich the generosity obviously occupied one of last places. Eight mechanics had to be content with that remains from 16 kg of a flour after awarding observing of restoration of the motor of heads of a motor depot. After that work on alteration " has been spent; Rolls - the Royce “ in means of transportation of the main hunter of the country.
it is natural, the habit to imitate in all to the first person with power change has not disappeared anywhere. After Lenin “ Rolls - the Royce “ the Lion Trotsky has caught. Same “ the Silver phantom “ carried chairman Sovnarkoma of Ukraine Hristiana Rakovsky. And Lev Kamenev who was not lost nearly when from - for poor-quality fuel its engine " has flashed; Peugeot “ even has tried umyknut received after that case “ Rolls - the Royce “ to a new place of service - to Petrograd.
together with demand the quantity of English cars grew in the governmental garage also: in their 1919 was two, and in 1921 - m - already 13. However all it were “ Rolls - Royces “ Already fairly suffered on the Russian impassability.
“ I Use a case in point, - the chief of the Kremlin motor depot Medvedev in Sovnarkom wrote, - once again to report on you that the Motor depot motor car park is worn strongly out and does not receive any fresh cars (except three in Special garage).
Other responsible garages (Century TS. And. K, Narkomindel, the River of Century With. R, the Komintern) was received for the updating for ranking officers by new cars. I serve Sovnarkom exclusively on the second-hand articles keeping exclusively on repair and leaving.
metal was already deformed from an old age (there are cars of ten years` prescription), unforeseen breakages can always be.
it is insistently necessary to pour in 2 - 3 new cars why I petition for acceleration of the foreign purchase resolved to us “.
So the destiny has smiled again to firm “ Rolls - the Royce “. Here only quality of its cars had to it no any relation.
Certainly, for the governmental garage could buy and not bad proved “ Delon - Belvili “. Anyway, the chief of the Kremlin motor depot tried to exchange in their other motor transport services. But the French authorities persistently demanded from the Soviet government of return of imperial debts and from time to time tried to arrest the Soviet property abroad. In the answer Sovnarkom with the same regularity forbade any trading operations with France. And as a result Narkomvneshtorg has preferred to make the basic trading - purchasing base at first Berlin, and then London. Soon enough main Soviet it is export - society ARKOS based in England (ARCOS, All Russian Cooperative Society) in which under the direction of the officials sent from Moscow some hundreds English clerks worked became the import enterprise. In schitannye years ARKOS has turned to one of the largest London trading companies. Considerable incomes of trade in grain, flax, furs, caviar and the other Russian goods have allowed ARKOSu to get some many-storeyed houses in the British capital.
in successes ARKOSa responsible companions have been extremely interested in Moscow. At that time for heads existed so-called partmaksimum salaries. And all necessary for comfortable life were brought to capital RSFSR by employees ARKOSa. They even have asked Narkomvneshtorg to simplify as much as possible for them customs inspection passage.
money for purchase of gifts to Moscow, naturally, undertook not from cash desk ArKoSa, and from the commission fee received from partners and consequently in a narcofloor-mat tried that this gold stream did not run low. For example, vneshtorgovskie representatives in the Near East have concluded the contract with branch of the French automobile firm “ Berlie “ On delivery of trucks to Russia. But in Moscow to carry out this transaction have forbidden. In a moment grown wiser Frenchmen have gone to London and practically on the same conditions, but, probably, with commission fee in the necessary hands have received the desired contract.
however as true patriots of Britain, English managers ARKOSa preferred to buy cars in the homeland. In the beginning of 1921 the transaction of a century assuming delivery " has been developed; Rolls - Royces “ for the Soviet elite. In May, 1921 ARKOSu under it have given out 10 million gold roubles that equaled _1 million On this money it was possible to buy more than 400 newcomers “ Rolls - Royces “. But happens unforeseen - in Russia hunger has burst. To spend such money for magnificent limousines while means for the help starving worldwide gathered, it was indecent even for Bolsheviks known for the cynicism.
However managers ARKOSa, it is visible deeply and personally interested in success of the project, used the best efforts for its rescue. They ostensibly have not up to the end understood the encryption received on June, 11th, 1921 from Moscow about transaction cancellation. All the summer long in ARKOSe tried to find the bases for payment at least small orders on “ Rolls - Royces “. The head of company Klyshko informed in the end of July to Moscow to the people`s commissar of foreign affairs Tchitcherin: “ Four Rolsa (so in the text. - ` Money ` ) is bought before reception of your telegramme on the basis before the received orders. In total together with spare parts on 9650 sterlings. Cars go by the steamship leaving on Saturday 13 - go (August. - ` Money ` ). Until new orders from the further purchases we will refrain “.
However practically simultaneously in Sovnarkom other telegramme has left: “ The list of spare parts sent in February for Rolsrojs a motor depot of Sovnarkoma #1469 could not be executed on February, 17th owing to firm refusal to deliver spare parts for cars of former years. Then order execution has been suspended in view of the general cancellation of all orders by the decision HUNDRED (work and defence Council. - ` Money ` ). The list has been recognised by our experts by made insufficiently full... All-round discussion of a question we come to conclusion about necessity to order immediately three Rolsa and two chassis for old models over the ordered parts according to the new list, total for a total sum approximately 15 thousand pounds. If find necessary immediate execution of the task of a motor depot of Sovnarkoma... Completely, it is necessary to add 25 thousand pounds more. Immediately cable, whether credits affirm you, and translate respective currency “.
In August ARKOS at last has informed that it is ready to direct allocated on “ Rolls - Royces “ means for purchase of the foodstuffs for the starving Volga region. Purchases of cars have renewed only in the beginning of 1922. Thus Londoners continued to bend the line. With the big reluctance they ordered in France spare parts for “ Delon - Belvilej “ from garage Sovnarkoma, and in America - for “ Pakkardov “ from garage VtSiKa. And when the governmental motor depot needed motorcycles, ARKOS, certainly, has got English BSA.
Only after liquidation in the middle of 20 - h years of actual monopoly ArKoSa for foreign trade of the USSR in the country cars of not British origin have started to arrive in large quantities. By then Moscow surpassed in quantity “ Rolls - Royces “ any other capital of the world. Thus, orders from Russia have helped firm to endure difficult years of a world economic crisis tolerably.
Certainly turn such operation without support of the main person in the state ARKOS could not. But in many memoirs it is said that Stalin did not love “ Rolls - Royces “ preferring to go on “ Pakkardah “. And nevertheless he has resolved or at least did not object to mass import of cars of a design of the Royce. Probably, all the matter is that at a sharing of imperial cars to Stalin persistently did not give anything decent. To it have allocated low-power in comparison with cars of other supervising companions “ Voksholl “ whereas its immemorial contender Trotsky as it was already mentioned, has received “ Rolls - the Royce “.
Stalin used strong “ Rolls - Royces “ as original jeeps - by these cars it carried on hunting and fishing. Besides he loved fast driving on the broken roads situated near Moscow. And still soon enough, to the middle 30 - h, Stalin has changed on production of the American car industry expensive to its heart. “ Rolls - Royces “ From the governmental garage where they have been collected in 1932 under Voroshilov`s offer, began to lower downwards on a power vertical, and in 40 - e years it was possible to meet the chairman of the advanced collective farm which is driving about on the killed elite car.
but “ Rolls - the Royce “ by Moscow has not been forgotten. Its other production - aviation engines - it is live interested command of the Soviet Air Forces. And the firm in the beginning 20 - h probed years soil about cooperation in this area. In Moscow found that let out by it 650 - a strong aircraft engine “ Kondor “ remarkably approaches for the Soviet heavy planes. However the requirement of the USSR for aircraft engines was insignificant (200 - 300 pieces in a year), and the main condition of Moscow - to organise their manufacture in the USSR - demanded from firm of too high expenses. However and to give this small share of the market “ Rolls - the Royce “ To competitors did not gather (negotiations with variable success conducted also British “ Bristol “ and “ Nepir “) And periodically arranged for the Soviet representatives effective advertising actions. Known pilot Michael Gromov so remembered the acquaintance to production “ Rolls - the Royce “: “ Except museums and pleasure institutions Englishmen have suggested us to go and examine aviamotor factory of firm ` Rolls - the Royce `. To factory there were 200 km.
- how many it will occupy time? - We have asked.
- we will leave by train in the morning and we will return by a dinner, i.e. to six or to eight o`clock in the evening. It depends on that, what is the time will occupy factory survey, - there was an answer.
to us it was not trusted in such speed. But it was necessary to trust, it was necessary to agree.
had breakfast in a train. The train went with a speed 112 - 115 km/ ch, anywhere without reducing, even at large stations. Went less than two hours, with one stop. To our arrival cars ` by Rolls - the Royce ` - as it is known, the best at that time in the world have been submitted. Aircraft engines of this firm were same also.
At factory to us have shown in work at the stand the aviation engine capacity of 800 l. With. It was the skilled novelty. Englishmen, showing us forge shop, with pride have declared that training of a steel at them is conducted from generation to generation by one sort (I do not remember, unfortunately, their surname)... As it is known, the factory was famous for quality and reliability of let out production for the whole world.
having examined manufacture, after a lunch we have really returned to London to six o`clock in the evening “.
However the contract on construction in the USSR of engines was received by German BMW (see “ Money “ #45 for 2003). Cooperation in this area with “ Rolls - the Royce “ it has been adjusted only after the Second World War. In 1946 the Soviet representatives in London have informed to Moscow that the firm is interested in sale of the USSR the newest jet engines. Besides, representatives “ Rolls - the Royce “ Have offered the Soviet experts a course of lectures under the theory and operation of turbojets (TRD).
In Moscow have not believed - considered that similar in general it is impossible. Assert that Stalin even has told that only fools trade in the secrets. And still he has agreed to direct to England aircraft designer Artema Mikoyan and the designer of engines Vladimir Klimov together with the expert in materials technology.
they managed to conclude the contract on purchase of the advanced aircraft engines “ Rolls - the Royce “: 30 “ Dervent - V “ with draught 1590 kgs, 20 “ Ninas - I “ with draught 2040 kgs and five “ Ninas - II “ with draught 2270 kgs. The first motors have been sent in the USSR in the beginning of 1947.
the problem consisted that it was not possible to receive any design documentation, and it was necessary to master manufacture of copies, in a literal sense spending the received samples. The factory manager #500 Vladimir Tchernyshev to whom have charged release Soviet “ Derventov “ remembered: “ the Bought samples of engines ` Dervent - V ` not only had no any engineering specifications, but had even no data cards... On the other hand, the factory at that time occupied with manufacture of aviation diesel motors, has not been adapted at all for manufacture TRD.
Under the project developed by me (I then worked as the chief engineer of factory #500) the organisation of batch production TRD has been broken into stages. At the first stage the great difficulty was represented by definition of materials of which the English engine has been made. At my direct participation the big research works with attraction of some aviation scientific institutes, Academy of Sciences and etc. have been made
We have created and have mastered absolutely new technological processes and the special equipment, in a root have changed structure of shops of factory, have created product lines for processing of basic and mass details TRD (for example, shovels)... “
In December, 1947 Soviet “ Rolls - Royces “ have been started in manufacture. Engines “ Ninas “ (in the Soviet variant - RD - 45) Mikoyan MiG`s fighters - 15 on which the Soviet pilots have brought down during war in Korea many the American planes have been equipped.