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Carefree jobless
Recent youth revolts in France have shown that happens, when the government of the modern western state tries to depart from ideology “ general prosperity “. The majority of Europeans are assured that the state is obliged to give them work, to protect from unfair dismissal and if it it was possible - to provide worthy existence on the grant. However “ general prosperity “ existed not always - there was time when the unemployed punished, instead of supported.

Compulsory charity the antiquity, the Middle Ages did not know concept “ the unemployed “ as people accurately shared on those who has been obliged to work, and those who presumed luxury of idleness. The Roman plebeians, as it is known, considered any work by the business unworthy the Roman citizen, and in medieval societies the people who have lost means of subsistence, filled up army “ the divine people “ - poor and poor which lived at the expense of a handout. To beggars in Catholic Europe was rather freely as distribution of alms by the poor was considered as a debt of any Christian. However in XVI century has burst Reformatsija, Protestants considered a beggary almost as a sin. And as the beggars deprived of a handout, posed threat for a society, about deprived the state began to incur care.
the first laws regulating life of the unemployed, have appeared in XVI century in England, and already in these laws the basic dilemma inevitably rising before each legislator was showed, undertaking to help lost work: How to make so that the unemployed have not starved to death, but thus have not decided, what not to starve to death, work not so necessarily?
the first unemployment English queen Elizabeth I undertook a problem. The country simply teemed with deprived tramps - in the majority the peasants who have lost the plots. In 1563 the law according to which all needing England shared on three categories has been passed: “ worthy poor men “ to which invalids, widows and orphans concerned; “ the worthy unemployed “ which could and wanted to work, but could not found a job, and “ unworthy poor men “ which did not work from disgust for work. “ to worthy poor men “ under the law relied “ the help open-air “: to them distributed clothes, meal and money, and “ unworthy “ various penalties, including castigation and cutting of ears waited. As to the unemployed they have pleased just between two categories of poor men that is why did not receive neither grants, nor whips. But in 1576 Elizabeth has obliged each city in kingdom free of charge to supply “ the worthy unemployed “ raw materials, and then to buy up at them finished goods, and in 1601 has granted the right to local officials to collect from owners of real estate the tax to the maintenance of the poor. So the system of the help first in the European history the unemployed to which with minor alterations could exist more than 200 years was born. Then there was also a word “ the pauper “ (pauper) - “ the addressee of the grant “. It is possible to judge the sizes of those grants to that a word “ the pauper “ has entered into all languages of the world as a word synonym “ the beggar “.
Great Britain many long years remained a leader of struggle against unemployment, and in souls Anglo-Saxon zakonotvortsev two desires constantly struggled: To feed hungry and to punish parasites. Originally both these desires each other at all did not contradict, as the work-houses which have appeared in England in a XVII-th century, perfectly coped with both problems. In a XVII-th century work-houses municipalities usually operated, and in a XVIII-th century - private contractors who paid to city treasury the fixed sum, and then aspired to get profit by economy on rations and an intensification of work of lodgers. Life in similar institutions was unsweetened, but starvation did not threaten their inhabitants. However in 1782 the aspiration to accustom the unemployed to work has got the best, and able-bodied have expelled from work-houses, having obliged local authorities them to employ. But humanists also did not think to surrender. In the end of a XVIII-th century England was involved in the long conflict to revolutionary France, and deliveries of the foodstuffs to island have appeared are complicated, and the situation was aggravated with poor harvests. The prices for the foodstuffs have spread upwards that, naturally, has struck first of all on the deprived. The solution of a problem has come from a province.
on May, 6th, 1795 world judges of a county Berkshire have gathered in a tavern “ the Pelican “ that was in village Spinhemlend to develop the program of struggle against poverty. Respectable lawyers have decided that “ the present condition of the law on the poor demands the additional generous help to poor men “ also have accepted new system of grants which with enthusiasm has been met in many counties of the country. The Spinhemlendsky system meant payment of grants to persons and families, whose income was below the sum, sufficient for purchase of the bread necessary for maintenance of life of all members of a family. If market cost of bread increased, the grant too should grow. The Spinhemlendsky system directly has not been directed on maintenance of the unemployed as working poor men too became addressees of grants. But this system promoted that the unemployed year from a year became more and more. In - the first, employers had an opportunity sharply to reduce salaries as workers anyway could live on the grant. It conducted to occurrence of the latent unemployment when the person could earn additionally at half strength on any farm or in a workshop, and live at the expense of the municipal budget. In - the second as the size of the grant depended on quantity of eaters, in families became more and more children - the future unemployed. In - the third, the laziest citizens of an English crown had an opportunity not to work at all. At last, taxes for which account grants were paid, gathered from representatives of the propertied classes who just acted in a role of employers. As taxes grew together with number of addressees matpomoshchi, investments into manufacture so, and workplaces became less were reduced also. As a result in the first decades of a XIX-th century the number of the unemployed began to grow in England quickly. So, in 1819 English officials reported on the government that “ on each 100 persons it is necessary approximately 11 2/ 3 persons who receive the help on poverty while in 1803 of those was only 7 1/ 3 on each one hundred “.

To the core If in difficult years of Napoleonic wars spinhemlendskaja the system has rescued kingdom from hungry revolts in 1830 it and has generated them. As the number of addressees of grants constantly grew, money for all has ceased to suffice, and the sums matpomoshchi began to be cut down. So, if in 1815 the average grant to the person made 12 shillings and 10 pence, in 1830 - only 9 shillings and 9 pence. Salaries too constantly decreased, and in counties where there was spinhemlendskaja a system, they decreased especially quickly. In the autumn of 1830 in spinhemlendskih counties the agrarian excitements which participants smashed cars have flashed, attacked the officials responsible for distribution of grants, and etc. Excitements have been suppressed, and the public opinion has made again sharp turn: the help to the unemployed began to consider as advances with antisocial elements.
in 1834 the governmental report has branded spinhemlendskuju system as “ encouragement of laziness and defects “ and the system has been everywhere cancelled. The same year the parliament has passed the new law about poor which should put parasites into place. One of officials of that time so has formulated a major principle of a new order: “ the First and main condition consists in that position of the person receiving the help, was much less favorable, than position most nizkooplachivaemogo the worker “. That the unemployed life did not seem honey, them have again locked in work-houses, and out of work-houses it the help did not appear at all. Work-houses from almshouses for old men, orphans and invalids have quickly turned to something an average between a labour commune and prison.
all inhabitants of a work-house have been obliged to carry a uniform. Men, women and children contained in different parts of an institution, to communicate it it was forbidden. That the unemployed not “ produced poverty “ married couples were divided at once at receipt in a work-house. However, since 1847 to spouses have allowed to live in separate rooms, truth under one condition: the husband and the wife should be more senior 60 years. Children at once separated from parents. Inhabitants of a work-house submitted to the rigid charter and quite often were exposed to strict collectings. That it were for collectings, it well-known from magazines which were conducted by administration of these establishments: “ Rowe Sara, rustled and swore, on June, 19th 1842, 24 hours under the lock on bread and water; Grihem Marys and Pejn Pristsilla, swore and fought, on December, 14th 1842, are left meatless for a week; the Park James, has got through a fence, the deserter, on September, 4th 1843, is cut “. Refusal of work was usually punished by jail placement for some weeks though the disobedient person could leave only without tea.
in 1845 monstrous abusings in the Endoversky work-house where the administration starved paupers were casually opened. The basic employment of inhabitants of this institution was lomka bones of dead animals from which then manufactured fertilizers. This work literally fed unfortunate workers: the starving tore off pieces of decaying meat from bones and used them in food. Record of interrogation of one of kostolomov by name of Charles Lewis has remained. On a question of the inspector on, whether he saw, “ that someone gnawed or ate something from these bones “ Lewis answered: “ I saw, how people ate from them a marrow... I think, they so arrived because were very hungry “. After that the public has created effective system of supervision of the work-houses, consisting of various societies and the committees which members began to spend regular inspections of these establishments. Customs in work-houses were softened, but the English unemployed nevertheless tried to avoid at any cost hit in number of their inhabitants.

revolutionary technology Meanwhile on continent sights at an unemployment problem were a bit differents. The organisation of employment first in business France where in 1639 the first labour exchange has been created has caused a stir. Under the order of the Parisian authorities in a city the so-called bureau of addresses - a certain similarity of a passport office where all should be registered nonresident, arrived to capital in job searches has opened. The bureau provided visitors with work. However, wide application of labour exchange have found already in a XIX-th century in England though and there they did not rise above city level prior to the beginning of the XX-th century.
in France even since Great revolution there was a tradition of a solution of a problem of employment. If Englishmen considered that the person should work to be a worthy member of a society many Frenchmen have been convinced that the society can be considered worthy, only if it manages to provide with work of each member. When in France the monarchy has been liquidated, revolutionary powers have undertaken some attempts to organise so-called national workshops in which the unemployed could work for the republic blessing. As to pay in these workshops there was nothing, experiment should be curtailed, however dream of national workshops which will give all work, remained. Journalist Lui Blan who saw in national - public - workshops a way to socialist regeneration of a society became its main preacher. Blan believed that such workshops should contain at the expense of the state, the salary in them should be equal for everything, and to operate them managers whom workers will select from the environment should. The embodiment of ideas of Lui Blana was helped by revolution of 1848, svergnuvshaja the extremely unpopular king Lui Phillip.
after declaration of the Second republic Lui Blanu the portfolio of the minister of work has got. Blan, as well as promised, has founded public workshops in which have found a job ten thousand people. But the problem was that no workshops existed. Brigades of the unemployed sometimes carried out here and there absolutely unnecessary work like digging up of waste grounds. Workers received on 2 francs a day if they worked, and on 1,5 francs if did not work, and to come to work it it was necessary only two days in a week. For two months of existence of national workshops for them it has been spent 15 million francs which it was necessary to pay from the state budget at the expense of increase of taxes. As a result of June, 21st, 1848 the government has closed workshops that has caused revolt in Paris which should be heated in blood. The second republic has not sustained general employment, and soon on change to it the Second empire led by Napoleon III which though differed bolshej thrift, than Lui Blan, absolutely refuse public works has come could not. In - the first, the emperor has begun the wide program of reorganisation of Paris which financed at the expense of public debt increase, and in - the second, the mobile guards (or " have been created; mobiles “) In which representatives of bottoms of a society served for 30 sous in day. Many unemployed have preferred not to wait for new revolution, and to struggle with revolutionaries in numbers “ mobiles “.
The experience of struggle against unemployment was and in Germany where the system has got accustomed elberfeldskaja. In 1852 the provided inhabitants of the Prussian city of Elberfelda have created a board of guardians which has divided a city into sites, each of which has been fixed to one of trustees. Sotsrabotniki - volunteers visited needing families and on a place studied, what need deprived, and the able-bodied unemployed looked for work depending on their skills and propensities. The Elberfeldsky system has been copied in many countries, including Russia, but well works it could, naturally, only in the conditions of a low rate of unemployment.
And still till the end of the XIX-th century any country of the world had no national system of the help to the unemployed, and even Germany, which else at Bismarck has got system of pension insurance, had no anything similar.

insurance megacities In the XX-th century development have received all three styles of struggle against unemployment: English when the unemployed try to force to suffer; French when the unemployed try to facilitate a fate, and German when the unemployed try to employ. Another`s operating time quite often adapted for local conditions. So, on the eve of the First World War Englishmen, having changed the traditions, have started to help the unemployed, more precisely, began to learn to help the unemployed each other. In 1906 to the power in the country the Liberal party has come, creation of national system of insurance upon unemployment was one of which slogans. The idea essence consisted in providing with money of workers from branches where the big orders alternate with time idle times, that is from such as shipbuilding, building and It was etc. supposed to create insurance fund in which workers would bring a part of the salary that in case of dismissal to have possibility during some time to receive the insurance. The idea seemed quite logical, but the traditional relation to the unemployed as to potential gangsters remains hardy. In parliament and the government disputes have inflamed what to do with working if he payments paid, but has been dismissed for bad behaviour or has lost work capacity on own neohundredrozhnosti. Many influential members of Liberal party considered that in such cases the insurance it is not necessary to pay, but they had to face obstinacy of the minister of work of Winston Churchill of that time which considered that “ if the person paid payments, it should receive money “. Churchill has appeared one of the first public politicians who has rejected old representations it is necessary what to help worthy, and unworthy it is necessary to punish, having declared that “ does not like to mix morals with mathematics “. So when - that the rejected principles spinhemlendskoj systems began to seize again minds, and one of the most ardent opponents of any socialist ideas has appeared one of advocates of the new approach.
in 1911 the compromise variant has been accepted: on the insurance could count any dismissed if he paid insurance payments not less than 26 weeks and if it has not been dismissed for labour discipline infringement. Duration of payments depended on time during which the worker paid payments: if, for example, he placed money within 50 weeks in case of dismissal could live 10 weeks on the insurance.
the British experiment has caused a great interest in other countries, but mass introduction of the insurance from unemployment was prevented by the First World War. When in 1918 the world has come to Europe, it has appeared what to return to old is already impossible. Even in the won England the system of insurance upon unemployment began to glitch, and the government only has aggravated a situation. In 1920 the insurance system has been expanded for the most different categories of workers, including servants, clerks, sellers in benches and etc., but at a rate of unemployment existing by then to pay the insurance to all who paid payments, it has appeared it is simply impossible. To the unemployed began to refuse insurance payments under any pretext, and the sums of payments began to be reduced. People survived as could. “ We killed two pigs and traded in fat. Besides we had a kitchen garden and hens, - the English miner who has remained without work in 1921 remembered. - and still we stole coal from mine. It was forbidden, but we ran risks “.
As to the won Germany here in 20 - e years help millions unemployed the government practically could not, and the hyperinflation depreciated any grants. People here too survived mainly at the expense of kitchen gardens, small trade and fraud. With a problem Hitler who operated in the spirit of Lui Blana and Napoleon III has consulted only, having sent one unemployed for public works, and others having mobilised in vermaht.
the situation in the United States where Great depression has deprived of work about third of able-bodied citizens was not better At all. Have not given expected results even Roosevelt`s who has declared the New course known measures. Roosevelt`s administration has developed the wide program of public works in which the governmental agencies were engaged at once some. The civil case of preservation of natural resources organised labour camp for youth, federal management of the extreme help pumped over money from the federal budget in local funds of public works, and management of public works was engaged in employment of citizens at federal level. Thus federal management of the extreme help operated with the account elberfeldskih traditions. Agents of this service spent individual “ inspection on needs “ and that who really needed, gave grants. In the White house hoped that, having given to the population money from the federal budget, the government can reanimate demand and by that to recover a private sector. However the state salaries and grants were safely eaten, and economy stagnirovala while on it the shower of gold of military orders has not spilt.
the present revolution in business of the help by the unemployed has begun only after the Second World War. In 1946 in the USA the Certificate about general employment then almost all able-bodied population of the country has appeared protected by the insurance from unemployment has been accepted. The similar certificate in 1948 was accepted by Englishmen who besides at last have cancelled work-houses. As Europe healed post-war wounds, insurance systems began to be created and in other countries, and in 60 - e years in the West have already started talking about “ the state of general prosperity “.
acceptance in the USA of the Certificate about the help to families in 1970 was One of the most courageous steps on a way of creation of a new society. Actually Nixon`s administration in accuracy reproduced spinhemlendskuju system, undertaken to provide the fellow citizens without dependence from their aspiration to work: the help relied to each family, whose revenue appeared below certain level, and the size of the grant depended on quantity of eaters. So, if the revenue of a family from two persons was below $500, it needed the grant. For each child the living wage sum increased on $300. The sum of the revenue granting the right to the grant, certainly, was scanty, however potential addressees matpomoshchi have not been obliged to specify all casual earnings at all. Besides, the means spent for training of children, and also all other grants and the charitable help which the family could receive under other programs were subtracted from the income.
results of a new policy were not slow to affect, and there were they exactly - in - exactly such, as in England XIÕ of a century. In only one California for five years the number of addressees of various grants has grown from 375 thousand to 901 thousand persons that has forced the governor of staff Ronald Reagan to sound the alarm: “ In California popustitelskaja the system of the state help induces minor girls to become pregnant and subsidises communes of hippie at the expense of simple poor hard workers. All this ` an epoch of Aquarius ` it is strong pripahivaet fish “.
Europe too created the “ the state of general prosperity “ and this time not industrial giants like Britain or Germany, and the silent Scandinavian countries, managed to connect advantage of an individual approach elberfeldskoj systems with mass employment at the expense of the state, characteristic for the French tradition forward have escaped. The system of the state enterprises and establishments became the main tool of Scandinavians, many of which did not create anything, except additional workplaces. Results have appeared impressing. So, if in 1960 in Finland in a state sector 8 % of workers by 1988 on the state 22 % of workers worked already worked only. Thus the great bulk of the employed had on unproductive sphere. In the country the powerful program of professional retraining which allowed to create workplaces for teachers has been developed, and also to supply with grants of the unemployed.
70 - e years became an era of blossoming “ the states of general prosperity “ but the beginning 80 - h has introduced essential corrective amendments. The neoconservatives who have come to power in the USA and Great Britain, have been convinced that grants corrupt the unemployed, discouraging them to search for work, and the pendulum has again shaken in other party. Ronald Reagan has reduced term of payment of the time grant with 27 till 13 weeks then the unemployed was obliged to accept any offer of labour exchange without dependence from character and a place of the offered work. Quantity “ worthy poor men “ at Reagan too it was sharply reduced: if in 1975 on grants sat more than 75 % of all unemployed in 1981 - the m the help were received only by 37 % from their general number. Similar measures has accepted also Margaret Thatcher. Beyond Britain Germany where in 1982 have entered disqualification system when the unemployed persistently refusing offers of labour exchange, lost each four months one professional category was pulled, gradually going down to level nekvalifitsirovannogo. However, the beginning 90 - h became the end of neoconservatives, and social expenses of the developed states began to grow again.
dispute on how to arrive with the unemployed, proceeds till now, the proof to that is the recent history with the contract of the first hiring in France. Thus one on - former consider that the it will be heavier a fate of the unemployed, the more likely it will find forces to begin life at first, and others - that the person has the right to worthy life even if the employer does not prolong with it the contract.
CYRIL NOVIKOV