As built Panama canalthe File
ship canal Building between Silent and Atlantic oceans on isthmus of Panama has begun in 1879. However in 1889, having executed only third of works, the French General company of the interocean channel was ruined. In the beginning of the XX-th century the project have become interested in the USA which have suggested Colombia owning an isthmus to rent necessary for a construction of the channel the earth for hundred years. Soon after refusal of last the independent state Panama which has agreed to transfer the USA the necessary earths in eternal using has been proclaimed.
in 1904 of the Minister of Defence of the USA has renewed building. The first ship has passed through the channel in 1914, however official opening has taken place only in 1920. In 1977 the Panama leader general Omar Torrihos has agreed with the American authorities about gradual transfer of control over the channel to Panama. In December, 1999 the channel has completely passed under the sovereignty of this country. Now it copes state company Autoridad del Canal de Panama (ACP).
Length of Panama canal - 81,6 km, width - 91,5 m. It is capable to pass vessels displacement to 65 thousand tons and osadkoj no more than 12 m. Annually through the channel pass 13 - 14 thousand courts, the maximum throughput - 48 courts a day (17,5 thousand a year). The turnover of goods is measured in special units - “ tons of Panama canal “ (PCUMS). 1 PCUMS it is equal to 1 thousand cubic foots (28,3 cubic). In 2011 the channel turnover of goods has made 322,1 million PCUMS. The basic transported cargoes - grain, metals, coal, oil products, fertilizers, cars. The main countries - users - the USA, China, Japan, Chile, South Korea, Peru, Canada, Ecuador, Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela. Through the channel passes to 4 % of a world trading cargo transportation and to 16 % of a trading cargo transportation of the USA. 68 % of courts follow through the channel in ports of the USA or from them. Profit ACP for 2011 has made $674 million
Since 2006 scale reconstruction of the channel is made. On its results in 2015 the channel there can pass vessels displacement to 170 thousand tons. Throughput will increase to 18,8 thousand courts year, a turnover of goods - to 600 million PCUMS. Reconstruction will manage in $5,25 billion