Rus News Journal

Dealers of a next world

150 years ago, in 1858, the governor of Egypt Ismail - the pasha has appointed the French archeologist Francois Marieta the keeper of antiquities, that is the main manager of all archaeological heritage of the country of pyramids. Mariet used this appointment with advantage for business and for itself. On the one hand, it has stopped uncontrolled ruin of the country by hunters behind antiquities, and with another - monopolised the antiques market in this state. The archeology was favourable business and to Marieta, there is it that and to this day.

Already in the ancient time people knew Patagonian Samson: if properly to rummage in any barrow it is possible to find out something valuable, for example gold and silver. Archeologists such selectors of antiquities, of course, were not, and their purposes were far from interests of a science. But also during the subsequent epoch when the archeology became recognised scientific discipline, searches of material traces of the left epoch remained the business which is bringing in quite notable income, after all archeology - one of few sciences, engaged in the real treasures which or have high market price, or at all have no price.

in Europe interest to antiquities has arisen in Renaissance. The Italian and other humanists found samples of ancient art to study on an example of antique ancestors and to imitate ancient masterpieces. However as a whole the relation to antiquity monuments remains utilitarian. So, father Urban VIII in a XVII-th century, on the Renaissance outcome, remorselessly ordered to melt ancient Roman ornaments of the Pantheon on bronze baldahin for St. Peter`s Cathedral. Only in a XVIII-th century the formed Europeans have seen monuments of the past epoch and as people of an epoch of Education considered themselves as the most rational beings in the history of mankind in subjects of olden time, they have begun to study the past by means of these subjects. The collecting of antiquities and their studying has become fashionable, and in Europe the market of ancient artefacts on which the first archeologists earned was generated. Generally archeologists of a XVIII-th century were professional dealers in the antiques market, and money for excavation received from rich and influential collectors. The Italian abbey Franchesko Fikoroni to whom the passionate collector cardinal Filippo Gualterio patronised was such archeologist - the antiquary, for example. In 1705 the cardinal has given to the abbey of money for excavation, and Fikorini has started to dig along ancient road Appievoj. For five years of work of Fikorini has dug out 92 tombs from which has got hundreds ancient artefacts. The cardinal was the basic buyer, but many subjects have been bought by English lords and as a result have appeared in the British museum. Contemporary Fikorini - Prussian baron Phillip a background of Stosh was the same businessman - the archeologist. A baron long lived in Rome, earning on life trade in antiques, and still espionage in favour of England. The background of Stosh also spent excavation, a part of the found sold, but which - that left in the collection. However, not popularisation of ancient art was the main contribution to the European culture a background of Stosha. It has entered a fashion on a monocle which carrying for two centuries became almost obligatory attribute of the Prussian aristocrat.

in 1798 of an army of revolutionary France under Napoleon Bonaparte`s command then still the simple general, have landed in Egypt, and business on archeology left on new level. As it is known, Napoleon has brought with itself many scientists who there and then have begun to study this country. However among all these men of science there was no talented archeologist. But among Napoleonic officers there was one born collector. Bernardino Drovetti occurred from an influential Turin family and did career in army of the Italian kingdom Piedmont while Italy has not been won by Frenchmen. Drovetti has passed to the French service and it was quickly put forward on high posts. Napoleon did not manage to win Egypt, therefore he had to establish diplomatic relations with this country, and in 1801 Drovetti has been appointed by the French consul general in Cairo. The Italian has appeared the skilful diplomat and has soon won respect of Egyptians and even enemies of France - Englishmen. At the same time Drovetti has appeared also the passionate collector. It went on all country, finding the rests drevneegipetskoj civilisations, and also dispatched the agents on searches of valuable artefacts. Methods of Drovetti were barbarous enough. So, if the obelisk or a statue was difficult for transporting, he ordered to saw off the most beautiful piece and if the ancient vessel came across to it, it, without reflecting, broke it to look that there inside. The collection of Drovetti quickly grew that caused envy of its diplomatic opponent - the consul general of England Henry Solta. This gentleman was full of determination not to allow Frenchmen to take away all most valuable of Egypt that is why has employed for search faraonovyh treasures of other Italian - Giovanni Beltsoni.

Beltsoni, as well as Drovetti, was the person formed, but thus extremely needed money. When Napoleon has intruded in Italy, Beltsoni has taken part in any Antifrench plot and when plot has failed, has been compelled to run to Holland, having thrown all property. In the Netherlands the fugitive tried to be engaged in commerce, but has not succeeded and has moved to England. Beltsoni it was very high and unusually strong, so work for it was. It acted in circus under a pseudonym Patagonian Samson, and the raising of an iron platform on which twelve persons sat was its best-known number. Meanwhile Beltsoni did not lose hope to find of itself more worthy application. It studied hydraulics and even has invented the water pump which, truth, has interested nobody. In 1812 forty-year Beltsoni has left circus and has gone to Egypt where as he hoped, somebody will buy its pump. It has shown the invention to Mohammed Ali - to the governor of Egypt of that time, but has not managed to impress even it. Fortunately for Beltsoni, Henry Solt to whom the desperate person for search of artefacts was just necessary has paid attention to it. So the former circus actor has become the archeologist, and rather successful.

delivery to Alexandria the top part of a statue of the Pharaoh from a temple in Abu - Simbele was the first task of Beltsoni. The statue was huge - almost three metres in height, money for hiring of native workers did not suffice, but Beltsoni was able to make impression on Egyptian fellahov. It has started to move a statue alone. Its companion wrote subsequently: It moved boulders with the same ease from what others move a coastal pebble. Egyptians who saw its huge figure, more than six and a half foots growth, believed that it the sorcerer . As a result the statue has been delivered, Solt was happy, and Beltsoni has received the award. Since then Beltsoni everywhere searched for the Egyptian antiquities and quite often advanced people of Drovetti. It has found a tomb of the Pharaoh Networks I, and it the first has got into a pyramid of Hefrena. Soon successes of the competitor have started to disturb Drovetti. Between two Italians struggle rules in which were not has begun. Once, for example, agents of Drovetti nearly have not provoked mutiny of the Egyptian workers on excavation of Beltsoni. Another time Beltsoni has gone behind an obelisk which to it was ordered by one British aristocrat, but, having arrived into place, has found out that people of Drovetti try to dismantle a monument. The leader of a command of the French consul has convinced fellahov that is able to read ancient hieroglyphs, and there and then has read that the obelisk belonged to one of ancestors of Drovetti. The Egyptians respecting the right of succession, were already ready to give an obelisk to Frenchmen, but Beltsoni has bribed the local governor, and the artefact has got to it. However struggle on it has not come to an end. When Beltsoni together with an obelisk has arrived to destination, there it was waited already by Drovetti with the armed gang. The diplomat threatened the archeologist with murder if that disagrees to give to it third of sum which will gain from obelisk sale. Violence managed to be avoided only thanks to arrival of the big group of Egyptians which have risen on party Beltsoni. Subsequently Drovetti has started to squeeze out literally the competitor from Egypt. Once it has sent the mercenaries who have destroyed all artefacts found expedition of Beltsoni. As a result of Beltsoni all - taki was necessary to leave Egypt as to be in this country for it became unsafe.

however struggle for the Egyptian antiquities on it has not stopped. Moreover, it has got character of competition of two great powers. First it was possible to Frenchmen and Englishmen to agree. Solt and Drovetti have simply divided Egypt half-and-half: the first managed west cost of Nile, and to the second - east. But that was only the personal arrangement between consuls. In 1821 the French engineer Jean Leloran has arrived to the country of pyramids with the order from the French commission on a science and arts. It should extract for the country a disk with the image of the zodiac figures, located on a ceiling of one of temples which was on the western coast. Leloranu it was necessary to operate duly espionage skill. It has convinced Englishmen that goes to Red sea, and even has really left in that direction, but then has secretly returned and, having armed with a saw, has begun the work. It has cut a disk and has shipped it in a boat, but has been there and then intercepted by people Henry Solta who were going to board it. Lelorana sharpness has rescued. It has lifted the French flag over the boat, and Englishmen have receded, without wishing the international scandal.

the chief of Egypt
Methods of archeologists of the beginning of a XIX-th century as a whole were same barbarous, as at Drovetti. Same Beltsoni with enthusiasm described, how it had to make the way through the corridors which have been filled up with mummies. To reach halls with prospective treasures, the archeologist in literal sense went on corpses who turned to a dust under its boots. Other hunters behind antiquities were not better. So, in 1836 English colonel Richard Vis has begun to study pyramids under all laws of military art. Without having managed to find an input in a pyramid, it has put a powder charge and has tried to do in a wall a gap. The pyramid, fortunately, has not suffered almost.

Egypt was not the unique country, whence actively took out antiquities. So, in 1812 the English ambassador in Ottomansky empire Thomas Bruce with the permission of the sultan has taken out from Athenes some columns and the statues decorating Parthenon. However an order in work of archeologists have started to direct in Egypt.

in first half of XIX-th century the Egyptian government made light of plunder of a heritage of Pharaohs. Mohammed Ali waged constant wars with Ottomansky empire and took great pain to transform Egypt into the modern state with regular army and the industry. Antiquities became a change in its politician: to get support of the western powers, he allowed Europeans to take away that was pleasant to them from its country, and sometimes destroyed drevneegipetskie monuments in the industrial purposes. For example, when Mohammed Ali needed to construct sugar factory, he has ordered to blow up an ancient temple and used a stone for enterprise construction. Position has started to change after arrival to the country of French archeologist Francois Marieta which has managed to crush under itself all business on the Egyptian antiquities.

as well as many scientists of that time, Mariet became the archeologist absolutely casually. It was the simple school teacher, but its cousin worked with well-known Shampolonom - thereby to which managed to decipher the Egyptian hieroglyphs. When the cousin has died, Mariet has inherited its place and has started to work with archive of the great scientist. Soon Mariet was ill with Egyptology literally, has learnt some ancient east languages and has managed to get a job in Louvre. In 1850 Louvre has sent Marieta to Egypt that it on public money has got for a museum koptskie and the Syrian manuscripts. Francois Marieta`s archaeological career also has begun with waste of this money.

Being in Alexandria and Cairo, Mariet has noticed: some local rich men decorated the palaces sphinxes which were so are similar against each other as if they occurred from the same place. Once beduiny with which the scientist has made friends, have resulted it in desert where he has found out just the same sphinx which was sticking out of sand. Mariet at once has remembered a passage from Strabona where the avenue of sphinxes was described, the leader to Serapionu - to a temple of a divine bull of Apisa. The Public money which has been given out on purchase of manuscripts, has been spent for the organisation of excavation, but the result of that cost. The temple has been found, Mariet has become famous, and the French government has forgiven it waste. The Egyptian government has gone further away. In 1858 correcting the country Ismail - the pasha has created specially for Marieta a post of the keeper of antiquities. Now Mariet has received administrative control over all monuments of Egypt, including what have not been found yet. Using the power, Mariet actually monopolised all archaeological work in the country. It too monopolised the market of antiques, and henceforth only he solved, whether this or that subject from the country can be taken out. Contraband and black kopatelstvo certainly, prospered on - former, but professional archeologists in the country any more did not start up. Mariet now one dug on all valley of Nile. In one only 1860 it has put 35 raskopov in different points of the country. Any archeologist on light could not supervise so scale works simultaneously. Was able not do it and Mariet, therefore quality of works considerably suffered. But for some years of undivided monopoly the archeologist has turned from the poor museum worker to the prospering scientist with a world name and hardly filled purse. In France it and at all became the national hero, after all, having expelled with raskopov Englishmen and Germans, it has provided to the French Egyptologists considerable advantage. Accordingly, if the Egyptian antiquities all - taki were taken out abroad they got mainly to France. The Egyptian monarchs too showered with Marieta awards and gifts and even have appropriated to it a title of the pasha. These awards, it is necessary to tell, were quite deserved as Mariet has based nowadays the well-known Cairo museum. It has glorified Egypt and in another way. In 1869 the Egyptian authorities have ordered to it to think up a plot for an opera which it was supposed to write to visit of the French emperor. Visit and has not taken place, but the plot which has been thought up by the archeologist, has laid down in a basis of the libretto of an opera of Verdi Aida . Francois Mariet has died in 1881, rich both glorified, and its body on ancient custom has been lowered in a sarcophagus. The example of Mariet has proved that the archeology can transform the poor man into the rich man, and many have tried to repeat its success.

the Near-Eastern conflict
to dig and do opening, money was necessary to any archeologist. In a case with Egypt all was simple enough, as many statues, obelisks and ruins were still visible on an earth surface. Museums and private collectors precisely knew that in this country there are treasures that is why selectors of antiquities received generous financing. In Palestin and Mesopotamia to extract curiosities in the open way it was impossible, but money for excavation were here again. First of all Europeans were involved with possibility to find material acknowledgement of bible texts. The beginning of bible archeology two Americans - seminary student Edward Robinson and the Protestant missionary have put Ales Smith which in 1837 have undertaken travel across the Near East. They were not archeologists and did not spend any excavation. But Robinson was the quite good linguist. He has managed to compare modern to it the Arabian names of settlements with bible toponimami and has found out set of coincidence. The city of Birsheba reminded it of the bible Virsavii, the Ale - Dzhib - about Gideone and so on. The book published by the traveller, made the big success and has caused in many desire to dig out ancient relics to prove to sceptics truthfulness of the Scriptus.

besides religious feelings of Europeans urged on nationalism. Everyone would like, that its compatriots have dug out something antiquated - the rests of Noeva of an ark, a palace of tsar Valtasara or still something similar. As well as in Egypt, the beginning of Near-Eastern archeology was necessary thanks to rivalry of English and French diplomats. All has begun that the representative of English Ost - the Indsky company, serving in Bagdad, has published the report on the travel to area of the ancient Ninevii known to Europeans of that time only under the Bible. The British has found out some bricks and clay crocks, but it was enough that in Paris have become nervous. France disturbed by that England can outstrip it, in 1840 has sent to Mosul own diplomat - Polja Botta. Political necessity in the presence of the French consul on suburb of Ottoman empire was not, but nearby there was Ninevija, and the archeology already became by then for Frenchmen business of the state prestige. Botta and earlier successfully combined diplomacy and archeology of which was fond during service in Egypt. Now he has got down to business on a new place and in 1843 has found out ancient ruins. The government has immediately allocated to it 3 thousand francs for continuation of excavation, and new opening have soon followed. Later it was found out that Frenchmen have dug out a palace of the subjugator of Babylonia - Assyrian tsar Sargona II though Botta believed that has found Nineviju.

England could not look easy at successes of Frenchmen, and soon young Englishman Osten Lejard undertook excavation in Mesopotamia. The British ambassador in Istanbul sir Stretford Kenning has given to it and #163; 60 from own pocket, having promised that if it something finds, the government will allocate additional means. Lejard has started to dig in a place under the name of Nimrud, and already in the first day of excavation has found two Assyrian palaces. Soon the British museum has allocated Lejardu and #163; 2 thousand, and opening became even more. British to that their compatriot has found an obelisk on which the name of Ahava, son Omri, the tsar Judaic has been traced in Nimrude especially rejoiced. Both Ahav, and Omri have been mentioned in the Bible so the triumph was full.

soon great powers shlestnulis outright. Groups kopatelej, France employed by consuls and England, rushed across all Mesopotamia, putting shurfy and grasping hills under which there could be any palace. The Turkish government recognised the rights to opening behind those who did by the first a find so archeologists constantly struggled in due course. Once commands English and French kopatelej simultaneously were to the place of the future excavation and have entered a real fight. Diplomats struggled, using other means. The English consul complained to Turks that Frenchmen have bribed the local sheikh that he has attacked the British archeologists, and the French consul assured osmanli Turks that British have bribed the pasha who has forbidden Frenchmen to redeem an Assyrian statue of a winged bull at peasants.

most of all the science suffered from these dismantlings. In 1855 fruits of long-term works of the French expedition have been lost, after the Arabian gangsters have sunk a vessel on which Frenchmen carried ancient sculptures in the Tiger. However, probably that Englishmen here were at anything. In due course archaeological rivalry of two great powers has gone on more civilised way. Englishmen and Frenchmen have simply divided Iraq as in due time have divided Egypt, and fights have stopped.

But struggle for superiority in opening of bible monuments did not stop. In second half of XIX-th century in Palestin besides Englishmen and Frenchmen Germans, Americans and the Austrians worked, and dug in the same place on mnogu time. Englishmen have started to dig out Jericho as early as 1868, but have a little succeeded, and here the Germans who have got down to business in 1907, have dug out the failed walls which, under the bible legend, have fallen by the divine word. But the bible archeology had also a back. That did not confirm correctness of the Bible, was often ignored, and in such cases researchers could not count on material support. So was, for example, with expedition in which the future Soviet academician Vasily Struve worked. Archeologists have dug out in Mesopotamia the city of Ummu, but as this city in the Bible was not mentioned, any interest opening has not caused. Clay tablets from a place raskopa were on sale in Paris on franc for a piece.

the Bible was not a unique source of inspiration for archeologists of a XIX-th century. The well-known Henry Shliman, as it is known, since the childhood has been captivated by products of the Homere and dreamt to find Troy. This archeologist - the fan on excavation of money did not do, as has made them earlier on deliveries for Russian army. And still the world glory to it was brought by not so much find of an ancient city on territories of modern Turkey, how many rich imagination which has allowed it to identify ruins with homeric Troy. From an easy hand of Shlimana in museums of Europe have appeared a mask of Agamemnona Elena`s ornaments and etc., though all these things, most likely, had no relation to homeric characters.

a state affair
In the XX-th century archeologists on - former strongly depended on those who agreed to finance their work. More often in a role of patrons of art and customers museums which received the found subjects for the expenses acted. Sometimes excavation was sponsored by private persons as was in a case Howard Carter who for the searches of a tomb of Tutanhamona has got financial support of the lord of Caernarvon. Peripetias of searches of a tomb well-known. Carter all could not find in any way that promised, and the lord was already ready to stop financing when the tomb at last has been found. It happens on November, 4th, 1922. Carter suited the whole attraction for Caernarvon. The lord and his daughter the first have squeezed into a burial place though understood archeology a little. The find has made Carter not only well-known, but also financially independent. It has left archeology and has started to drive about on the world with lectures which had tremendous success. The tomb of Tutanhamona has enriched Carter in all senses. The scientist has borrowed from a tomb some invaluable subjects which stored at itself all life as souvenirs. Things have been found out only after his death.

There were also other archeologists who like Shlimanu made opening on own money. So, sir Arthur Evans, opened to the world kritskuju a civilisation, spent for excavation in the basic means. It occurred from enough rich family so presumed to be engaged in favourite business, not too worrying about a daily bread. He knew that in 1878 the Greek archeologist Kalokairinos has found any ruins in Crete, but could not continue work from - for interventions of the Turkish government. In 1894 Evans has simply bought the land where by its calculations there should be ancient constructions, and has really dug out there the well-known Knossky palace. Evans dug in Crete till 1931 and has enriched a science with set of opening. However, and it was not without a sin. Like Carter he has concealed some finds. Evans has put by tablets with kritskimi letters, hoping when - nibud them to decipher and become second Shampolonom. Other scientists had an opportunity to try happiness not earlier, than Evans has departed in the world other.

the next decades the archeology was shaken periodically with the scandals connected with desire of some not so scrupulous scientists to earn on love of public to sensations. So was, for example, with the native of the Russian empire Immanuilom Velikovsky which in 1952 has published in the USA the book under the name Collision of the worlds . Using an archaeological material, Velikovsky proved own new chronology in which safely identified one Pharaohs with others, mixing events and epoch. The book has caused scandal in the academic circles, and Velikovsky have ceased to invite in universities and colleges. However the book was to the taste to fans of game in historical riddles and there were the best seller, as well as many other similar products.

In second half of XX-th century business on archeology became all the same old, checked up methods. Archeologists beat out grants from patrons of art, antiquaries by hook or by crook extract rare things, and black kopateli continue to ruin ancient ruins. In Egypt, for example, where on - former hundreds archaeological opening a day, these " become; night archeologists are considered as almost same rich men, as oil industry workers. In particular a lot of such kopatelej has divorced recently, especially in Iraq where after falling of a mode of Saddam Hussein general plunder of monuments shumero - akkadskoj antiquities has begun. Most likely, this business never will die, as subjects of olden time, time having got on the market, already never become cheaper.