We burnSince May, 1st, 2009 with the main document which dictates fire prevention rules in Russia, there is a new law - “ Technical regulations about requirements of fire safety “. It, including, translates on a new basis of mutual relation of developers and proprietors of buildings with fire inspectors.
under regulations be under construction
last year in Russia 211 163 fires on which was lost about 16 thousand persons are registered. For comparison: in the USA where the population twice more than in our country, on fires was lost 4 thousand persons. However, last years the situation in Russia nevertheless has started to improve: both the number of fires, and a death toll is annually reduced approximately on 4 - 5 %.
apartment houses - about 70 % of cases Most often burn. Commercial objects burn much less often. For example, on trading objects it is necessary only 3 % from total number of fires, on warehouses - and at all 0,3 %. And developers that a unique category of structures on which last year the number of fires has increased, and at once by 13 %, are under construction objects should disturb builders. The question price is very essential: 5 - 7 % of expenses of the project are anyhow connected with observance of norms of fire safety.
mutual relations of businessmen and fire inspectors always were very uneasy. In building, say, a trading complex or company activity it is accepted to explain any intervention of fire inspectors everything, but only not performance by inspectors of the direct duties. Speak about attempts of administrative pressure (" more often; could not agree with the authorities “) Or about desire of the inspector to receive a bribe. Such cases, certainly, it is a lot of. But that the smoke without fire does not happen is obvious also: fire prevention rules do not observe. As proof we will result one fact.
last three years the fire inspector can suspend building operation only through court. And if before the judge rejected 4 of such 5 requirements of inspectors, today - only 3 of 10.
Have surrendered the fireman
the Mutual distrust between firemen and business sometimes becomes aggravated to a conflict condition. On June, 19th head RSPP Alexander Shokhin has begun “ fire-prevention “ war. It has directed the post card of the protest to the speaker of the lower chamber of the Russian parliament Boris Gryzlov. Attempt to stop adoption of law about which existence while very few people from the Russian businessmen suspects became the reason for application of heavy artillery.
RSPP tried to convince the speaker that is necessary to stop document passage to the Duma. In the letter it was said that in case of bill acceptance corruption practice of the Ministry of Emergency Measures and " will be fixed; pressure upon business - community “ will amplify at the expense of introduction obligatory “ declarations of fire safety and an estimation of risks “.
War, however, was transient. Already a week later, after Alexander Shokhin`s meeting with Sergey Shojgu, it was found out that all claims RSPP are removed, and the document has received “ green light “. What arguments had been disarmed defenders of businessmen?
the new law hardly will cut expenses on maintenance of fire safety. However it should simplify dialogue with fire inspectors. In the Ministry of Emergency Measures say that until recently operated about 2000 documents in which 150 000 separate fire protection regulations have been written down. Many of them contradicted each other, many have become outdated and disturbed, for example, to application of new building materials and realisation of some architectural decisions. And it was from the very beginning clear, on whose party force: it is difficult to businessman to prove the case to the professional armed with documents.
now though and not at once, and gradually, requirements of fire safety will be excluded from SNiPov and documents similar to them in general. On change by it the regulations and about seven podzakonnyh certificates which will accompany it will come.
on - new
the New law creates absolutely new principle of maintenance of fire safety in Russia - declaring of fire safety. To it the part of claims RSPP also has been shown. Now they are removed - on condition that associations of businessmen will be admitted to examination podzakonnyh certificates and to monitoring of observance of the law. In the Ministry of Emergency Measures of Russia it is created and the commission on liquidation of the excessive administrative restrictions infringing on interests of small and average business operates.
in the Ministry of Emergency Measures assert that at introduction of a principle of declaring only follow the international practice - this principle is widely applied, for example, in the EU countries. It means that, submitting the declaration in a notifying order, the proprietor of object, avoiding any coordination with the bodies responsible for fire protection, should define, what requirements are necessary for executing on subordinated object. “ in other words, to prepare the instruction about measures of fire safety for the concrete organisation “ - Yury Deshevyh, the director of department of supervising activity of the Ministry of Emergency Measures speaks.
the declaration includes the list of standard documents on the fire safety which requirements the proprietor undertakes to carry out. The necessary information, and in as much as possible compact kind, the businessman will receive from the so-called arches of rules. They will replace all documents operating earlier. Requirements of the arches of the rules broken into four groups, will concern evacuation of people at a fire, prevention of occurrence of a fire, restriction of distribution of a fire and creation of conditions for fire extinguishing and carrying out of salvage operations. Yury Deshevyh names the arches of rules “ tables of Bradisa “. It means that the businessman, whether it be the owner of a hairdressing salon, office centre or a building site, will find the limited list of requirements which it should observe in the arch of rules. “ I will give an example, - Yury Deshevyh speaks. - the building should be equipped by system protivodymnoj protection. Here the owner of a building should know this condition. And as this system will be made, as it will mount are a business already of engineers which will be engaged in it. As to the consumer the nobility such details not it is necessary for the proprietor. And the information on necessity protivodymnoj protection will contain in the arch of rules “.
Engineers and manufacturers should address to national standards in the field of fire safety. They first of all will concern manufactures of building materials, electrotechnical products and the fire technics. Methods of definition of a category also will be registered in them vzryvopozharnoj and fire danger of buildings, premises and external installations.
fire inspectors (and them to Russia of 16 thousand, and everyone spends 70 - 80 checks in a year), of course, anywhere will not get to. But it is supposed that the businessman who has fulfilled all demands made to his, can not be afraid of these visits now.
observance of the limited list of obligatory requirements - only one of declaring variants. The owner of a building has an alternative. It can spend declaring and by independent calculation of fire risk. This way will allow not to adhere to obligatory norms if calculation of fire risks shows that they do not exceed the level stipulated by the law.
Besides, the businessman can insure the responsibility before the third parties, and in this case too it is possible to carry out not all norms. However, for this purpose, before being insured, it will be necessary to estimate level of fire safety by means of independent experts correctly to calculate the size of payments. This way while is inaccessible, after all such arch of rules does not exist yet.