CooperationDeath on Spaso - the Cooperative area
Exactly ten years ago in the USSR was the law " is passed; About cooperation “. The CPSU then has decided to escape by means of co-operative cafes. But it has turned out nothing.
Ilya Ilf and Evgenie Petrov in due time have very precisely drawn a picture of the USSR of 1930. When Ostap of Bendery and Shura of Buffooneries have wanted to have dinner, it has appeared that in a city Arbatov is not present either state, or a private sector. There is only a co-operative. A co-operative dining room “ the Former friend of a stomach “ Was, truth, is closed on the occasion of the account shnitselej. It was necessary to have dinner in a summer co-operative garden. Most widely walked in Arbatov, going for a drive on a unique foreign car in a city “ Loren - Dietrich “ and dancing in a naked kind under the moon, co-operators - trustees and the store commission of railway co-operative society “ Lineets “. Even the city main square carried the name of Spaso - Cooperative. In general as was indignant zitspredsedatel Pound concerning the Soviet validity of that time: “ Where the private capital? Where the first society of the mutual credit? Where, I ask you, the second society of the mutual credit? Where a general partnership? Where the joint-stock companies with the mixed capital? Where it is all? A disgrace! “ one continuous co-operative societies.
it is impossible to tell that Joseph Stalin loved co-operators. He loved only a state sector. But Bolsheviks perfectly understood that the state industry and trade will finish the majority of the population of the USSR to starvation that they for political reasons at all did not want. Therefore Stalin has allowed to escape to citizens independently, letting out consumer goods in production co-operatives and buying the foodstuffs in co-operative societies consumer. In 1954, after Stalin`s death, in the USSR was 100 thousand production co-operatives which let out 30 % of all consumer goods in the country. In one village there was no state shop - everywhere there were only shops selpo (reduction from “ rural consumers` co-operative society “) . It was not necessary to choose. Either become the co-operator, or go naked and hungry.
Bolsheviks almost with pride underlined that the co-operative property not the state. The state enterprises belong to all people, and co-operative societies - only to their shareholders. It turned out that co-operators almost unique rich people in the country. It was usual communistic demagogy. In the conditions of the Soviet deficiency the one who used state property could be considered as the rich only: or received the official ration, or stole. Members of co-operative societies could steal only money of other shareholders, very small in comparison with actives of any state enterprise. To workers of co-operative society “ Lineets “ money only on moonshine purchase sufficed, and millionaire Alexander Korejko ran business with the chief of the state concern “ Oat-flakes “ polyhaevym.
in general, it is quite possible to agree with the conclusion of Marxist political house-keepers: “ the Cooperative property is the same socialist property, as well as state “. The main thing was to struggle with a private property. And with desire of citizens to be fed and put on to struggle it is useless.
when in 1988 Michael Gorbachev as the chairman of the Supreme body of the USSR signed the law “ About cooperation “ it was guided approximately by the same reasons, as Joseph Stalin. Cooperation should rescue the Soviet citizens from starvation. In the middle of 80 - h years of the USSR was approximately in the same economic situation, as in 30 - e years. Billions petrodollars have got to it is not known where, on regiments of state shops was empty, and the industry worked exclusively on defence. Co-operative societies were never forbidden, is simple in 60 - 70 - e years at rather stable inflow of the import goods and the import foodstuffs to them as - that need has disappeared. Now at toughening of commodity deficiency need has arisen again.
Gorbachev`s economic advisers by means of cooperation wished to save socialist economy from definitive crash. If to speak more precisely, they wanted to save communistic system from definitive crash. In the conditions of hungry revolts of the CPSU it was difficult to be kept in power. All was covered it is usual demagogy that the co-operative property with its self-financing and aspiration to profit will increase overall performance of state enterprises. The pier, co-operative societies will create a healthy competition which will force to work better state enterprise in the market. As though in the conditions of commodity deficiency manufacturers among themselves compete. Actually in such conditions buyers compete among themselves.
and in general, in gorbachevskie times all was in the same way, as in the Stalin. Co-operative societies let out enough - taki bad quality production unless instead of valenoks demand began to use “ varenki “. To have dinner it was necessary to go not to public catering dining rooms (which all were closed), and in co-operative cafe. Workers complained of excessive height “ the contractual co-operative prices “. Complained absolutely in vain. The state has printed so many money and in the country there was such hidden inflation that contractual prices low in any way could not be. Co-operators nominally received high enough incomes (anyway on state enterprise such money it was impossible to receive), however the big question, whether were they really rich people. On inflationary roubles especially you will not grow rich. The present conditions did those co-operative societies which ran business not in the consumer market, and on the state enterprises especially having access on a foreign market. But here anything new was not. Anyway the system of plundering of state property in gorbachevskie times was improved at all by co-operators, and directors of the enterprises.
despite all efforts of Gorbachev all has come to an end crash. Co-operators commodity deficiency and have not overcome also communist party have not rescued. Egor Gaydar had to liberalise the prices (differently to enter open inflation), to liquidate system of the centralised supply and to resolve free sale of foreign currency. After communist party crash there was no need further to deny a private property. And with a private property recognition it became not clear, the property co-operative what for is necessary.
in the majority of civilised countries there are co-operative societies. But they drag there really pity existence. Really, what for to citizens to unite the accumulation and to adjust a small-scale production, say, jeans if the same jeans are made by a solid private concern with the large capital? What for to buyers to create own shop of consumers` co-operative society if in any city there is a weight of the private shops selling the goods at quite comprehensible prices?
many modern Russian firms are created by co-operators. But co-operative experience by it thus hardly was necessary. More likely on the contrary, in co-operative societies of the end 80 - h years co-operators in the mutual relations played a normal private concern of the western sample. And the co-operative status was necessary to them only because it was necessary to communist party dominating in the country. So co-operative societies in Russia have died. Also will revive only together with Communist Party and commodity deficiency.
SERGEY - VICTORS