Who on an economy mainreform of monopolies
Simultaneous reform of several monopolies under control to the state - electric power industry, gas sphere, Ministry of Railways, municipal power and housing and communal services - should lead to creation in all these spheres of special business. The companies which all activity is calculated on existence in transitive conditions, after reform end should be theoretically forced out more thorough players. Nevertheless their big part is going to remain in the market for a long time.
Billionaires on an hour
If to analyze an event in the basic monopolised markets of Russia, first of all power, only on the basis of the official documents, almost any independent of the Russian Open Society UES of Russia joint-stock company Gazprom the joint-stock company of the Russian Railway, system of municipal public utilities, business in these spheres cannot exist. The basis of activity of the Russian monopolies, in the obvious form supervised by the state, not only possession of infrastructural actives, but also pricing supervised by the state in the markets monopolised since a planned economy - differently, system is arranged so that out of the program 5 - 15 the Russian Open Society UES of Russia or Federal Wholesale Electric Power Market in electric power industry, out of gazpromovskoj networks of deliveries, out of housing and communal services system to organise business it is impossible.
Nevertheless presence of enough thorough layer biznesov, existing separately from state monopolies and managing not bad to earn in the markets where formally there is no market pricing, it is necessary to notice. Type for experiment in a search engine on the Internet any compound word including elements energo prom gas invest a trance resources or delivery - Hardly it will be possible to find at least one combination which is not used by the real-life company in which business gas delivery in housing and communal services or electric power system gazovikam will be found out. So, on the server of Yaroslavl Open Company thermal power station ` Gazenergopromresursy ` representatives of board fairly specify that the company is created in 2002. And nevertheless a maximum for one and a half year it sufficient experience on all aspects of delivery of natural gas " is saved up; and in a number of regions it can represent itself as itself the supplier of natural gas . By the way, at a forum on Open Company site the first message is the offer to organise gas delivery to the municipal enterprises of the fifth price belt of Russia. We will explain: these enterprises should be provided with gas structures Gazprom and to buy gas from thermal power station Gazenergopromresursy can only at the state prices.
only one example. During the conflict round overflow by independent manufacturers of gas of system of gas pipelines Gazprom in October - November, 2003 (see from October, 20th) it was possible to find out, what business of structures could suffer from prospective restrictions on gas prorolling. So, Open Company gas Nortgaz under short-term contracts in this case did not get on a number of a state district power station of the south of Russia, and to deliver it there should at all Nortgaz and independent both from it, and from Gazprom and from the Russian Open Society UES of Russia structures. A question on how state district power stations at regulated and, at least officially, dotiruemyh tariffs for the electric power can is profitable to buy expensive gas Nortgaza at all it is not necessary to set. Schemes of enough profitable business in the market where the monopoly works, exist - they and are the main active of the companies without which this market theoretically can quite exist.
the Intermediary for too big
the Main thing, but not unique employment reformatsionnogo business in Russia intermediary is at the conclusion of transactions large players in the market. And this weak spot of similar structures. So, for example, unified social tax group actively participates in Russian Open Society negotiations UES of Russia with Gazprom and Gazprom from Ministry of Railways about gas deliveries between natural monopolies in 2004, and affiliated company of power structure of group unified social tax - energo the company Rusenergosbyt from the middle of last year carries out a number of mutual deliveries energetikov and gazovikov in Astrakhan and Orenburg. In the theory to unified social tax group in schemes of deliveries of a place is not present: business and Russian Open Society structures, and structures Gazprom it is co-ordinated to system of price regulation which supervise liquidated FEK (it it is transformed to Federal Agency of tariffs) and other governmental bodies. In 2001 the head of the Russian Open Society United Power Systems Anatoly Chubays has sharply critically estimated the fact of existence of Open Company Mezhregiongaz affiliated company Gazprom as not necessary energetikam the intermediary in mutual relations with gas monopoly.
however, in the Russian Open Society this time reasonably enough explain that the intermediary to the intermediary rozn. So, unified social tax offers schemes of financing of deliveries of gas and energy which the Russian Open Societies and " manage; to Gazprom more cheaply, than independent financing. The rigid schemes of work developed by monopolies for carrying out of own operations, and even imposed by it the state, often enough do not allow to work effectively with medium-sized consumers. At last, as well as in any market, a personal contact of managers of unified social tax and the largest co-owner of the company Grigory Berezkina allow to solve quickly a part of paper problems which cannot be solved at level of giants.
an Achilles` heel of this layer - vulnerability on charges in the corruption organisation. It is obvious that in the conditions of changing game rules in the monopolised markets of a bribe and use an administrative resource give to intermediaries sharp growth of profitability, and hardly it is possible to find the company - the intermediary, absolutely excluding of the arsenal this criminal aspect. However, as practice shows, in these structures are as much as possible interested in to using this tool. And the opinion that all intermediaries at monopolies - proteges a top - management of the large companies, is basically a myth. So, one of managers of an average link Gazprom on a question, how and for what merits head and the co-owner of Joint-Stock Company the Trance of Nafta Vladimir Kondrachuk has received the status of the intermediary Gazprom at sale of the oil extracted by it, has answered so: the Reasons were, but by and large it is accident. I am surprised, why I did not become three years ago Kondrachukom - in general nobody disturbed . And by detailed consideration it is found out that the most part of the compromising evidence on intermediaries in mass-media - a consequence of the strongest competition in this market.
a trance of Nafta we will notice, it is ready to incur considerable enough risks (interview to Vladimir Kondrachukom see) - so, participation in to gas war with Belarus where the company has replaced Gazprom in deliveries of gas from January till February, 2004, could terminate for the Trance of Nafty crash - in the middle of February of any guarantees of payment Beltransgazom the put fuel was not, especially if to consider political scandal accompanying a situation. And for less large structures in this business in regions marketing in the markets connected with monopolies, is a basis vysokoriskovogo business: Search of legal and semilegal holes in the scheme of functioning of the markets at the moment of reforms brings in not the smaller incomes, rather than eight - ten years ago - operations with bills.
a great campaign to horizon
Certainly, not only reforming of game rules in the monopolised markets gives the chance existence reformatory business. So, occurrence of the first intermediaries in electropower operations (the market price control for which the state intends to leave to itself at least till 2007) has begun at Anatoly Chubays Anatolys Djakove`s predecessor. Financial streams of the Russian Open Society UES of Russia at it have passed to corporation EEEK conducting, the intermediary supervising bill calculations of power supply systems. It is characteristic, what exactly actions of corporation EEEK in the conditions of crisis of non-payments allowed to provide more or less Russian Open Society trouble-free work. During this moment still anybody also did not stammer at electric power industry reform.
Reformatory business in the companies - monopolists not so love, and it it is no wonder: from this environment sooner or later there are alternative state offers on ways of reforming of the markets. So, Itera created as the professional intermediary in the interstate market of gas, before attack to it Gazprom was hardly probable not a unique conductor of idea of reform of pricing on gas in Russia.
for the gas market, disputes on which technology of reforming were conducted until recently, conflicts of the medium-sized players applying for the vision of reform, and monopoly are very characteristic. So, the conflict round Open Company Mezhregiongaz and it eks - head Nikolay Gornovsky dismissed in 2002, besides a business component had and ideological a stuffing: the command of advisers and partners of the mister Gornovsky suggested to make from Mezhregiongaz The operator of all deliveries of gas Gazprom in Russia. That is, as a matter of fact, through legally dependent from Gazprom and actually independent company to create monopoly for control over the retail market of gas. Gazprom on the contrary, drew on liquidation bolshej parts of business ready to rebel daughters - the intermediary - that after dismissal of the mister Gornovsky also has made. Now the association " tries to occupy a role of the alternative centre of reforms; Sojuzgaz which closest partner is Open Company Nortgaz - not too typical, but nevertheless the representative reformatory business.
in electric power industry ideological struggle of monopoly and reformatory structures for some reasons has passed to level of joint-stock struggle. However, in investment fund Hermitage Capital, long time heading this struggle, do not hide that it in any sense also applies for a role of the intermediary - but not in Russian Open Society operations UES of Russia and their regional affiliated structures, and in mutual relations between the western investment world and Russian Open Society management. Most likely, this results from the fact that large capitals were ready in advance to scale investments into electric power industry, and not only Russian - such structures, as YUKOS, SUAL, the Base element Russian aluminium have come on the market, having generated large share holdings of joint-stock company - energo before the basic contours of reform were designated. And the Russian Open Society has outstripped creation intermediaries formation of a network of the management companies which are carrying out functions of marketing of own market services.
at last, a situation in Ministry of Railways - something an average between power and gas sphere: The companies - intermediaries, first of which, such as Trans Rail, have appeared still in the middle of 90 - h, peacefully co-exist in one market and with small purely intermediary companies, and with affiliated companies large financially - industrial groups through which serious investments into the railway market - such as " are carried out; Severstaltrans and Apatite - the Trance .
Last day the intermediary
objectively considerable part both intermediary, and other kind reformatory business at monopolies it is interested in faster liberalisation of the markets on which it works. Besides, reformatory it is important to business to utter to itself in the course of reform conditions of regulation of the future markets as much as possible favourable to. So, for example, in January, 2003 the Trance of Nafta Tried to have legal proceedings with the government concerning its non-admission to system of the main pipelines Gazprom - in many respects such claims of intermediaries also have led to creation Gazprom new rules of access, more liberal and logical for independent suppliers of gas.
the time odds which present players have in comparison with future, almost are completely eaten by scales of the future players. So, at the moment only Itera applies for becoming the large independent manufacturer, how many - nibud comparable with Gazprom during five - seven years (in 2004 the company plans to extract 100 mlrd gas cubic metre). The others quite realise that in the light of the future arrival on the liberalised gas market of the oil companies which will quickly catch up and will overtake Itera they will not play it the first roles. Nevertheless at the expense of formation of alliances with the future large investors (for example, an alliance of group of unified social tax and Italian ENEL in power), attraction of financial investments into own projects, purchases of a strategic infrastructure a role present reformatory business with end of reform of pricing in electric power industry, gas sphere, housing and communal services it will be essential.
to the new players considering now plans of multi-billion investments into the new markets, it is necessary to face that the most part of these markets is staked already out not too rich, but players rather skilled and having good communication about whom now are in earnest not too. So, the numerous companies, de - fakto already executed in cities - millionnikah the work most part on housing and communal services demonopolization, are the main competitors of the future large players - first of all joint-stock company the Russian municipal systems (see Interview to the chairman of the board of the company Sergey Jashechkinym). For them liberalisation of the market of housing and communal services till the moment of scale arrival there structures Gazprom the Russian Open Society UES of Russia and the western investors - a unique way to reserve a place in the future market playing by new rules. From how much they will succeed in it, depends, whether there will be at the future markets a ready infrastructure for attraction of investments, or it should be built to new investors.
DMITRY - BUTRIN