Stankoinstrumentalnyj ensembleDiscrepancy of structure of branch to modern market conditions has resulted domestic machine-tool industry in a condition of deep stagnation. Absence of skilled managers, ageing of technological park, reduction of volumes of output, low competitiveness of production - complex re-structuring of branch is necessary for the decision of these problems.
machine tools out of the market
on December, 27th, 2007 the special order of Minpromenergo of Russia had been confirmed the plan of prime actions for development stankoinstrumentalnoj the industries for the period till 2011. This document represents the typical list of the actions directed on maintenance of branch, including stimulation internal and foreign markets, innovative development and strengthening of personnel potential. However realisation of these measures can is hardly probable cardinal change a situation in branch: the main, system problem remains unresolved.
Low level of competitiveness of production of the domestic enterprises, ageing of the fixed capital, insufficient financing of scientific workings out - all is result of contradictions between structure of the branch calculated for work in a planned economy, and market conditions of its functioning. Privatisation of the enterprises stankoinstrumentalnoj branch has not brought positive results: on the one hand, the market infrastructure and new system of relations between the manufacturer and the consumer has not been created, with another - the skilled managers have not come to branch, capable to work in the conditions of the modern market. For lack of system of distribution of risks of realisation of research and development, measures of support of leasing of finished goods and uniform information field new proprietors not in a condition to change destiny of each separate enterprise, whatever effective was their work.
all 2007 has passed in discussion of prospects of the further development of machine-tool construction - mainly at sessions of the governmental commission concerning development of the industry, technologies and transport. In the opening address at December session the first vitse - the prime minister of the Russian Federation Sergey Ivanov named a priority problem of development of branch updating and modernisation of technological park. “ the overwhelming majority - almost 75 % - machine tools is maintained more than 15 - 20 years. They have become outdated for a long time already both physically, and morally. The modern equipment working less of five years, at us only 5 %. Thus equipment updating in machine-building branch goes extremely slowly: its factor makes no more than 1 % a year “ - Sergey Ivanov has informed.
Critical the state of affairs in branch does not only ageing of the equipment and absence of innovative technologies, but also unsatisfactory foreign trade balance on stankoinstrumentalnoj production, loss of production potentialities and scientific potential, reduction of volumes of output. Following the results of 2007 volumes of output of metal-cutting machine tools have made 98 % from corresponding indicators of 2006. And this with the fact that the market of consumption of production of the enterprises stankoinstrumentalnoj the industries both in Russia, and grows in the world more than on 10 % a year.
expert community unanimously in an estimation of serious consequences of stagnation in stankoinstrumentalnoj branches for the Russian industry. On many parametres it means loss of the economic sovereignty, after all possibility of application of those or other technologies in many respects depends on desire of the foreign states to sell the necessary equipment. Bright example - problems which domestic metallurgists have faced, trying to get the production technology of rails for high-speed movement. And it not a unique example: concerning our country the set of public and private restrictions operates. The special place occupies maintenance stankoinstrumentalnoj with production of the defensive and strategic enterprises. Experts are assured that effective development stankoinstrumentalnoj is impossible for branch without an exit on a world degree of quality and productivity of production.
the unsystematic block
In conditions when consumers aspire to minimise own expenses, to stankoinstrumentalnoj production new demands are made. It is already not enough to consumer to get certain model of the machine tool - even more often there is a requirement for a ready technological line or a production cycle. Today it is a question not simply of replacement of separate machine tools or technological lines and at all about modernisation of the separate enterprises, and about the decision complex inzhiniringovyh problems within the limits of the majority of industries, development of essentially other way of manufacture.
the branch enterprises on - former are guided by own industrial and scientific possibilities, and also on already developed circle of suppliers of spare parts and accessories. On the one hand, such approach is justified by necessity of minimisation of risks and expenses, but with another - puts the domestic enterprises in obviously unprofitable position as globalisation process in mechanical engineering covers also manufacturers stankoinstrumentalnoj production.
in decrease in competitiveness of a domestic production results absence of the market of research and development, wide application of leasing of the equipment and venture financing, and also insufficiently attractive leasing conditions. Accordingly, promote growth of competitiveness of production of branch expansion of the market of scientific workings out, spare parts and accessories in the presence of reliable tools of insurance of risks can. Same will allow to raise quality of production and to lower costs.
for deducing of branch from a current crisis state it is necessary to spend reengineering base branch business - process and technological processes. However, decentralisation in branch will not allow to carry out these actions simultaneously. It is necessary or the mass deprivation of the most significant branch enterprises, or formation of the efficient self-adjustable organisation through which the state could begin re-structuring of all branch compensate social, market and technological risks. The organisation of such profile operating today - association of manufacturers stankoinstrumentalnoj production “ Stankoinstrument “ - Not only does not show sufficient activity, but also, judging by its structure, cannot represent interests of the majority of participants of the market so, it is hardly probable capable to carry out functions of the uniform representative of branch.
the machine tool future
Exists some variants of development of machine-tool constructing branch.
a variant base - realisation of the plan of prime actions for development stankoinstrumentalnoj the industries, confirmed Minpromenergo. It is necessary to carry creation To the most significant measures of the state support of branch branch State inzhiniringovogo the centre (GITS) on working out of perspective technologies, research and development carrying out, and also the state support of acquisition of technologies and nou - hau, necessary for branch development.
All it will allow to stop branch degradation, to fill blanks in the list of technologies accessible to home producers and to make break on the most perspective directions of researches. It in turn will help the state to solve a problem of maintenance of the strategic and defensive enterprises stankoinstrumentalnoj production. At the same time the majority of the enterprises of civil sector for themselves essential advantages from activity GITS and acquisitions of technologies hardly can get.
a variant of the second - it is moderate - optimistic according to which along with realisation of the confirmed plan support of re-structuring of branch or forces of the authorised state structure, or with the assistance of the branch self-adjustable organisation is carried out.
serious work on formation of target model of branch, working out of new system of relations, formation of a market infrastructure should precede Realization of this variant. At the re-structuring initial stages participation of the state for carrying out of system researches is required, to the organisation of preparation of management of the enterprises, formations of institutes of a market infrastructure - the leasing companies, venture funds, technoparks.
the choice of a way of realisation of the given variant (through the authorised state body or the branch self-adjustable organisation) depends exclusively on presence in branch of such organisation and desire or unwillingness of the state to take under the direct management actives stankoinstrumentalnoj branches. Re-structuring by forces of the authorised state structure has positively proved in the end of 90 - h years of the last century in bank sphere, but it was the compulsory measure directed on a non-admission of social explosion. Probably, owing to this sort of arguments the decision on creation stankoinstrumentalnoj state corporations also was not accepted.
Besides, it is necessary to use widely and practice of attraction of necessary technologies, as by creation of joint ventures with leading world manufacturers, and at the expense of purchase at the foreign companies - owners of the given technologies.
a conclusion arises two. In - the first that measures of support of branch were effective, it is necessary to make the exact diagnosis of branch, to formulate a system problem and all its components. In - the second to correct a current situation, high-grade and dialogue equal in rights between the state and business and joint realisation of actions is necessary. Thus it is not necessary to forget that any help from the state does not replace hard work of manufacturers.