The ministerial balanceAccording to the definition offered by Minpromenergo, the industrial policy of Russia represents the program of actions of the state on development of the industry and real sector of economy as a whole. The purpose of a new industrial policy (NPP) is growth of competitiveness of the Russian industry, to reach which it is possible only within the limits of the balanced system “ the strong state - strong business “.
In a basis of a new industrial policy, under the version of Minpromenergo, have laid down following principles: the strategic approach, consolidation of actives in priority branches, it is state - private partnership, localisation of manufacture and a principle “ three And “ (investments, innovations, integration).
the Strategic approach is based on working out in priority industrial branches (power, a railway transportation, electronic industry, metallurgy, shipbuilding, transport mechanical engineering) the long-term strategy calculated for the term from 10 till 20 years. The principle of consolidation of actives in priority branches starts with idea of that in the global industrial and power markets really competes very large companies can only. It means that Russia which aspires to take not last place in this system, it is necessary to create powerful transnational corporations. Such company, in particular, is “ Gazprom “.
It is state - the private partnership assumes cooperation of the enterprises of a private sector with official bodies to solve actual economic problems. The state in this case incurs a part of risks with which the private capital cannot cover. Creation in 2006 of Incorporated aviabuilding corporation which included the largest aviabuilding enterprises (AHK " became an example of realisation of this principle; Dry “ the POPPY “ Ilyushin “ Open Society “ Tupolev “ etc.) .
the Principle of localisation of manufacture is applied first of all in the field of motor industry. Manufacture growth in this branch on the basis of available capacities and in absence of sufficient volume of investments is simply impossible. As the protectionism which long time adhered the government concerning motor industry, has not brought results, in 2005 the decision " was accepted; about a mode to industrial assemblage “ focused on creation of favorable conditions for motor-car manufacturers without dependence from their origin (Russian or foreign). The law provides, on the one hand, increase in volume of the automobile components made in Russia, and with another - import of import components under the lowered tariffs.
a principle “ three And “ - Investments, innovations and integration (vertical and horizontal) - it urged to provide occurrence of new products and services for a diversification of the Russian economy in world process. The important specification for realisation of this principle is the bill of participation of foreign investors in the capital of the Russian strategic enterprises which second variant the State Duma will consider on March, 19th (but most likely, the law will be sent on completion), and it will enter force since January, 1st, 2009. The bill will expand the list of the strategic enterprises at the expense of fishery, electronic mass-media and nedropolzovatelej, working on strategic deposits. The coordination of the governmental commission is required at purchase by the foreign investor more than 50 % of actions of the strategic enterprise or more than 25 % if the buyer is the company from state ownership shares. To the extracting enterprise it is necessary to co-ordinate purchase more than 10 % of actions (more than 5 %, if the buyer - the company with state participation).
the Basic tools of an industrial policy of Russia are the customs policy, technical regulation, the state support of export of an industrial output and the state investment policy.
some of them are used for the decision of branch problems. To take, for example, agricultural machinery. The situation in the Russian market of combines long time was critical. That it to correct, in January, 2006 the new combined rate of the customs duties - at a rate of 5 %, but not less ˆ100 for 1 kw of capacity of the engine has come into force at import of new combine harvesters (the governmental order of the Russian Federation from December, 17th, 2005 N 773 concerning new combines). Earlier the rate in 5 % without dependence from capacity of a combine operated, than many importers used, underestimating customs cost of imported cars and minimising costs. Modern European combines were imported at the price ˆ30 thousand that approximately in 10 times below their real market price.
technical regulation (a basis - the law from December, 27th, 2002 “ On technical regulation “ N 184 - FZ) defines rules of construction of system of technical regulations which in turn establish safety rules for work of the industrial enterprises. Minpromenergo realises function of compensation from the federal budget of a part of expenses for payment of percent on the credits received in the Russian credit organisations, to the Russian exporters of an industrial output, soglasuja the compensated sums with such departments, as Ministry of economic development and trade and the Ministry of Finance. Besides, direct state support in the form of the investment into perspective projects which business yet in a condition to carry out is carried out also.