To the world - mor235 years ago, in 1772, in Moscow last has come to the end in Russian history scale epidemic of a plague. It cost lives almost 100 thousand Muscovites and was accompanied by mass robberies and plague revolt. Morovye crazes long since killed a large quantity of people. During one of them in Smolensk has survived only five townspeople, and at a siege Peter I Rigi`s armies in a city 60 thousand inhabitants and soldiers have died of hunger and illnesses. As a rule, illnesses came to Russia from - for a boundary, but unlike Europe where infections extended sometimes exotic ways - for example, priests and nuns were messengers of a syphilis, - in cities and vesi Russia an infection was brought by merchants and soldiers more often.
“ Mertvya cheloveki jadjahu “
Glad and mor - hunger and epidemics - ispokon were to a century an indispensable part of the life of mankind. And Russia, despite its special way, was not an exception of the general rule. Meticulous historians of medicine have found mentions about morovyh crazes practically in all Russian annals, since the most ancient, dated XI century. The very first mention of epidemic concerns 1060 when Russian princes have gone war on southern neighbours - nomads - torkov.
“ In this summer Izjaslav, both Svjatoslav, and Vsevolod, and Vseslav, sovokupivshe howl beschisleny, poidosha on konih and in lodjah, beschisleno set, to Torquay. Se slyshavshe Tortsi, ubojashasja, probegosha... And pomrosha begajuche... ovi from winter, druzii gladom, ini morom “.
the infection not identified by modern experts has amazed also princely teams, than the beginning of one of firm traditions domestic morovyh crazes was necessary: the infection in the fatherland was brought by Russian soldiers or the and overseas merchants arriving from distant wanderings. From - for it, as a rule, epidemics began in frontier cities, extending from the West or the south on the north and the east. In 1092 begun in Polotsk mor soon it was threw to Kiev, and in 1128 letopisets has described great morovoe the craze which has happened in other boundary part of Russia - in the Novgorod earth.
epidemics repeated regularly, from the West were brought that morovye fevers the infections, which experts consider as the first described pandemics of a flu. And whether from - for developments of communications between Russian princedoms and bolshej to knowledge letopistsev whether because each following epidemic grasped all new territories, in annals of XIII century it was told already about morah, covering all Russia. For example, in 1229 - 1230 “ glad and mor “ have amazed all cities and vesi, except for Kiev.
“ And pojde the rain from Blagoveshchenia to Ilyin days, - wrote letopisets about 1230, - dn and noshch, both vozsta a jelly, and bysha to rubbish velitsi, and pobi differently zhito, and a fico bread on osmi kun, and a quarter rzhy on 20 grivnas... And byst mor in ljudeh from glada it is great, jako not hallows and pogrebati them... Glad naipache prostresja... On all the earths Russian, tochiju except edinago Kiev, and toliko anger Divine byst, jako not tochiju mertvya cheloveki jadjahu, but also zhivya cheloveki each other ubivahu and jadjahu, and a hedgehog a horse-flesh, and psi, both cats, and other that, where who nalez, jadjashe, inii a moss, and a pine, and ilem, and a bark lime jadjahu. Zlii chelovetsi, where ashche slyshahu at whom zhito, siloju prihozhahu in a place such, grabjahu and ubivahu... And pomrosha people on all earth, them not be numbers. This byst till two summers “.
Only in Smolensk, to which often got during time morovyh crazes if to trust annals, from mora 32 thousand persons have died.
“ Black death “ - the plague - has come to Russia in the middle of XIV century from the West, through Pskov though its most terrible epidemic in the history of mankind to the south from Russian boundaries began. As contemporaries wrote, in 1340 - h years in Black Sea Coast there was the strange illness killing at once inhabitants of cities and settlements. It is considered that the plague in its usual centres of distribution to Asia was picked up by the Tatar soldiers who have brought it on coast of Black sea. In Crimea during a siege of Kaffy (Feodosiya) belonging to genoeses which Tatars could not take throughout three years, they in 1346 - it is possible, for the first time in the world - have used the bacteriological weapon: have started to throw by throwing cars for fortifications corpses of the companions who have died of a plague. In a city epidemic has begun, and those genoeses who was still vigorous enough to run, by the ships have gone home together with plague sick and plague rats.
as a result in 1347 “ black death “ From Genoa has extended across all Italy, and next year epidemic stormed already practically in all Mediterranean seaports where the Genoa and Venetian vessels came. In the beginning 1350 - h, having passed all Europe, illness with merchants and their goods has reached Pskov. And then began to extend and on other Russian earths., For example, it has got to Novgorod thanks to archbishop Novgorod Vasily who has gone to neighbours with a vicarial consolation. Under the request pskovichej which from - for mora remained without priests and monks, it has served in the infected city moleben and has blest Pskov. But has on the way home died from “ black death “. A body of the archbishop delivered to Novgorod where of the lord waited a funeral, on - visible, all population of a city in view of what epidemic has flashed and there. As usual, after that has got to unfortunate Smolensk, whence an infection have carried to Chernigov, Kiev, Suzdal and other Russian princedoms. In Moscow metropolitan Feognost and grand duke Simeon Proud together with seven children and the brother have died.
after that “ black death “ regularly came back to Russia. In 1363 has begun new general plague mor during which time in cities died from 70 to 150 persons in day. Death rate during the following epidemic which have begun in Europe in 1382 and soon come to Russian earths, was so high that in 1387 in Smolensk remains in live only five persons.
“ dushespasitelnye baths “
From the distant and near countries to Russia brought also other dangerous infections among which there were also venereal. And domestic and foreign experts disagreed - from the West on the east or from the east on the West the syphilis extended across Europe. In domestic annals there is a story concerning 1287 about the illness of prince Vladimir Volynsky very reminding on symptoms a syphilis. In Europe the syphilis has been described two centuries later.
“ Volodimeru Vasilkovichu, to the prince Volynsk, - wrote letopisets, - bolnu sushchu... A wound incurable... lezhashchu in bolesti four summers, illness sitse we will tell: nacha to it gniti ispodnjaja ustna, pervago summer it is small, vtorago, the third it is sick nacha gniti... ishodjashchu to the fourth summer, both nastavshe to winter and nacha bolmi nemochi and opada to it all meat from a beard, and teeth, and spodnjaja vygnisha vsi, and a jaw borodna bend, and byst videti a throat, and did not taste on sedm weeks of anything “.
However, historians - patriots were inclined to see a leprosy or a tuberculosis in this illness, but together with the western colleagues they converged in one: the all-European epidemic of a syphilis became a consequence of the European dissoluteness of customs and crusades.
“ at the western doctors, - the professor wrote Gezer in 1867, - there are already much more often data on dirty illnesses during the first times of the Middle Ages. But approximately from XIV century the number of these news positively increases, maybe, owing to the big distribution of debauchery, or owing to more careful supervision of doctors, or and from other unknown reasons. In Italy inherited defects of times of emperors not only the corrupted descendants of the initial population of the country, but also northern immigrants who have mixed up with them. In southern France and Germany in troubadours and minnezingerov rough sensuality though has been somewhat limited by romantic knightly service to women, but for a long time is already proved that in this service did not think at all to be limited platonizmom. Longer others the German tribes resisted, but it is not enough - pomalu and at them vkorenilsja debauchery, though in much easier degree.
crusades promoted highly to morals decline. Crusaders, bolsheju a part rough adventurers, have got acquainted in the east with all subtleties of voluptuousness; except that, continuous and bloody internal wars in the homeland have considerably reduced number of men, and from prevalence of persons of a female there was a disproportion which, on the one hand, has strengthened extremely debauchery, with another - has given an occasion to the basis of numerous female monasteries and awards. But all know, what weak protection was found by chastity behind sacred walls. Even pious communities of sisters of mercy, for example dushespasajushchie sisters (Seelschwester), have soon reached that endowed itself not only for care of patients, but also for satisfaction of voluptuousness of the healthy. For example, so-called ` dushespasitelnye baths ` (originally baths for poor) have soon turned to the dirtiest brothels. All clergy has deeply wallowed in a whirlpool of debauchery and even has lost ability of consciousness of the shame. In one report (1530) To English king Henry VII priests directly are called as the main distributors of a syphilis. Against hysterical sufferings of widows and nuns it is found the most shocking councils even in medical compositions.
under such circumstances the most rough debauchery freely dominated everywhere. In France at the time of Charles the Great there was no considerable city without brothels. In streets of Paris as speaks Rigord, the doctor of French king Phillip Avgusta (in XII century), there was no pass from any pets, and at night - from public women in the afternoon. Rape was considered as the most innocent act. The one who was content with several concubines " was considered as the sample of morals;.
To Russia as the court doctor of tsar Alexey Mihajlovicha Samuil Collins confirmed, a syphilis have delivered during wars with Poland 1444 - 1500. At first presence in Russia shameful illness was ignored, and sufferers declared patients zolotuhoj, spoilt by a malefice or at all healthy people that, clearly, did not promote struggle against this infection. Later domestic researchers bashfully declared that the syphilis in Russia unlike Europe has not received a wide circulation in view of high morals of Russian people and careful supervision behind behaviour of women - not the worst, than in the Muslim East. However since 1493 Russian authorities began opaskoj to concern with the person to “ the French illness “ as the syphilis was called, and have entered poll of domestic merchants coming to the country and foreigners, whether they have noticed in frontier territories something similar to flash “ frantsuziny “. In case of reception of the disturbing information of the power immediately blocked border. However these measures helped no means always, and as soon as in Russia there was a withdrawal from principles “ Domestic tyranny “ it was found out that almost each fifth woman from servants in rich Russian houses is sick of a syphilis.
“ Subsisted on original wisdom of ancestors “
on borders and quarantine actions Seldom helped with struggle against other infections. The quarantines separating villages and cities in which has begun mor, from other Russian earths began to be applied to struggle against an infection in the country even more often. In a course there were also more radical measures. In 1552 in Novgorod a merchant from Pskov where, as usual, epidemic first of all has flashed, have decided to burn together with all goods, and novgorodtsa, sheltered it, to beat pletmi. Actually, such behaviour was already considerable progress, after all before frightened morom rusichi executed in what not guilty znaharok and other veduny, accused in “ napushchenii evil spirits “.
the Most important epidemic trouble decades the plague continued to remain. However in XVI century to it it was added sypnoj a typhus, and epidemics proceeded with a former regularity, sometimes getting scale of national accident. In the XVII-th century beginning in Russia has happened three-year “ glad and mor “ in which result only in Moscow have counted 127 thousand died. Foreign visitors of capital described, how with the beginning of summer few survived weakened Muscovites crept out on lawns and burnt the appeared grass.
much more terrible trouble has come to Moscow in 1654. Prince Michael Pronsky operating Moscow wrote in the petition to tsar Alexey Mihajlovichu:
“ In present, in 1654, after Simeonova of day morovoe the craze was increased, day from day arrives more; already in Moscow and large villages of orthodox Christians a small part ostaettsa, and streltsov from six orders the order is uniform did not remain, from those dostalnyh many lie sick, and others have run up, and on sentries from them to be there is nobody... Also bury without priests, and dead a body in hailstones and behind hailstones lies, dogs vlachimi; and in poor domy carry dead, and holes to dig out there is nobody; jaryzhnye zemskie izvoshchiki which in poor domeh holes dug also the dead carried, and from that have died, and dostalnye, the great sovereign, any ranks people... Were terrified and behind that to dead to start are afraid; and orders, a great sovereign, all are locked, clerks podjachie all have died, and houses our empty were made. People have died a little not everything, but we, your lackeys, too we expect to themselves killing visiting any moment, and without yours, a great sovereign, the decree on peremenkam from Moscow in situated near Moscow derevnjushki for the sake of heavy spirit, we dare to die, move down, and about that, a sovereign, conducted to us the decree to make “.
the Answer to the petition Pronsky has not had time to read, becoming a victim of epidemic. Attempts to enter round Moscow quarantine were unsuccessful also. In the description of travel of Antioch patriarch Makariy it was told: “ the Tsar has sent at first 600 streltsov from them agoj (for protection of gate), and all of them have died; has again sent others, and these also have died, in the third time has sent, and with these there was the same for everyone who entered into capital, immediately fell dead “. After mora the same source testified To Moscow: “ Before chock-full the people, has become the deserted... Dogs and pigs devoured dead and raged, and consequently nobody dared to go alone for if happened that will overcome the lonely passer-by, zagryzajut it to death “.
Sent after mora clerks and podjachie have found out a huge decrease in people. For example, in the Moscow manor of the prince Trubetsky from 278 domestic have died 270. And all died in Moscow totaled from 300 thousand to 500 thousand persons. But also it was not all. Running from Moscow streltsy have carried an infection across all Russia, having made mor general and general. Only in Kolomna 10 thousand persons have died. Later researchers have counted up that the population of Russia has decreased twice.
it is possible, epidemic of 1654 was the most devastating in Russian history, and Moscow mor, begun century later, in 1771, could not be compared to it on scales. However there was it already in the educated and gallant century of board of Catherine II and consequently was perceived as the most tragical episode in a long train of Russian epidemics.
in 1770 the plague to the Russian empire, as usual, was delivered by soldiers. More truly, all has begun with epidemic in Turkey with which the Russian empire was at war. From Istanbul the infection has got to Moldova and Walachia where there were fights, and from captured and trophies began to extend among soldiers and officers of Russian army. Command persistently did not wish to recognise that in the advanced part of army the present epidemic has flashed, and persisted that the ordinary fever from - for plohog takes placeAbout a climate in those places. Any quarantine measures was not accepted, and consequently one of officers in 1771 without any obstacles accompanied by the striker and three soldiers has gone to Moscow. On road the striker and one of soldiers have died, but also it have written off on a notorious fever. And having reached Moscow, the officer has allowed to lodge the guide at the former brother-soldier - the sergeant ordering attendants in military hospital. The history outcome was easy for foreseeing. Soldiers have died, as have died 22 of 27 tenants of a wing where the sergeant lodged. And again military heads have preferred to hide incident, again having written off all on a fever. When death were found out by managers of a city, in the ranks of the doctors called by them too there was no consent, and while there were disputes, time has been missed.
as it has appeared, at cloth factory where worked both Muscovites, and released by landowners on a quitrent peasants, for a long time already mrut people whom owners of a manufactory bury secretly at night. While decided what to do, while closed factory, the part of the workers living in the same place, has run up. And Muscovites have gone home. To all other troubles to factory have not put sentry, and the weavers who have remained there freely walked about across Moscow, carrying an infection. The further distribution of an infection was promoted, to put it mildly, by an insanitary condition of a city and its inhabitants.
“ presently, - wrote in 1911 V.Nechaev, - very few people is satisfied with the Moscow sanitary conditions, but the modern Muscovite, likely, would began to be proud of them if it was possible to it uvidat the native city such what it was in XVIII century. To make to itself approximate representation about Moscow of that time, it is necessary to imagine very big great Russian village, more truly, the whole complex of such villages. All features of a rural life repeated in Moscow in a vast scale. The dirt on the areas and city prodrivings was extreme. Both inhabitants, and the local heads so have got used to it that absolutely indifferently looked at its accumulation, but sometimes the Petersburg authorities running together with a court yard in ancient capital, returned keenness to sense of smell and a sharpness to sight of the Moscow administration and then before it amazing pictures opened: heaps of a dung and everyone skaredstva in the thrown benches in the most brisk parts of a city, a dump of a sewage in the burnt down houses, a heap of any garbage on a Kremlin Square beside the palace and cathedrals. When thaw began, the person presented with the Petersburg sense of smell, did not dare to go out of doors from - for ` balzamovogo spirit `, spreading everywhere. In the city centre, on the Theatre square place, the ravines transformed into places of dumps flaunted. The small river Neglinnaja almost on all extent in line of Moscow was a continuous foul place, and its coast under walls of the Kremlin have been piled by a sewage.
the same dirt reigned and in dwellings. The sanitary accomplishment was equally alien also to poor log huts city melkoty, and to the lordly mansion towering posered of extensive court yard, filled with a sewage. These magnificent in appearance private residences with the different services adjoining them filled mnogochislennoju by domestics, made the whole manors of quite rural warehouse, the present rural oases... The Moscow living conditions in general, according to doctors, have figured at fast distribution of an ulcer...
` indirect `, i.e. the name of human habitation do not deserve, dwellings reflected in themselves cultural level of the enormous majority of urban population. If and presently as a part of it on the first place on number there is an alien peasantry prevalence of a rural element in Moscow was even more appreciable XVIII centuries. Moscow born and bred made insignificant minority in the Moscow large villages and posade, filled with the peasants who have come from villages on earnings. That the Russian peasant of that time culturally was - about it there is no need to extend. Illiterate, grown in the environment where did not get not only universal culture, but also Christian religion, the slave to the state and the slave to the landowner who in most cases too completely not has been not touched by a civilisation, it was the original savage. But the little raznilsja from it and the Moscow native - the handicraftsman or an average hand a merchant. Ostrovsky`s characters and Gorbunova occurring as the crow flies from posadskih of people and slobozhan of a XVIII-th century, have kept family traits, undoubtedly, in a little softened kind: constant police influence all - taki has smoothed roughnesses of these primitive natures, has entered them, at least to a certain extent, into frameworks of a city hostel. Grandfathers of heroes ` a dark kingdom ` stood much more close to peasantry with which they have been connected both an origin, and a generality of household way. True to olden time precepts, they did without the school doctrine, avoided any cultural innovations and subsisted on exclusively original wisdom of ancestors “.
In such conditions epidemic should accept grandiose scope. There were days when in Moscow died on 500 - 700 persons, there was nobody to bury which. Therefore the authorities have gone on a nonconventional measure: have sent on cleaning of corpses from houses and from streets of the condemned criminals which began to call “ mortusami “.
“ Daily, - eyewitness Podshivalov remembered, - in thousand furmanshchiki in masks and voshchenyh raincoats (incarnate devils) long krjuchjami dragged corpses from vymorochnyh houses, others raised in the street, put on a cart and carried for a city, instead of in church, where these before pohoronjalis. At whom a hand in a wheel at whom the foot at whom the head too much hangs and, disfigured, is ugly wound. The person on twenty at once charged a cart “.
hearings that " Went; mortusy “ together with the dead pull out and load still live, and still plunder the become empty houses. However, robberies sufficed and without them. The Moscow inhabitants amicably leant on remained ownerless benches, especially with a food of which in the city taken in quarantine became ever less. To all other in streets fires with a juniper which smoke as was considered, protected from illness burnt.
the heavy mood of townspeople should pour out in serious excesses, than the part of clergy, first of all the priests who did not have constant places in tserkvah, so-called bezmestnye priests has not failed to use. It was the special spiritual caste, not bad earning services in house tserkvah rich misters and solid establishments from which the metropolitan Moscow Amvrosy struggled. Amvrosija and other clerics that he for the period of epidemic has forbidden religious processions and other services promoting still bolshemu distribution of an infection did not favour. The decision of the metropolitan on access closing to church at Barbarous gate where the people have rushed became last drop to put candles to an icon of the Mother of god in disposal of a painful misfortune.
Podzuzhennye bezmestnymi priests, believers have rushed to search for the metropolitan and, without having found it in the Kremlin, have crushed its rooms. Amvrosija have found next day in the Don monastery and have hammered koljami and feet to death, and its corpse remained to lie at monastery walls even two days as monks were afraid of furious believers. For revolt suppression when the crowd has moved again to the Kremlin, it has appeared enough one shot a case-shot from a small gun. On what, actually, the Moscow plague revolt also has come to the end.
Only after that on epidemic the empress until then demanding only to support in Muscovites vivacity spirit has turned the close attention. She has sent to Moscow the favourite of count Grigory Orlova with emergency powers and large means which that has correctly put on use. It bought up the stale goods of the Moscow handicraftsmen, and to healthy Muscovites has suggested to leave for a payment for public works - to strengthen Chambers - the Collegiate shaft and a ditch near it. That who, having recovered, left hospital, the payment has been appointed. So townspeople ohotnee began to address to doctors. As a result in 1772 last large epidemic of a plague in Russia has come to naught, though quarantine round Moscow continued to hold till the end of the year. Then long argued on number of victims and have decided that has died about 100 thousand Muscovites, not including inhabitants of neighbouring villages. One of such villages, Pushkino, for example, has died out completely after one of its inhabitants has brought the kokoshnik belonging to the woman which has died of a plague to a gift to the wife.
however the most curious consisted that all subsequent epidemics in the Russian empire differed from Moscow only the activator and in scale. All the same dirt promoted a wide circulation of a cholera and other misfortunes, and the crowd invariably searched guilty and tried to kill that doctors, certain Poles - poisoners or other people recognised as inflamed minds responsible for human grief.