Hindrances of the higher orderAssociation of managers of Russia and magazine “ Money “ represent results of traditional quarterly research “ What interferes with development of the Russian business? “. The basic conclusion: there was a clear split of obstacles into what especially strongly disturb to business development, and, conditionally speaking, all the others. And that are included into the first group, are connected with actions (or inactivity) the authorities.
within the limits of research 168 representatives of the Russian business, the majority - a top - managers and proprietors of the largest companies have been interrogated. As usual, to it have suggested to estimate on 10 - a mark scale the most significant factors, braking business development. Then importance of each factor - the average estimation expressed in percentage to its maximum (that is to 10) has been calculated.
the First that is evident in results of our next research, - occurrence of two accurately outlined groups of the factors interfering development of the Russian business. The places which have taken in our rating enter into the first from the first on the fourth; importance of each of them has exceeded 50 %. The second, going with the big separation, included five more factors which importance lies in a narrow range 37 - 40 %.
Similar stratification is observed for the first time. In figures it is described as follows. The average importance of factors appearing in our table now makes 44,59 %. If to take only the four of leaders, for them average importance will make 56,67 %. Thus, the importance of the representative of the four on the importance advances the average level on 27,09 %. Following the results of last quarter the given rupture made 22,32 %, following the results of the fourth quarter of last year - 21,14 %. So it is available sharp leaving of group of leaders in a separation.
the Similar tendency is rather dangerous, especially if to consider that all factors which have entered into in the lead group, are connected not with the economic reasons, and with activity of the state. It is very likely that power actions prederzhashchej are definitively recognised by businessmen the main hindrance of their activity. However, we will consider results of poll of businessmen more in detail.
According to the data of our research, in the second quarter 2007 there were some changes in the first three of the factors, which businessmen consider as the most painful for their business. The leader, truth, remained former, it “ corruption “. Its significance value, however, has a little gone down - to 62,62 % (from 63,15 % three months before). We will notice that the given factor does not hand over the liderskih positions from the third quarter 2006, changes (as a rule, is not so appreciable) only level of its importance. Also already traditionally it has taken of the first position by quantity of the first places in answers of respondents: 21,43 % of participants of poll have considered as its main and most destructive trouble of the Russian economy.
on the second place from the third in the first quarter the factor " has moved; administrative barriers “ having increased the importance with 51,3 to 57,62 %. Thus, after some recession of activity in the beginning of this year the bureaucracy has returned itself last year`s achievements: value of the given factor in the third and fourth quarters of last year made 56,3 and 54,35 % accordingly. By quantity of the first places this factor also has not for the first time taken the second place (having divided it with the factor “ the general political and economic instability “) With result of 16,67 %.
returning in a three of leaders of the factor " became the Main change of this quarter; the general political and economic instability “. It has taken the third place with result of 53,33 %, having risen from the sixth place last quarter and having divided the second - third of position in a rating of the first places in answers of respondents. Similar break too is observed not for the first time: in the fourth quarter 2006 “ the general political and economic instability “ has sharply increased the importance, having risen from the eighth position on the second.
it is necessary to carry to leaders and the factor “ the taxation “ though in comparison with the last quarter it also has lost two positions in our rating, having taken the fourth place. However thus its importance remained at rather high level and has gone down not strongly - from 54,81 % in the first quarter to 53,1 % in present. The contribution of two making factors “ the taxation “ (We will remind that on this point in question we ask respondents to detail the position) also has changed: “ high level of taxes “ has lost in weight, having typed 24,53 % against 30,71 % in the first quarter, and the contribution “ low level of tax administration “ on the contrary, has added, having typed 28,57 % this quarter against 24,04 % in the previous. That, obviously, says that business in a present economic situation the organisation of process of taxation, rather than more excites their level.
we will notice that so long finding in the first three of the factor “ corruption “ let and with some decrease in a significance value, and also lifting on one position and growth of the importance of the factor “ administrative barriers “ testify, unfortunately, to a stalemate in the Russian economy and absence of political will to its permission. Considerable growth of the importance of the factor “ The general political and economic instability “ speaks about increase in activity political “ ryskanja “ in process of approach of elections, so, that to these elections the power hardly probable will dare at sharp steps for current situation change on the previous two points.
a backwardness celebration
the Factor “ backwardness and an infrastructure deterioration “ has made prompt launch, having risen on three positions - from the eighth place last quarter to the fifth in it. Thus level of its importance, on the contrary, has a little decreased and has made 39,76 % (41,11 % in the first quarter 2007). By quantity of the first places it with a number of other factors (“ the taxation “ “ a lack of investment resources “ and “ the additional costs connected with a rise in prices for energy carriers “) Has divided the fourth - the seventh places, having typed 9,52 % that once again testifies to an urgency of this obstacle for business.
so sharp growth of the factor “ backwardness and an infrastructure deterioration “ it is possible to consider sign. Its dynamics only confirms that the state and business is not enough and insufficiently on a substantial scale and dolgosrochno invest in infrastructure development. There is a lack of political will and guarantees for the enclosed investments from the state and mistrust from business. Thereof possibilities of mechanisms are not to the full used is private - the state partnership for modernisation and infrastructure development. It leads to that business growth rests sooner or later against infrastructural deadlock and is slowed down, and even at all stops.
the factor “ shortage of qualified personnel “ The leader of growth last quarter (then it has risen on four positions - from the eighth on the fourth place), on the contrary, has lost two places and has typed 39,43 % against 50,74 % three months ago. At the same time throughout almost all 2006 (except for the fourth quarter) the given factor was included into the first five. So, probably while early to say that the problem of shortage of qualified personnel comes to naught. Probably, it has simply grown dim against the others.
the factor “ a lack of investment resources “ - one of the few who remained on a former (seventh) place, let and having lost the importance a little: 37,62 % this quarter against 42,59 % in the past.
the factor “ backwardness of judicial system “ has continued to lose positions and has fallen from the fifth place on the eighth (we will remind, last quarter it has fallen on one position) with result of 37,38 % (43,89 % last quarter). And in this case growth of the importance of other in the lead factors has led prosedaniju it, that is it at all does not mean that lacks of judicial system have been successfully solved.
already the third quarter successively on the ninth and tenth places are the factor “ a deterioration of fixed capital of the enterprises “ and the traditional inhabitant of last place “ the additional costs connected with a rise in prices for energy carriers “. Though their significance value has a little grown: “ a deterioration of fixed capital of the enterprises “ has typed this quarter of 37,14 % (34,63 % in the past), and “ the additional costs connected with a rise in prices for energy carriers “ - 27,86 % (24,26 % in the past). However, despite some updating, it is possible to assert that their so long finding at the tail-end of a rating testifies that negative influence of the given factors on business development not especially considerably.