WEEK 21. 07 - 27. 07. 2008past week with overweight of all in two voices the French legislators have approved the project of the constitutional reform considerably expanding the rights of parliament at the expense of the rights of the president and the government offered by president Nikola Sarkozy.
in due time, speaking about expansion of powers of the president of Russia, increase in term of these powers and even removal of temporary restrictions on employment of a post of the head of the state, supporters of such changes first of all cited as an example France. In it the president and the government possess practically an absolute power, there are no time frameworks of stay of the same person on a state post of the head, and the parliament is actually reduced to position of advisory body as the constitution allows the government to pass laws and without approval by their parliament.
Nikola Sarkozy has absolutely spoilt this picture, having suggested to bring at the very beginning of the presidency weight of amendments in the constitution of the Fifth republic. And though till now this constitution recovered 23 times, Sarkozy reforms named at once the most grandiose. Last Monday the bill separately discussed in the top and bottom chambers of parliament, has been accepted at joint session in the Versailles lock. The voting outcome was unknown till the latest moment: supporters of the president had the majority, however 60 % necessary for adoption of law in Versailles, they have typed only at the very end of voting. As it has appeared, solving steels two voices - Jacque Lang`s who has gone against the consolidated position of socialist party socialist, and Bernard Akkuaje, the speaker of national meeting (the parliament lower chamber). By tradition chairmen of chambers of the French parliament do not vote, though have the right to do it. Having broken tradition, Akkuaje has rescued Sarkozy constitutional reform.
substantive provisions of the constitutional reform are that. The president loses the right to hold the post unlimited number of times. Now its stay is in power limited by two five years` terms. Besides, the president loses the right to grant collective pardon. But for the first time from the end of a XIX-th century the president acquires the right to address to chambers of parliament with the speech similar to the reference of the US president about position of the country. Till now it was forbidden by the constitution for the sake of observance of a principle of independence of legislative and executive power.
in turn, the parliament has had an opportunity for the first time independently to develop the session agenda, and also the veto on a number of the major personnel appointments of the president. Henceforth the parliament is necessary for informing on sending of the French military men abroad, and stay of a contingent in other country should affirm more than four months parliament. One more, most likely the main thing, an innovation - restriction of action of one of the most scandalous articles of the French constitution according to which the government can enter the decree the laws rejected by parliament. Though completely this right is not cancelled - the government can use it only once during parliamentary session.
thus that the president and the government have conceded a part of powers to parliament, at all it is not necessary to consider them lost. The opposition, from the very beginning decided to oppose any reforms initiated by Sarkozy has lost. According to one of members sotspartii, its companions have proved to be full idiots. “ In the opinion of a society we look the present fools, rejecting literally everything that offers Sarkozy, especially without reflecting on a question essence. I think, if he signs tomorrow the decree delegating all power left, we and then we leave on streets with criticism “.