Rus News Journal

Last word

Ability carry on negotiations can to be useful to everyone. About what receptions help to find mutual understanding with the necessary people, tells business - the adviser of company Personal Upgrade Oleg Zamyshljaev.

the Magic scheme does not exist
the FIRM SECRET: What it is necessary to know and be able to be effective in negotiations?
OLEG ZAMYSHLJAEV:
As shows experiment, the person who never specially was trained in it can successfully spend negotiations even. All in any measure possess this skill. The uniform magic scheme does not exist, simply there are the receptions, allowing to strengthen personal efficiency.

Council of Federation: the Parties always begin negotiations with a certain position. At whom it is stronger?
OZ:
the position at the one who has a choice is stronger and can do without offered partnership. For example, the purchaser at whom it is some suppliers. Strength has more than chances that the total decision will be closer to its interests. However, it is conditional enough. If to follow such logic, leaves that sellers are in a weak position, and it not always so. Also it is considered that at the initiator of negotiations the position is weaker. But it is besides conditional. We will tell, if the large company wants to absorb small and initiates negotiations, it does not mean that at it a weak position.

Council of Federation: And whether it is possible to strengthen the position?
OZ:
the Success is in many respects defined by preparation. In - the first, psychological preparation - your spirit is important. Usually you put to yourselves a problem - a minimum and a problem - a maximum. For example, a minimum - not to quarrel and keep chance of a meeting in the future, and a maximum - to sign the contract. Sometimes failures occur from - that people give themselves installation only on a maximum. But it is always better to have a spare variant: It unties to you hands and seriously strengthens your position.

Council of Federation: How still it is necessary to prepare for negotiations?
OZ:
It is not necessary to forget about information preparation is a set of the arguments given which can be useful for negotiations with the concrete partner. Sources set - the Internet, newspaper publications, the same advertising. For example, you want to make a joint product with not which company. Means, it is necessary to study a situation in the market, to estimate a place on it of the potential partner, to predict that it is necessary for it.

Council of Federation: Usually all the profit interests...
OZ:
Yes, but there are also other requirements. The basic is a benefit, economy. On the second place - safety, stability of business. Then there is a prestige and, at last, convenience. It is obvious that all offers connected with additional benefit, with stability increase, are already interesting. The company or the concrete person your offer interests in the light of its requirements.

Council of Federation: And whether it is possible to win, taking objectively of weaker position?
OZ:
Yes. For example, the employee asked about salary increase. The position was weak - to it it was simple there is nothing to give an increase. It has found some arguments from a series in the market of salaries there is that - that - and on wadded feet has gone to the chief. He very much was afraid, but held a position: Yes, I understand you, and still in the market there are changes. My friend receives... to the deepest surprise of this employee, on the second argument the chief has broken.

Traps for peregovorshchikov
More often negotiations come to an end with failure if their participants do not give proper attention to preparation for them. Advisers who should spend every month tens negotiations quite often get to this trap, for example.

In the small firm which is engaged in trainings and personnel consulting, after the next post mailing with the offer of the services the call was distributed - its heads invited to negotiations in the known large company. Employees were swept up, trying to find out, than their firm could interest so solid client. It was known that this company too is engaged in consulting but which, from - for shortages of time it was not possible to find out.

Having chided the secretary that henceforth did not dispatch the letter to competitors, heads of firm have gone on negotiations. The receiving party has told, what at them the remarkable and perspective company what great volumes at them, interesting projects and etc., and has offered visitors cooperation. However managers of small firm have refused at once, at all without having found out plainly that to them are going to offer. They have decided that the competitor shows interest to their client base and, suggesting to co-operate, actually will start to withdraw clients. And to lose independence to firm it would not be desirable.

without knowing structure of the company-initiator of negotiations and forms of its work, heads of firm could not estimate force of the position and advantage of the arrived offer. The matter is that the advisers who have invited them were engaged imidzhevym and political consulting and at all were not interested in another`s clients: scale another. Besides, independence of small firm was for them the big plus because the company in parallel conducted set of short-term projects and was in great need in non-staff employees. Thus, from - for the short-sightedness the firm has missed chance to improve the financial position at the expense of another`s clients.

Heads another treningovo - consulting firm have been invited to negotiations in the large state company having a wide network of regional branches. Order discussion became a theme of negotiations: for experts of the company it was necessary to spend a series of the trainings promoting development of skills of dialogue with clients. The project of such scale would provide uninterrupted loading of trainers the next two years.

Having inspired so by a promising beginning, advisers have acted with the passer, from their point of view, much more actual offer: fish, as it is known, goes out from a head, therefore work is more logical for beginning with the company top management. Potential clients have taken pleasure in conversation with clever advisers and in the end of a meeting have interestedly asked: And with what you assume to begin training of heads? but a definite answer and have not heard. Visitors could not tell anything defined, their offer to work about a top - management was pure improvisation - they did not expect such turn of events and specially for this theme did not prepare. As a result clients have been disappointed, and advisers have lost even that contract which, appear, already was at them in a pocket.

Want partnership - sit down sideways
Council of Federation: What can be strategy of negotiations?
OZ:
All variety of situations in negotiations is reduced finally to two variants. The first is when something shares, for example profit or actions. In this case the increase in a share in one automatically means reduction of a share of another ( who of more pie will eat ) . The second variant - we leave from this auction and we increase a pie piece, that is a sharing subject. For example, we find additional sources have arrived. But it turns out not always.

Council of Federation: Probably, it is preliminary necessary to develop the certain scenario?
OZ:
When negotiations can have some outcomes at a preparation stage is under construction a tree possible decisions. The analysis - strong and weaknesses, possibilities, threats is carried out. It is possible even to spend brain storm and to reveal the problem places in which the partner can specify. And on each of them to prepare counterarguments.

Council of Federation: whether Has value, in whose territory pass negotiations?
OZ:
There is an opinion that the receiving party has stronger position: time you to us have arrived, means, to you it is necessary in bolshej for a measure. The meeting in neutral territory, for example at restaurant, has the advantages - in it more than personal dialogue and contact is established faster.

Council of Federation: How it is better to sit down in relation to the partner?
OZ:
If gather to press - sit down opposite. Want partnership - sit down sideways, approximately at arm`s length. It is good, when during negotiations you with the partner are on the one hand a table. To pass to such arrangement, it is possible to use a type occasion let`s study here this scheme more in detail - and here you nearby.

Council of Federation: whether It is necessary to bring with itself tables, schedules and etc.?
OZ:
The more sense organs of the interlocutor it will be involved, the better, it strengthens impression. It is possible to influence even sense of smell - for example, to submit in trunk-call good coffee. Certainly, better not simply to speak, and to support it with schedules, illustrations. It is possible to draw in process is even better, than a ready picture as shifts dialogue on personal level. And use of a multimedia projector and other means, can on the contrary, make dialogue by more formal.

Council of Federation: What is the time it is necessary to take away on negotiations that they were effective?
OZ:
the Attention of the person starts to become dull where - that in 45 minutes. If the problem simple, and all is not present result, use such useful reception as the regulations are an arrangement that will be further. It consists of three parts: what exactly is offered to be made, what for (that it will bring to your partner) and a question on the consent. For example, the regulations of the beginning of negotiations can sound so: Ladies and gentlemen more effectively to construct our today`s meeting, I suggest to look at first at report materials, and then to discuss prospects of our cooperation. You agree? Last question creates sensation at the partner that on it consult. The regulations can be used and for change of a course of negotiations, for example: Well, we were tired a little, let`s agree, here on these questions the opinion already is, and on the rests we can continue tomorrow.

Council of Federation: What of the parties defines regulations?
OZ:
Any - who the first begins, that and sets it. Happens that people have gathered, and to speak to the point dares nobody. Who will begin the first, that and will have stronger position because it can intercept the initiative and set the purpose of negotiations. However, other party can disagree with it: you know, I would suggest to construct a meeting on - to another .

If you are able to intercept the initiative, you are stronger
Council of Federation: With what it is better to begin conversation?
OZ:
the Most generalised model of negotiations can look so: the contact beginning, clearing of positions, a statement of the offers, discussion of arguments and counterarguments, a formulation of the decision and, at last, the arrangement on the further actions. In our culture business meetings often begin with small secular conversation - How have reached? and etc. the Good form to negotiations sets a compliment made in the beginning. It should be based on the open information (that to the partner it was clear, whence you have learnt it) and is connected with its business qualities or successes of its company. A compliment like At you a fine tie here it is not necessary. It is possible to use a variant of a compliment with a question, which prompts to the interlocutor how to answer. For example: At you the office is well repaired. Probably, invited the designer? it is better, than At you a convenient parking for cars . Through a compliment it is possible to leave on regulations: Well, perfectly that at you all so is good. We have gathered... after that the business part begins.

Council of Federation: Behind a negotiating table it is necessary to keep officially or it is possible to pass on the person ?
OZ:
Any interaction in business occurs at two levels - business and personal. On the business conditions, discounts, volumes of output are discussed. On the personal there are nonverbal communications - the matter of confidence, respect dares. It is considered that in the Russian business personal level has essential value. There are people who work at business level more, at them is simply not so developed personal ( computers ) . Also there are emotionally involved people - they work at personal level is better.

Council of Federation: And what of them are more successful?
OZ:
Depends on a situation and the partner. If your partner is focused on dialogue personal level should give more attention. On the other hand, the person - the computer (for example, the lawyer) can be strong in case is a question of formal analysis of the claim.

Council of Federation: How correctly to operate conversation?
OZ:
Management of conversation - very important skill which works not only on business, but also at personal level. If you are able to intercept and keep the initiative, you can appear more strongly. Want - will give the initiative to the partner, and in the fullness of time it take. The most simple ways to keep the initiative - to build remarks so that they came to an end with a question or that reaction of the interlocutor could be predicted.

Council of Federation: What else there are subtleties at a formulation of questions?
OZ:
There are many types of questions with which it is possible to work at negotiations. Open questions mean the developed answer. There are examples when successful negotiations about delivery began with a question Tell, how there was your business it has the partner to you. Alternative soft questions mean that the partner will choose the answer from set ( When it is convenient to you to begin the project? ). Alternative rigid limit a choice to two - three variants ( goods Delivery will make 15 - go or 16 - go numbers? ) . All depends on objects in view: if it is necessary to press, you use alternative rigid questions. The closed questions (which answer yes or is not present ) It is necessary to set, when the reality is necessary or to push the partner to any decision - for example, So you want to have the regular customer?

Council of Federation: If the partner speaks too much, whether it is necessary to stop it?
OZ:
The more the partner speaks, the better it concerns you. If only it not special tactics. At verboseness of the partner use technicians of active hearing. For example, literal repetition: repeat in the answer a small slice from its speech and build the following question connected with the previous. Or an estimation: the same, but instead of a remark slice speak: Perfectly, remarkably and etc., as a last resort - it is neutral: Clearly, clearly . Or underline a generality: Yes, our company too used it .

Council of Federation: What else receptions are useful for knowing, going on negotiations?
OZ:
There is the most powerful reception which is called interpretation . It is possible to interpret from the general to the particular, from the particular to the general, from the direct statement to the return and etc. you find sense of which there, maybe, directly and was not in words of the partner. if I have correctly understood you, you meant that - that and that - that... Interpretation will help to cope with objections. For example: At you astable quality! I correctly you understand, what you want to have additional acknowledgement of stability of quality? - and everything, my arguments are ready to listen. If I want to press on someone, it is possible to turn its words inside out. For example, the employer asks the competitor: And you like to work in a command? - yes, certainly . - That is, if I correctly understand, alone at you usually it turns out nothing? In a word, it is possible to interpret anything you like, but not always it is necessary to do it so sharply.

Strengthening receptions should use carefully
Council of Federation: whether It is necessary strongest arguments to postpone on the end of negotiations?
OZ:
It is better. Besides, there are different strategy of work with arguments. The first: We begin with weak, then on accruing, we finish strong, and the strongest we protect just in case. The second: we begin with strong, then we reduce and we go again to the strong. And the third: we begin with strong, some averages and are finished again by the strong. By the way, a typical error - desire to lay out all arguments up to the end, even when the consent of other party is already received.

Council of Federation: What else errors make peregovorshchiki?
OZ:
Errors happens much. So, some people are not able to hold a position. When the partner starts to result to you the arguments, they think that them at it a large quantity, and break after the first. Actually, the more firmly you defend the well-founded position, the it is more difficult to result to you in the answer new arguments. On the average at the person on one objection can be two - three arguments - usually any more do not maintain or kreativnosti does not suffice. And if you, on the contrary, want to change someone`s position in a stock it is good to have at least four - five arguments on each objection. One more typical error - the negative argument. Same it is possible to tell in a negative and positive format. Compare, for example: you can be assured that our company will not go bankrupt or Our company is absolutely reliable . Other error - orientation on I that is forming of the argument as our firm we offer and etc. Instead of our loaders deliver you new machine tools better to say you receive new machine tools .

Council of Federation: How to push the partner to decision-making?
OZ:
If you see that the partner attentively listens to you, speaks raskovanno it is possible to start decision stimulation. One of ways to overcome partner fluctuation - summation. You once again list the most important for the advantage partner, achieving acknowledgement after each point. After that ask a question and do a pause. Certainly, decision stimulation will not lead the partner from a condition of full unwillingness to the instant consent, but it will a little raise probability of answer yes .

Council of Federation: If in the end of a meeting the partner speaks: I need to consult what it means?
OZ:
the third party Thus is entered. Sometimes it becomes meaningly not to make the decision immediately or to avoid pressure. If you have not come to the full consent, agree at least about the following meeting.

Council of Federation: And what should be result of negotiations?
OZ:
the Purpose of negotiations - to receive result which can be formalized, described. If a problem small, in the end of a meeting you can sign the report on intentions, the report on negotiations. Can agree in words, and a paper to write later. But the more particularly the received result, the is more than chances that it will be realised.

Council of Federation: Use of all these receptions helps to raise personal efficiency in negotiations?
OZ:
Any new knowledge and ability raise your efficiency. But it does not mean that it is necessary to own in perfection speech technicians, strategy and etc., going on negotiations. Besides, it is necessary to remember that all strengthening receptions should use very carefully. Any technics has two parties: it does you by more effective, but at inept or inappropriate use the damage can cause to you.